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Old Tuesday, January 15, 2013
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Default Months in History


It is named for Janus, a Roman god. Roman legend has it that the the ruler Numa Pompilius added January and February to the end of the 10-month Roman calendar in about 700 B.C. Pompilius gave the month 30 days. Romans later made January the first month. In 46 B.C., the Roman statesman Julius Caesar added a day to January, making it 31 days long. The Anglo-Saxons called the first month Wolfmonth because wolves came into the villages in winter in search of food.

In the northern half of the world, January is the coldest month. Nature is quiet and the birds travel less. The woodchucks and bears sleep day and night, in hibernation. The plants are resting, waiting for the warmer temperatures of the Spring. In the southern half of the world, January is the warmest month. Animals are very active, and plants are growing.

The garnet is the birthstone for January.

The snowdrop is the flower for the month of January. It often blooms in the snow.

January 1

New Year's Day - The most celebrated holiday around the world.
1502 - Portuguese explorers landed at Guanabara Bay on the coast of South America and named it Rio de Janeiro (River of January). Rio de Janeiro is currently Brazil's second largest city.
1776 - During the American Revolution, George Washington unveiled the Grand Union Flag, the first national flag in America.
1877 - Queen Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India.
1949 – United Nations cease fire orders to operate in Kashmir. War stops accordingly.
1955 – Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) comes into being.
1958 - The EEC (European Economic Community) known as the Common Market was formed by Belgium, France, West Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and The Netherlands in order to remove trade barriers and coordinate trade policies.
1959 - Fidel Castro seized power in Cuba after leading a revolution that drove out Dictator Fulgencio Batista. Castro then established a Communist dictatorship.
1961 -Decimal coinage introduced in Pakistan
1973 - Britain, Ireland and Denmark became members of the European Common Market (EEC).
1979 - China and the US established diplomatic relations, 30 years after the foundation of the People's Republic.
1981- Interest-free banking introduced in Pakistan.
1993 - Czechoslovakia broke into separate Czech and Slovak republics.
1998- Rafiq Tarrar was sworn in as President of Pakistan.
1999 - Eleven European nations began using a new single European currency, the Euro, for electronic financial and business transactions. Participating countries included; Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal and Spain.
2004 - General Musharraf won a vote of confidence in the Senate, National Assembly and provincial assemblies.

January 2

1965-Presidential election held. Field Marshal Ayub Khan re-elected as President.
2006 -Dr Shamshad Akhter assumes office of State Bank Governor becoming the first woman Governor of SBP.
2008- The Election Commission announced elections will be held on February 18.

January 3

1981- International Islamic University starts functioning at Islamabad Pakistan.
1990 - Manuel Noriega, the deposed leader of Panama, surrendered to American authorities on charges of drug trafficking after spending 10 days hiding in the Vatican embassy following the US invasion of Panama.
1993 - President George Bush and Russian President Boris Yeltsin signed the START-II (Strategic Arms Reduction Talks Treaty), eliminating about two-thirds of each country's long range nuclear weapons.

January 4

1950-Government of Pakistan recognizes the Peoples Republic of China.
Birthday - Louis Braille (1809-1852) was born in France. Blinded as a boy, he later invented a reading system for the blind using punch marks in paper.

January 5

1919 - German Communists in Berlin led by Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht attempted to take over the government by seizing a number of buildings. However, ten days later, they were both assassinated by German soldiers.
1919 - The German Workers' Party (Deutsche Arbeiterpartei) was founded by Anton Drexler in Munich. Adolf Hitler became member No. 7 and changed the name in April of 1920 to the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei) commonly shortened to Nazi or Nazi Party.
1963-First trade agreement is signed between Pakistan and China.
1976 - In Cambodia, the Khmer Rouge led by Pol Pot announced a new constitution which legalized the Communist government and renamed the country as Kampuchea. During the reign of Pol Pot, over 1 million persons died in "the killing fields" as he forced people out of the cities into the countryside to create an idyllic agrarian society. Educated and professional city people were especially targeted for murder and were almost completely annihilated. In January of 1979, the Pol Pot was overthrown by Cambodian rebels and Vietnamese troops.
2002-Musharraf stunned Vajpayee by a handshake at the 11th SAARC summit in Kathmandu.
2004-Musharraf meets Vajpayee in Islamabad, discusses Kashmir dispute.
Birthday –Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (5 January 1928 – 4 April 1979) was 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that, 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973. Bhutto was the founder of the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP)— the largest and most influential political party in Pakistan and served as its chairman until his execution in 1979.

January 6

1968-Agartala conspiracy case for secession of East Pakistan, unearthed. 28 involved persons arrested.
1990 - Poland's Communist Party disbanded and then reorganized as the Social Democratic Party, an opposition party to Solidarity.
Birthday - Joan of Arc (1412-1431) was born in France. After a series of mystic visitations by saints, she inspired French troops to break the British siege at Orleans and win several important victories during the Hundred Years' War (1337-1453) between France and Britain. She was eventually captured and sold to the British who tried her for heresy and burned her at the stake. In 1920, Joan of Arc was canonized a saint by the Roman Catholic Church.

January 7

1714 - A patent was issued for the first typewriter designed by British inventor Henry Mill "for the impressing or transcribing of letters singly or progressively one after another, as in writing."
1782 - The first US commercial bank opened as the Bank of North America in Philadelphia.
1989 - Emperor Hirohito of Japan died after a long illness. He had ruled for 62 years and was succeeded by his son, Crown Prince Akihito.

January 8

1964 - President Lyndon Johnson declared War on Poverty during his State of the Union message before Congress.
1972-Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rehman is released unconditionally.
1993-General Asif Nawaz dies of heart attack in Rawalpindi.

January 9

1960 - With the first blast of dynamite, construction work began on the Aswan High Dam across the Nile River in southern Egypt. One third of the project's billion-dollar cost was underwritten by Soviet Russia. The dam created Lake Nasser, one of the world's largest reservoirs, at nearly 2,000 square miles and irrigated over 100,000 acres of surrounding desert. The dam was opened in January of 1971 by President Anwar Sadat of Egypt and President Nikolai Podgorny of the Soviet Union.
Birthday - Carrie Lane Chapman (1859-1947) was born in Ripon, Wisconsin. She was the women's rights pioneer who founded the National League of Women Voters in 1919.

January 10

1863 - The world's first underground railway service opened in London, the Metropolitan line between Paddington and Farringdon.
1912 - The flying boat airplane, invented by Glenn Curtiss, made its first flight at Hammondsport, New York.
1920 - The League of Nations officially came into existence with the goal of resolving international disputes, reducing armaments, and preventing future wars. The first Assembly gathered in Geneva ten months later with 41 nations represented. More than 20 nations later joined, however, the US did not join due to a lack of support for the League in Congress.
1946 - The first meeting of the United Nations General Assembly took place in London with delegates from 51 countries. The UN superseded its predecessor, the League of Nations.
1966-Tashkent Declaration signed between India and Pakistan.
1977- Nine opposition parties form joint election forum, Pakistan National Alliance (PNA).
1984 - The US and Vatican established full diplomatic relations after a break of 116 years.

January 11

1982 - General Zia-ul-Haq inaugurate first session of Federal Council (Shoora) in Islamabad.

January 12

1879 - In Southern Africa, the Zulu War began between the British and the natives of Zululand, ultimately resulting in the destruction of the Zulu Empire.
1990 - Romania outlawed the Communist Party following the overthrow of Dictator Nicolae Ceauescu who had ruled for 24 years.
1991 - Congress authorized President George Bush to use military force against Iraq following its invasion of Kuwait.
1992-Lahore-Islamabad Motorway project launched.
1996 - The first joint American-Russian military operation since World War II occurred as Russian troops arrived to aid in peacekeeping efforts in Bosnia. .

January 13

1893 - The British Independent Labor Party was founded with James Keir Hardie as its leader.
1996-General Jahangir Karamat becomes chief of army staff.
Birthday - Author Horatio Alger (1834-1899) was born in Revere, Massachusetts. He wrote over 100 books for boys, many featuring "rags to riches" themes of poor boys triumphing over life's obstacles.

January 14

1943 - President Franklin Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met at Casablanca in Morocco to work on strategy during World War II. At the conclusion of the conference, Roosevelt and Churchill held a joint news conference at which Roosevelt surprisingly announced that peace would come "by the total elimination of German and Japanese war power. That means the unconditional surrender of Germany, Italy and Japan."
Birthday - Philosopher-physician Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965) was born in Upper Alsace, Germany. He served as a medical missionary in Africa and received the 1952 Nobel Peace Prize for his work on behalf of the brotherhood of all nations.
Birthday - American film pioneer Hal Roach (1892-1992) was born in Elmira, New York. His output included nearly 1,000 movies of all lengths, including the classic Laurel and Hardy comedies.

January 15

1994-Pakistan Television transmission gets access to 38 countries via satellite.
1983-First three F-16 jets reach Pakistan.
Birthday - Martin Luther King (1929-1968) was born in Atlanta, Georgia. As an African American civil rights leader he spoke eloquently and stressed non-violent methods to achieve equality. He received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee, on April 4, 1968. In 1983, the third Monday in January was designated a legal holiday in the US to celebrate his birthday.

January 16

1979 - The Shah of Iran left his country amid mass demonstrations and the revolt of Islamic fundamentalists led by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. The Shah had ruled Iran since 1941 and had unsuccessfully attempted to westernize its culture.
1991 - The war against Iraq began as Allied aircrafts conducted a major raid against Iraqi air defenses. The air raid on Baghdad was broadcast live to a global audience by CNN correspondents as operation Desert Shield became Desert Storm.

January 17

1955-Noted short story writer, Saadat Hasan Manto passes away in Lahore.
Birthday - Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) was born in Boston, Massachusetts. Considered the Elder Statesman of the American Revolution, he displayed multiple talents as a printer, author, publisher, philosopher, scientist, diplomat and philanthropist. He signed both the Declaration of Independence and the new U.S. Constitution.
Birthday - Muhammad Ali was born in Louisville, Kentucky, January 17, 1942 (as Cassius Clay). At age 22 in 1964, he knocked out Sonny Liston to win the world heavyweight boxing championship, shouting out "I shook up the world!" After converting to the Muslim religion, the boxing superstar became an outspoken conscientious objector (on religious grounds) to America's escalating involvement in the Vietnam War and refused military duty upon being drafted. As a result, he was stripped of his boxing title, banned from boxing, and subsequently jailed. After a long legal battle, his conviction was reversed and he regained the championship in 1974 by defeating George Foreman. In the early 1980s, after retiring from boxing, Ali revealed his new struggle with Parkinson's disease. However, he has remained active, devoting himself to various philanthropic and humanitarian causes.

January 19

1966 - Indira Gandhi was elected prime minister of India in succession to Lal Shastri who had died eight days earlier. She served until 1975 and later from 1980 to 1984, when she was assassinated by her own bodyguards as she walked to her office. Her only surviving son, Rajiv, became the next prime minister. In 1991, he too was assassinated while campaigning for reelection

January 20

1945 - Franklin Delano Roosevelt was inaugurated to an unprecedented fourth term as president of the United States. He had served since 1933.
1972-Zulfikar Ali Bhutto called a secret meeting at Multan, and launched the programme on nuclear weapons development.
1981 - Ronald Reagan became president of the United States at the age of 69, the oldest president to take office. During his inauguration celebrations, he announced that 52 American hostages that had been seized in the US embassy in Tehran, Iran, were being released after 444 days in captivity.
1996 - Yasir Arafat became the first democratically-elected leader of the Palestinian people with 88.1 percent of the vote.

January 21

1924 - Soviet Union leader Vladimir Lenin died of a brain hemorrhage. He led the Bolsheviks to victory over the Czar in the October Revolution of 1917 and had then established the world's first Communist government. Lenin's body was placed in a tomb in Red Square in Moscow and was a much venerated national shrine until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991.
1954 - The USS Nautilus, the world's first nuclear powered submarine, was launched at Groton, Connecticut.
1976 - The Concorde supersonic jet began passenger service with flights from London to Bahrain and Paris to Rio de Janeiro, cruising at twice the speed of sound (Mach 2) at an altitude up to 60,000 feet.

January 22

1901 - Queen Victoria of England died after reigning for 64 years, the longest reign in British history, during which England had become the most powerful empire in the world.
1905 - Five hundred protesting Russian workers were killed by the troops of Czar Nicholas II in St. Petersburg. The event became known as "Bloody Sunday" and marked the beginning of the violent revolutionary movement of 1905 which ultimately failed. A second revolutionary movement in 1917 succeeded and the Czar abdicated.
1973 - Abortion became legal in the US as the Supreme Court announced its decision in the case of Roe vs. Wade striking down local state laws restricting abortions in the first six months of pregnancy. In more recent rulings (1989 and 1992) the Court upheld the power of individual states to impose some restrictions.
Birthday - British essayist, philosopher and statesman Francis Bacon (1561-1626) was born in London. Best known for his philosophical works concerning the acquisition of knowledge; Novum Organum and The Advancement of Learning.

January 23

1937 - In Moscow, 17 leading Communists went on trial, accused of participating in a plot engineered by Leon Trotsky to overthrow Stalin's regime and assassinate its leaders. After a seven-day trial, 13 of them were sentenced to death. Trotsky fled to Mexico where he was assassinated in 1940.
1943 - In North Africa, British forces under General Bernard Montgomery captured Tripoli in Libya.
Birthday - Russian film director Sergei Eisenstein (1898-1948) was born in Riga, Latvia. He developed a new way of film making utilizing artistic montages (a series of arbitrary images) to deliver an emotional impact. Prior to him, most film makers showed scenes in strictly chronological sequences. His classic films include Potemkin, Alexander Nevsky, and Ivan the Terrible.

January 24

1963-Zulfikar Ali Bhutto became Foreign Minister of Pakistan.
1965 - Winston Churchill (1874-1965) died. He had been Britain's wartime prime minister whose courageous leadership and defiant rhetoric had fortified the British during their long struggle against Hitler's Germany.
1972 - Japanese soldier Shoichi Yokoi was discovered on Guam after he had spent 28 years hiding out in the jungle not knowing World War II had long since ended.

January 25

1959 - An American Airlines Boeing 707 made the first scheduled transcontinental U.S. flight, traveling from California to New York.
1971 - In Uganda, a military coup led by Idi Amin deposed President Milton Obote. Amin then ruled as president-dictator until 1979 when he was ousted by Tanzanian soldiers and Ugandan nationalists. During his reign, Amin expelled all Asians from Uganda, and ordered the execution of more than 300,000 tribal Ugandans.
1994-Benazir Bhutto inaugurates country's first women police station in Islamabad.
Birthday - Scientist Robert Boyle (1627-1691) was born in Lismore, Ireland. He formulated Boyle's Law concerning the volume and pressure of gases.

January 26

1998 - President Bill Clinton made an emphatic denial of charges that he had a sexual affair with Monica Lewinsky and had advised her to lie about it. "...I did not have sexual relations with that woman, Miss Lewinsky..."

January 27

1973 - US involvement in the Vietnam War ended as North Vietnamese and American representatives signed an agreement in Paris. The US agreed to remove all remaining troops within 60 days thus ending the longest war in American history. Over 58,000 Americans had been killed, 300,000 wounded and 2,500 declared missing. A total of 566 prisoners-of-war had been held by the North Vietnamese during the war, with 55 reported deaths.
Birthday - Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) was born in Salzburg, Austria. From the age of five, through his untimely death at age 35, this musical genius created over 600 compositions including 16 operas, 41 symphonies, 27 piano and five violin concerti, 25 string quartets, 19 masses, and many other works.
Birthday - British novelist Lewis Carroll (1832-1898) was born in Daresbury, Cheshire, England (as Charles Lutwidge Dodgson). Best known for Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass. He also lectured in mathematics and was a pioneering photographer.
Birthday - Labor leader Samuel Gompers (1850-1924) was born in London. He emigrated to America at age 13, worked in a cigar factory, eventually becoming head of the Cigar Workers' Union. He later brought together several national unions under the name American Federation of Labor and became its first president.

January 28

1935 - Iceland became the first country to legalize abortion.

January 29

1916 - During World War I, the first aerial bombings of Paris by German zeppelins took place.
Birthday - Russian playwright Anton Chekhov (1860-1904) was born in Taganrog, Russia. His works included Uncle Vanya, Three Sisters and The Cherry Orchard.

January 30

1933 - Adolf Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by President Paul von Hindenburg. Hitler went on to become the sole leader of Nazi Germany.
1948 - Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated in New Delhi, India, by a religious fanatic.
1971- An Indian Airlines aeroplane, hijacked by two Kashmiri separatists, lands at Lahore airport.
Birthday - Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882-1945) the 32nd US President was born in Hyde Park, New York. Despite crippling polio, he led America out of the Great Depression and through World War II and is widely considered to be one of America's three greatest presidents (along with Washington and Lincoln). "When peace has been broken anywhere, the peace of all countries is in danger," he stated in 1939.

January 31

1943 - German troops surrendered at Stalingrad, marking the first big defeat of Hitler's armies in World War II. During the Battle of Stalingrad, 160,000 Germans were killed and 90,000 taken prisoner, including the commander, Friedrich von Paulus, the first German Field Marshal ever to surrender. The captured Germans were forced to march to Siberia, with few ever returning to Germany.

Source: JWT
Kon Kehta hy k Main Gum-naam ho jaon ga
Main tu aik Baab hn Tareekh mein Likha jaon ga

Last edited by Arain007; Tuesday, January 15, 2013 at 08:37 PM.
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According to the Greorgian calendar, February is the second month of the year, and also the shortest month. February has 28 days until Julius Caesar gave it 29, and 30 days every four years. According to tradition, Augustus, the Roman emperor, took one day off to add one day to August, the month named after him. We now have February with 28 days, and 29 on leap years.

In the northern half of the world, February is a very cold month. There are usually sunny days that show spring is not too far off. The Southern hemisphere usually enjoy midsummer weather during February.

The second day of February is often referred to as Ground Hog's Day. The old stories told are that the ground hog comes out of it's burrow on February 2, to look for it's shadow. If there is sunshine and he sees his shadow, then he goes back to sleep and there will be more winter time. If he doesn't, then the spring time will begin. This is a superstition.

Valentine's Day is celebrated on February 14 in most western countries. Children give valentines and have a party in school. Young and old exchange cards with loved ones. This custom is hundreds of years old, valetine greetings having been found that date back into the 1400s.

In subcontinent India and Pakistan the second week of February is celebrated as Basant. It is a spring festival marked with kite flying.

February 1

1978-Allama Iqbal's house, Lahore is declared national monument.
2002-Wall Street Journal reporter, Daniel Pearl killed in Karachi.
2003 - Sixteen minutes before it was scheduled to land, the Space Shuttle Columbia broke apart in flight over west Texas, killing all seven crew members.
Birthday - Hattie Caraway (1878-1950) the first woman elected to the US Senate, was born in Bakersville, Tennessee. Her husband became the US Senator from Arkansas. Following his death in 1931, she filled the remainder of his term, then was elected herself, serving a total of 14 years.
Birthday - Hollywood director John Ford (1895-1973) was born in Cape Elizabeth, Maine. Known for The Grapes of Wrath and The Searchers, he also served in World War II as chief of the Photographic Unit of OSS, and earned two Academy Awards for documentaries made during the war.

February 2

1990 - In South Africa, the 30-year-old ban on the African National Congress was lifted by President F.W. de Klerk, who also promised to free Nelson Mandela and remove restrictions on political opposition groups.
Birthday - Irish novelist and poet James Joyce (1882-1941) was born in Dublin, Ireland. His works include Dubliners, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, Ulysses, and Finegan's Wake.

February 3

1962-Prominent poet and Pakistan's Guinness world record holder Dr. Muhammad Saeed Fazal Karim Beebani born in Rawalpindi. He wrote Ghair Munqoot Naatia poetry book 'Mumdooh-e-Kirdigar' and Ghair Munqoot Hamdia poetry book 'Alhumdolillah'.
1997-Nation goes to the polls. PML secures 135 seats.

February 4

World Cancer Day [WHO]
Independence Day of Ceylon/Sri Lanka
1985 - Twenty countries in the United Nations signed a document entitled "Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment."

February 5

1990-Kashmir Solidarity Day observed for the first time.

February 6

National Day of New Zealand
1952 - King George VI of England died. Upon his death, his daughter Princess Elizabeth became Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Her actual coronation took place on June 2, 1953.
1979-Supreme Court upholds Bhutto's conviction in Mohammad Ahmad Khan murder case.
1982-Noted Urdu poet, Josh Maleh-abadi, passed away in Islamabad.

February 7

- Independence Day of Grenada
Birthday - British novelist Charles Dickens (1812-1870) was born in Portsmouth, England. He examined social inequalities through his works including David Copperfield, Oliver Twist, and Nicholas Nickleby. In 1843, he wrote A Christmas Carol in just a few weeks, an enormously popular work even today.
Birthday - American social critic and novelist Sinclair Lewis (1885-1951) was born in Sauk Center, Minnesota. He received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1930. His works include Main Street, Babbit, and It Can't Happen Here.

February 8

1949-Azad Kashmir Government shifts its capital to Muzaffarabad.
1994 —Kapil Dev sets world record for Test cricket wickets with 432

February 9

1943 - During World War II in the Pacific, US troops captured Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands after six months of battle, with 9,000 Japanese and 2,000 Americans killed.
1951-First census begins in Pakistan.
1984-Government of Pakistan imposed ban on all students unions.
1994-Israeli minister Shimon Perez signed accord with PLO's Yasser Arafat.

February 10

2010 - Afghan officials removed 150 bodies of people killed by avalanches in the Salang Pass in the Hindu Kush mountains.
2011 - An undersea fiber-optic cable arrived in Cuba, linking it to Venezuela. Venezuela offered to help Cuba speed its internet connection when the US refused

February 11

- National Day of Iran
Celebrated in Japan as the founding date of the Japanese nation, which occurred with the accession to the throne of the first Emperor, Jimmu, in 660 BC.
1929 - Italian dictator Benito Mussolini granted political independence to Vatican City and recognised the sovereignty of the Pope (Holy See) over the area, measuring about 110 acres.
1973 –First release of American prisoners of war from Vietnam took place.
1978 –The People's Republic of China lifted a ban on works by Aristotle, William Shakespeare and Charles Dickens
1990 - In South Africa, Nelson Mandela, at age 71, was released from prison after serving 27 years of a life sentence on charges of attempting to overthrow the apartheid government. In April 1994, he was elected president in the first all-race elections.
1996-Cricket World Cup jointely hosted by Pakistan, India and Sri Lanka.
2011 - In Egypt, President Hosni Mubarak resigned amid a massive protest calling for his ouster. Thousands of young Egyptians and others had protested non-stop for 18 days in Cairo, Alexandria and elsewhere. Mubarak had ruled Egypt for nearly 30 years, functioning as a virtual dictator.
Birthday - American inventor Thomas Edison (1847-1931) was born in Milan, Ohio. Throughout his lifetime he acquired over 1,200 patents including the incandescent bulb, phonograph and movie camera. Best known for his quote, "Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration."

February 12

1966-Sheikh Mujeeb, chief of Awami League, announced his six points in Karachi.
Birthday - Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865) the 16th US president was born in Hardin County, Kentucky. He led the nation through the tumultuous Civil War, freed the slaves, composed the Gettysburg Address, and established Thanksgiving.
Birthday - Author and naturalist Charles Darwin (1809-1882) was born in Shrewsbury, England. Best known for his work Origin of the Species concerning the theory of evolution.

February 13

1931 – New Delhi became the capital of India.(British India)
1973-Begum Ra’ana Liaquat Ali became first woman to assume office of Sindh governor.
Birthday – Renowned intellectual and Urdu poet Faiz Ahmed Faiz born in 1911 at Kala Kadir, Sialkot.

February 14

Celebrated as (Saint) Valentine's Day around the world, now one of the most widely observed unofficial holidays in which romantic greeting cards and gifts are exchanged.
1929 - The St. Valentine's Day massacre occurred in Chicago as seven members of the Bugs Moran gang were gunned down by five of Al Capone's mobsters posing as police.
1958-Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar, vetern leader of Pakistan Movement passed away in Karachi.
1989 – Iranian leader Ruhollah Khomeini issued a fatwa encouraging Muslims to kill the author of The Satanic Verses, Salman Rushdie.

February 15

1869 - Renowned Urdu and Persian poet Mirza Asadullah Khan Ghalib died in Delhi.
1989 - Soviet Russia completed its military withdrawal from Afghanistan after nine years of unsuccessful involvement in the civil war between Muslim rebel groups and the Russian-backed Afghan government. Over 15,000 Russian soldiers had been killed in the fighting.
2001 – First draft of the complete human genome is published in Nature.
2003 – Protests against the Iraq war took place in over 600 cities worldwide. It was estimated that between 8 million to 30 million people participate, making this the largest peace demonstration in history.
Birthday - Astronomer and physicist Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) was born in Pisa, Italy. He was the first astronomer to use a telescope and advanced the theory that the sun, not the earth, was the centre of the solar system.
Birthday - Inventor Cyrus McCormick (1809-1884) was born in Rockbridge County, Virginia. He invented the horse-drawn mechanical reaper, a machine that freed farmers from hard labour and contributed to the development and cultivation of vast areas of the American Great Plains.
Birthday - Susan B. Anthony (1820-1906) was born in Adams, Massachusetts. A pioneer in women's rights, she worked tirelessly for woman's suffrage (right to vote) and in 1872 was arrested after voting (illegally) in the presidential election. She was commemorated in 1979 with the Susan B. Anthony dollar coin, thus became the first American woman to have her image on a US coin.

February 16

- Independence Day of Lithuania
1971-Korakaram Highway, linking China and Pakistan, opened.
2005 – The Kyoto Protocol came into force, following its ratification by Russia.
2009-Pakistan government announced a truce with Taliban, accepting a system of Islamic law in the Swat valley, conceding the area as a Taliban sanctuary.

February 17

1997-Nawaz Sharif sworn in as 19th prime minister.
1979 – Snowfalls in the Sahara Desert in southern Algeria for the only time in recorded history.

February 18

Independence Day of Gambia
2008-Elections were held amidst tight security. PPP, PML-N, Q and ANP win 124, 91, 54 and 13 seats respectively.

February 19

1921 – Reza Shah took control of Tehran during a successful coup
Birthday - Astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) was born in Torun, Poland. Considered the founder of modern astronomy, he theorised that the sun, not the earth, was the centre of the solar system.

February 20

World Day of Social Justice
1943 - German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel broke through American lines at Kasserine Pass in North Africa as inexperienced US Troops lost their first major battle of World War II in Europe, with 1,000 Americans killed.
1999-Pakistan crushed India by 46 runs in inaugural Asian test championship

February 21

International Mother Language Day [UNESCO]
1956-Constituent Assembly decided the country shall be a Federal Republic known as Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
1965 - Former Black Muslim leader Malcolm X (1925-1965) was shot and killed while delivering a speech in a ballroom in New York City.
1972 - President Richard Nixon arrived in China for historic meetings with Chairman Mao Tse-tung and Premier Chou En-lai.
1974-Pakistan recognised Bangladesh.
1987-President Zia made a surprise to India, met premier minister Rajiv Gandhi.
1999-Lahore Declaration signed by Nawaz Sharif and A. B. Vajpayee.

February 22

1974-Islamic Summit Conference started in Lahore; 22 heads of state participate.
1992- Nawaz Sharif introduced yellow-cab taxi scheme.
Birthday - George Washington (1732-1799) was born in Westmoreland County, Virginia. He served as commander of the Continental Army during the American Revolution and became the first US president.

February 23

1947 – The International Organisation for Standardization (ISO) was founded
1997-Nawaz Sharif launched "Qarz utaro Mulk sanwaro" scheme. Declared Sunday, instead of Friday as weekly holiday.

February 24

1582 - Pope Gregory XIII corrected mistakes on the Julian calendar by dropping 10 days and directing that the day after October 4, 1582 would be October 15. The Gregorian, or New Style calendar, was then adopted by Catholic countries, followed gradually by Protestant and other nations.
1960-Cabinet of Pakistan decided to name the new capital as Islamabad.
2003-Senate elections in Pakistan: Ruling party won most seats in voting to the upper house.

February 25

1948- Urdu declared the national language of Pakistan.
1985-Partyless national elections held in Pakistan.
1986 – People Power Revolution: President of the Philippines Ferdinand Marcos fleed the nation after 20 years of rule; Corazon Aquino becames the Philippines' first woman president.

February 26

1848 - The Communist Manifesto pamphlet was published by two young socialists, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. It advocated the abolition of all private property and a system in which workers own all means of production, land, factories and machinery.
1980 – Egypt and Israel established full diplomatic relations.
1993 – World Trade Center bombing: In New York City, a truck bomb parked below the North Tower of the World Trade Center exploded, killing 6 and injuring over a thousand.
1994 - Political foes of Russian President Boris Yeltsin were freed by a general amnesty granted by the new Russian Parliament.

February 27

Independence Day of Dominican Republic
1900 – The British Labour Party was founded.
1991 - In Desert Storm, the 100-hour ground war ended as Allied troops entered Kuwait just four days after launching their offensive against Saddam Hussein's Iraqi forces.
Birthday - American poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-1882) was born in Portland, Maine. Best known for Paul Revere's Ride, The Song of Hiawatha, and The Wreck of the Hesperus.

February 28

1986 - Swedish Prime Minister Olof Palme (1927-1986) was assassinated in Stockholm while exiting a movie theater with his wife.
1994 – NATO conducted its first combat action in its 45 year history as four Bosnian Serb jets were shot down by American fighters in a no-fly zone.
2004 – Over one million Taiwanese participating in the 228 Hand-in-Hand Rally form a 500-kilometre (310 mi) long human chain to commemorate the 228 Incident in 1947

February 29

1908 - Dutch scientists produce solid helium
1940 - Hattie McDaniel became first black woman to win an Oscar
1944 - 5 leaders of Indonesia Communist Party sentenced to death
1948 - Stern-group bomb Cairo-Haifa train, 27 British soldiers died
1956 - Islamic Republic formed in Pakistan
1960 - Earthquake killed one-third of Agadir Morocco population (12,000) in 15 sec
2000 At least 700 died in flooding in Mozambique
Birthday: 1692 - John Byrom, English poet (d. 1763)

Source: JWT
Kon Kehta hy k Main Gum-naam ho jaon ga
Main tu aik Baab hn Tareekh mein Likha jaon ga
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According to the Georgian calendar, March is the third month of the year. According to the early Roman calendar, it was the first month and was called Martius. The ancient Romans later made January 1 the beginning of the year, and March became the third month on the calendar. March has always had 31 days. Its name honours Mars, the Roman God of war.

The winter ends with March, and by its end comes the Spring. Spring in the northern half of the world begins with March 19, 20, or 21. It is the day when the sun is directly over the equator. March can either fill wintry or springy, with as many blustery, windy days as there are mild, sunny days.
In the northern hemisphere, the animals end their hibernation and many plants come to life again in March. The sap flows in the trees again, and the buds begin to show up. Bears, woodchucks, and chipmunks leave their hibernating spots. People begin to start looking for the first robin, for the beginning of Spring arrival.

March's birthstones are aquamarine and bloodstone. These stones mean courage. Its birth flower is the Daffodil.

March 1

1961 - President John F. Kennedy established the Peace Corps, an organization sending young American volunteers to developing countries to assist with health care, education and other basic human needs.
1970: Air Marshal Asghar Khan formed new political party, Tehrik-i-Istaqlal.
1976: General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq became Chief of Army Staff.
1981: National population census starts throughout the country.

March 2

1963: Pakistan and China signed a border agreement in Peking (Beijing).
1981: A PIA Boeing 720 with 148 passengers hijacked to Kabul

March 3

Birthday - Telephone inventor Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922) was born in Edinburgh, Scotland. Bell and his father were involved in teaching deaf persons to speak. Bell developed an interest in the vibrating membrane as a method of electrically transmitting sounds. His very first sentence spoken on the newly invented telephone on March 10, 1876, was to his assistant, "Mister Watson, come here, I want you."

March 5

1933 - Amid a steadily worsening economic situation, newly elected President Franklin D. Roosevelt proclaimed a four-day "Bank Holiday" to stop panic withdrawals by the public and the possible collapse of the American banking system.

March 6

1953: Martial Law promulgated in Lahore to control disturbances against Ahmadis.
1969: All court cases against students withdrawn in West Pakistan.
Birthday - Renaissance genius Michelangelo (1475-1564) was born in Caprese, Italy. He was a painter, sculptor, architect, poet and visionary best known for his fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel and his sculptures David and The Pieta.

March 7

1977: General elections held in Pakistan. PPP won 155, PNA 35 seats out of 200.

March 8

1957: President Iskander Mirza laid the foundation-stone of the State Bank of Pakistan building in Karachi.
1998: Population census began in the courntry.

March 9

2007: President Musharraf dismissed Chief Justice of Pakistan, Iftikhar.
2009: Militants attacked bus with the touring Sri Lankan cricket team. All international cricket matches in Pakistan were suspended. Pakistan also lost its status as hosts for the cricket World Cup 2011.
Birthday - Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin (1934-1968) was born in Gzhatsk, Russia. On April 12, 1961, he became the first human in space, orbiting in a capsule 187 miles above the Earth's surface in a flight lasting 108 minutes. His space flight caused a worldwide sensation and marked the beginning of the space race as the U.S. worked to catch up to the Russians and launch an American into space. President John F. Kennedy later asserted the U.S. would land a man on the moon before the end of the 1960's.

March 10

1880 - The Salvation Army was founded in the United States. The social service organization was first founded in England by William Booth and operates today in 90 countries.
Birthday - Politician and playwright Claire Boothe Luce (1903-1987) was born in New York City. She served in the House of Representatives from 1943 to 1947 and then became the first woman appointed as U.S. ambassador to a major country (Italy).

March 11

1918 - The 'Spanish' influenza first reached America as 107 soldiers become sick at Fort Riley, Kansas. One quarter of the U.S. population eventually became ill from the deadly virus, resulting in 500,000 deaths. The death toll worldwide approached 22 million by the end of 1920.

March 12

1949 : Constituent Assembly of Pakistan adopted Objectives Resolution, as a guide to future constitution modeled on the ideology of Islam.
1952: Kalat, Makran, Las Bela and Kharan agreed, with the concurrence of the Central Government, to integrate their territories into Baluchistan.
1999: Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic became full-fledged members of NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) less than ten years after exchanging communist rule for democracy and ending their Cold War military alliances with Soviet Russia.
Birthday - The founder of modern Turkey, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk (1881-1938) was born in Salonika, Greece. Following World War I, he led the Turkish revolution and became Turkey's first president.

March 13

Birthday - Scientist and clergyman Joseph Priestly (1733-1804) was born in Yorkshire, England. He discovered oxygen and advanced the religious theory of Unitarianism.

March 14

Birthday - Albert Einstein (1879-1955) was born in Ulm, Germany. His theory of relativity led to new ways of thinking about time, space, matter and energy. He received a Nobel Prize in 1921 and emigrated to the U.S. in 1933 where he was an outspoken critic of Nazi Germany. Believing the Nazis might develop an atomic bomb, he warned President Roosevelt and urged the development of the U.S. Atomic bomb.
Birthday - The first female dentist, Lucy Hobbs (1833-1910) was born in New York state. She received her degree in 1866 from the Ohio College of Dental Surgery and was a women's rights advocate.

March 15

Julius Caesar was assassinated in the Senate chamber in Rome by Brutus and fellow conspirators. After first trying to defend himself against the murderous onslaught, Caesar saw Brutus with a knife and asked "Et tu, Brute?" (You too, Brutus?) Caesar then gave up the struggle and was stabbed to death.
1955: The biggest post-independence irrigation project, Kotri Barrage was inaugurated.
1999: Pakistan won the final of the inaugural Asian test championship by defeating Srilanka.

March 18

1974 - The five-month-old Arab oil embargo against the U.S. was lifted. The embargo was in retaliation for American support of Israel during the Yom Kipper War of 1973 in which Egypt and Syria suffered a crushing defeat. In the U.S., the resulting embargo had caused long lines at gas stations as prices soared 300 percent amid shortages and a government ban on Sunday gas sales.1978: Lahore High Court awarded death sentence to Bhutto along with four others.

March 19

2003 - The United States launched an attack against Iraq to topple dictator Saddam Hussein from power. The attack commenced with aerial strikes against military sites, followed the next day by an invasion of southern Iraq by U.S. and British ground troops. The troops made rapid progress northward and conquered the country's capital, Baghdad, just 21 days later, ending the rule of Saddam.

March 20

1995 - A nerve gas attack occurred on the Tokyo subway system during rush hour resulting in 12 persons killed and 5,000 injured. Japanese authorities later arrest the leader and members of a Japanese religious cult suspected in the attack.
Birthday - American psychologist B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) was born in Susquehanna, Pennsylvania. He pioneered theories of behaviorism and developed the Skinner box, a controlled environment for studying behavior.

March 21

1959: Martial law authorities enforced PRODA to disqualify politicians.
1962: 1962 Constitution was promulgated
1965: National Assembly elections held. Out of 150, Pakistan Muslim League wins 120 seats.
Birthday - Organist and composer Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was born in Eissenach, Germany. His output included thousands of compositions, many used in churches. Among his best known works; The Brandenburg Concertos for orchestra, The Well-Tempered Clavier for keyboard, the St. John and St. Matthew passions, and the Mass in B Minor.

March 23

1940: Pakistan Resolution passed at a public meeting of All India Muslim League Minto Park ( Now Iqbal Park) Lahore
1956 Constitution is promulgates on Pakistan Day. Major-General Iskander Mirza sworn in as first President of Pakistan.
1960: Foundation of Minar-i-Pakistan is laid.
1962: 1962 Constitution is promulgated.
1985: Muhammad Khan Junejo sworn in as Prime Minister and General Zia as President.

March 24

1934 - The Philippine Islands in the South Pacific were granted independence by President Franklin D. Roosevelt after nearly 50 years of American control.
1989 - One of the largest oil spills in U.S. history occurred as the oil tanker Exxon Valdez ran aground in Prince William Sound off Alaska, resulting in 11 million gallons of oil leaking into the natural habitat over a stretch of 45 miles.
2008: Yusuf Raza Gilani is elected as the new Prime Minister.

March 25

1969: Ayub Khan resigns and hands over power to Army Chief General Yahya Khan. Martial law proclaimed and assemblies dissolved.
1992: Pakistan wins Cricket World Cup, defeating England by 22 runs in Melbourne.

March 26

1971 : Pakistan Army launched Operation Searchlight in East Pakistan.
1979 - The Camp David Accord ended 30 years of warfare between Israel and Egypt. Prime Minster Menachem Begin of Israel and Egyptian President Anwar Sadat signed the treaty of mutual recognition and peace, fostered by U.S. President Jimmy Carter.

March 27

1948 : State of Kalat acceded to Pakistan.
1977 - The worst accident in the history of civil aviation occurred as two Boeing 747 jets collided on the ground in the Canary Islands, resulting in 570 deaths.

March 28

1983: Government lifts censorship from periodicals.

March 29

1983: Foundation-stone of Satellite Earth Station is laid near Rawalpindi.

March 30

1981 - Newly elected President Ronald Reagan was shot in the chest while walking toward his limousine in Washington, D.C., following a speech inside a hotel. The president was then rushed into surgery to remove a 22-caliber bullet from his left lung. "I should have ducked," Reagan joked. Three others were also hit including Reagan's Press Secretary, James Brady, who was shot in the forehead but survived. The president soon recovered from the surgery and returned to his duties.
Birthday - Vincent Van Gogh (1853-1890) was born in Groot Zundert, Holland. He was a Postimpressionist painter, generally considered the greatest Dutch painter after Rembrandt. During his short (10-year) painting career he produced over 800 oil paintings and 700 drawings, but sold only one during his lifetime. In 1987, the sale of his painting Irises brought $53.9 million, the highest price ever paid for a work of art up to that time. During his life, Van Gogh suffered from despair and bouts of mental illness, at one point cutting off part of his own left ear. He committed suicide in 1890 by gunshot.

March 31

1991 - The Soviet Republic of Georgia, birthplace of Josef Stalin, voted to declare its independence from Soviet Russia, after similar votes by Lithuania, Estonia and Latvia. Following the vote in Georgia, Russian troops were dispatched from Moscow under a state of emergency.
Birthday - Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809) was born in Rohrau, Austria. Considered the father of the symphony and the string quartet, his works include 107 symphonies, 50 divertimenti, 84 string quartets, 58 piano sonatas, and 13 masses. Based in Vienna, Mozart was his friend and Beethoven was a pupil

International Days to be celebrated in March

8 March International Women's Day
21 March International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination
21 March World Poetry Day [UNESCO]
21 March International Day of Nowruz
21 March World Down Syndrome Day
22 March World Water Day
23 March World Meteorological Day
24 March World Tuberculosis Day
24 March International Day for the Right to the Truth concerning Gross Human Rights Violations and for the Dignity of Victims
25 March International Day of Remembrance of the Victims of Slavery and the Transatlantic Slave Trade
25 March International Day of Solidarity with Detained and Missing Staff Members.

National or Independence Days of the Countries of the World

March 01: Bosnia and Herzegovina (from SFR Yugoslavia in 1992)
March 06: Ghana (from the UK in 1957)
March 11: Lithuania (Soviet Union in 1990)
March 12: Mauritius (from the UK in 1968)
March 20: Tunisia (from France in 1956)
March 21: Namibia (from South Africa in 1990)
March 25: Greece (from the Ottoman Empire in 1821)
March 26: Bangladesh (from Pakistan in 1971)

Source: JWT
Kon Kehta hy k Main Gum-naam ho jaon ga
Main tu aik Baab hn Tareekh mein Likha jaon ga

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April was the second month in an early Roman calendar, but became the fourth when the ancient Romans started using January as the first month. The Romans called the month Aprilis. It may come from a word meaning 'to open', or it may come from Aphrodite, the Greek name for the goddess of love.

Small animals that hibernate are usually coming out of their burrows in April. The birds fly back northward or they settle down to have their families. The bees and butterflies begin to gather nectar from the first flowers of the spring season.

In some parts of the world, it's planting time. In other parts, including Pakistan it's the harvest season.. Spring cleaning starts and people start mowing their yards again.

Special days celebrated in April begin with the first day of April, when children and grown-ups play jokes on one another. Arbor Day is a day for planting trees, and it is observed on various April days. The Jewish festival of Pescah (Passover) is celebrated early in April. Easter is almost always in April, and, with it comes other Christian celebrations such as Palm Sunday, Maundy Thursday,and Good Friday.

April Fools' Day, or All Fools' Day, is the first day of April. No one knows where the custom began, but some historians believe it started in France. They had a New Year's festival that was celebrated from March 25 to April 1, and they would then exchange gifts. But, later, King James IV changed the holiday to January 1 for New Years. The people that still celebrated it April 1 were called 'April fish' and sent mock presents. April Fools' Day may also be related to the ancient Roman spring festival Hilaria, which celebrates the resurrection of the god Attis.

The story of the Passover, also called Pesah, is told in the Bible in the book of Exodus, Chapter 12. It begins on the 15th day of the Hebrew month Nisan, which usually begins in March or April. The word Passover comes from the Biblical story of the 10th plague, which God brought on Egypt for keeping the Israelites in bondage. The story says that the blood of a lamb was put on the lintel and two side posts of each Israelites' home. When God saw the blood, this would save the people in that house.

Easter celebrates the resurrection of Jesus Christ, thus making it the most important Christian festival of the year. On the third day, Christ' tomb was empty, he arose, and people talked with him. Christians believe his resurrection means that they too will some day receive a new life after death. The holiday can fall on any Sunday between March 22 and April 25, since it is celebrated on the first Sunday after the first full moon in the Northern Hemisphere.

The new plant life that comes in the spring is associated with the new life that Christians gain because of the crucifixion and resurrection of Christ. The word Easter may have come from the English word, Eastre. Some believe Eastre was the name of a pagan goddess of spring, a spring festival, or the name of a season.

Palm Sunday is the beginning of Holy Week on the Christian calendar, and is the Sunday before Easter. People spread palms and clothing in front of Jesus as he entered Jerusalem, several days before his crucifixion. Today, many carry on the traditions and observe Palm Sunday by passing out palms.

April 1

1998 - A federal judge in Little Rock, Arkansas, dismissed a sexual harassment case against President Bill Clinton, stating the case had no "genuine issues" worthy of trial. Although President Clinton had denied any wrongdoing, a unanimous ruling by the U.S. Supreme Court in May 1997 allowed the case to proceed, thereby establishing a precedent allowing sitting presidents to be sued for personal conduct that allegedly occurred before taking office.

April 2

1982 - The beginning of the Falkland Islands War as troops from Argentina invaded and occupied the British colony located near the tip of South America. The British retaliated and defeated the Argentineans on June 15, 1982, after ten weeks of combat, with about 1,000 lives lost.

Birthday - Fairy tale author Hans Christian Andersen (1805-1875) was born in Odense, Denmark. He created 168 fairy tales for children including the classics The Princess and the Pea, The Snow Queen and The Nightingale.

Birthday - French writer Emile Zola (1840-1902) was born in Paris. His works included a series of 20 books known as the Rougon-Macquart Novels in which he defined men and women as products of heredity and environment, portraying them as victims of their own passions and circumstances of birth. In his later years, he became involved in resolving the Dreyfus affair, a political-military scandal in which Captain Alfred Dreyfus had been wrongly accused of selling military secrets to the Germans was sent to Devil's Island.

April 3

1948 - President Harry S. Truman signed the European Recovery Program, better known as the Marshall Plan, intended to stop the spread of Communism and restore the economies of European countries devastated by World War II. Over four years, the program distributed $12 billion to the nations of Western Europe. The program was first proposed by Secretary of State George C. Marshall during a historic speech at Harvard University on June 5, 1947.

April 4

1949 - Twelve nations signed the treaty creating NATO, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The nations united for common military defense against the threat of expansion by Soviet Russia into Western Europe.

1968 - Civil Rights leader Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King was shot and killed by a sniper in Memphis, Tennessee. As head of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, he had championed non-violent resistance to end racial oppression and had been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964. He is best remembered for his I Have a Dream speech delivered at the 1963 Civil Rights March on Washington. That march and King's other efforts helped the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. In 1986, Congress established the third Monday in January as a national holiday in his honour.

1979: Zulfikar Ali Bhutto hanged in Rawalpindi jail. He was a Pakistani politician who served as the President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973 and as the Pakistan from 1973 to 1977. He was the founder of the Pakistan People's Party (PPP), which is one of the largest political parties in Pakistan. His daughter Benazir Bhutto has also served twice as prime minister. Bhutto is often addressed as the Quaid-e-Awam .

1986 - A bomb exploded at a popular discotheque frequented by American military personnel in West Berlin, killing two U.S. soldiers and a Turkish woman. American intelligence analysts attributed the attack to Muammar Qaddafi of Libya. Nine days later, President Ronald Reagan ordered a retaliatory air strike against Libya.

April 6

1896 - After a break of 1500 years, the first Olympics of the modern era was held in Athens, Greece.

1917 - Following a vote by Congress approving a declaration of war, the U.S. entered World War I in Europe.

1970 Pakistan’s first ordnance factory is inaugurated at Ghazipur.

1978 First of the 13-volume exhaustive Urdu Dictionary is published by Taraqqi-i-Urdu Board.

1994 - The beginning of genocide in Rwanda as a plane carrying the presidents of Rwanda and Burundi was shot down. They had been meeting to discuss ways of ending ethnic rivalries between the Hutu and Tutsi tribes. After their deaths, Rwanda descended into chaos, resulting in genocidal conflict between the tribes. Over 500,000 persons were killed with two million fleeing the country.

2000: Nawaz Sharif sentenced to life imprisonment on charges of hijacking and terrorism.

Birthday - Renaissance artist Raphael (1483-1520) was born in Urbino, Italy. He created some of the world's greatest masterpieces including 300 pictures with a Madonna theme. He died on his 37th birthday in Rome.

April 7

1712 - In New York City, 27 black slaves rebelled, shooting nine whites as they attempted to put out a fire started by the slaves. The state militia was called out to capture the rebels. Twenty one of the slaves were executed and six committed suicide.

April 8

Among Buddhists, celebrated as the birthday of Buddha (563-483 B.C.). An estimated 350 millions persons currently profess the Buddhist faith.

1950 Liaquat-Nehru agreement is signed in New Delhi on measures to deal with major Inter-

1976 Sardari system is abolished in Balochistan.

1982 Jahangir Khan wins British Open Squash Championship.

April 9

1866 - Despite a veto by President Andrew Johnson, the Civil Rights Bill of 1866 was passed by Congress granting blacks the rights and privileges of U.S. citizenship.

April 10

1973 Constitution of Pakistan enacted by the National Assembly.

1975 Noted scholar and VC of Karachi University, Dr. Mehmood Hussain passes away

1988: Army ammunition blown up in Ojheri camp, Rawalpindi; more than 100 people die.

Birthday - Publisher Joseph Pulitzer (1847-1911) was born in Budapest, Hungary. He came to America in 1864 and fought briefly in the Civil War for the Union. He then began a remarkable career in journalism and publishing. His newspapers included the St. Louis Post-Dispatch and the New York World. He also endowed the journalism school at Columbia University and established a fund for the Pulitzer Prizes, awarded annually for excellence in journalism.

April 11

1968 - A week after the assassination of Martin Luther King, the Civil Rights Act of 1968 was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson. The law prohibited discrimination in housing, protected civil rights workers and expanded the rights of Native Americans.

1970 - Apollo 13 was launched from Cape Kennedy at 2:13 p.m. Fifty-six hours into the flight an oxygen tank exploded in the service module. Astronaut John L. Swigert saw a warning light that accompanied the bang and said, "Houston, we've had a problem here." Swigert, James A. Lovell and Fred W. Haise then transferred into the lunar module, using it as a "lifeboat" and began a perilous return trip to Earth, splashing down safely on April 17th.

1973: Chaudhry Fazal Ilahi is elected as President. of Pakistan

April 12

1961 - Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first human in space. He traveled aboard the Soviet spacecraft Vostok I to an altitude of 187 miles (301 kilometers) above the earth and completed a single orbit in a flight lasting 108 minutes. The spectacular Russian success intensified the already ongoing Space Race between the Russians and Americans. Twenty-three days later, Alan Shepard became the first American in space. This was followed in 1962 by President Kennedy’s open call to land an American on the moon before the decade’s end.

1981 - The first space shuttle flight occurred with the launching of Columbia with astronauts John Young and Robert Crippen aboard. Columbia spent 54 hours in space, making 36 orbits, then landed at Edwards Air Force Base in California.

April 13

Birthday - Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) was born in Albermarle County, Virginia. He was an author, inventor, lawyer, politician, architect, and one of the finest minds of the 1700's. He authored the American Declaration of Independence and later served as the 3rd U.S. President from 1801 to 1809. He died on July 4, 1826, the same day as his old friend and one-time political rival John Adams.

April 14

1828 - The first dictionary of American-style English was published by Noah Webster as the American Dictionary of the English Language.

1865 - President Abraham Lincoln was shot and mortally wounded while watching a performance of Our American Cousin at Ford's Theater in Washington. He was taken to a nearby house and died the following morning at 7:22 a.m.

1972 First session of National Assembly. of Pakistan Bhutto elected President.

1986 - U.S. warplanes, on orders from President Ronald Reagan, bombed the Libyan cities of Tripoli and Benghazi in retaliation for the April 5th terrorist bombing of a discotheque in West Berlin in which two American soldiers were killed. Among the 37 person killed in the air raid was the infant daughter of Muammar Qaddafi, Libya's head of state.

1994: Pakistan's celebrated scientist Dr. Salimuzzaman Siddiqui passes away in Karachi.

April 15

1912 - In the icy waters off Newfoundland, the luxury liner Titanic with 2,224 persons on board sank at 2:27 a.m. after striking an iceberg just before midnight. Over 1,500 persons drowned while 700 were rescued by the liner Carpathia which arrived about two hours after Titanic went down.
1999 Pakistan conducts test of a nuclear-capable short-range ballistic missile, Shaheen

April 16

1862 - Congress abolished slavery in the District of Columbia and appropriated $1 million to compensate owners of freed slaves.

1995 - Iqbal Masih, a young boy from Pakistan who spoke out against child labour, was shot to death. At age four, he had been sold into servitude as a carpet weaver and spent the next six years shackled to a loom. At age ten, he escaped and began speaking out, attracting worldwide attention as a featured speaker during an international labour conference in Sweden.

Birthday - American aviation pioneer Wilbur Wright (1867-1912) was born in Millville, Indiana. On December 17, 1903, along with his brother Orville, the Wright brothers made the first successful flight of a motor driven aircraft. It flew for 12 seconds and traveled 120 feet. By 1905, they had built a plane that could stay airborne for half an hour, performing figure eights and other aerial maneuvers. Wilbur died of Typhoid fever in May 1912.

Birthday - Film comedian Charlie Chaplin (1889-1977) was born in London. He began in vaudeville and was discovered by American film producer Mack Sennett. He then went to Hollywood to make silent movies, developing the funny 'Little Tramp' film character. Chaplin's classics include The Kid, The Gold Rush, City Lights and Modern Times. In 1940, he made The Great Dictator poking fun at Adolf Hitler, who bore a resemblance to Chaplin. In his later years, Chaplin had a falling out with Americans, but returned in 1972 to receive a special Academy Award. In 1975, he was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II.

April 17

1953: Muhammad Ali Bogra is sworn is as Prime Minister.of Pakistan

1989 - The Polish labor union Solidarity was granted legal status after nearly a decade of struggle, paving the way for the downfall of the Polish Communist Party. In the elections that followed, Solidarity candidates won 99 out of 100 parliamentary seats and eventually forced the acceptance of a Solidarity government led by Lech Walesa.

April 18

1959 Government takes over dailies The Pakistan Times, and Imroze and weekly Lail-o-Nihar.

1993: President Ghulam Ishaq Khan dissolves National Assembly, dismisses Nawaz Sharif government. Balkh Sher Mazari becomes care-take prime minister.

April 19

1995 - At 92 a.m., a massive car-bomb explosion destroyed the entire side of a nine story federal building in Oklahoma City, killing 168 persons, including 19 children inside a day care center. A decorated Gulf War veteran was later convicted for the attack.

April 20

1999 - The deadliest school shooting in U.S. history occurred in Littleton, Colorado, as two students armed with guns and explosives stormed into Columbine High School at lunch time then killed 12 classmates and a teacher and wounded more than 20 other persons before killing themselves.

Birthday - Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) was born in Braunau am Inn, Austria. As leader of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945, he waged a war of expansion in Europe, precipitating the deaths of an estimated 50 million persons through military conflict and through the Holocaust in which the Nazis attempted to exterminate the entire Jewish population of Europe.

April 21

1938: Allama Sir Dr Muhammad Iqbal Died. Iqbal is known as Shair-e-Mushriq meaning Poet of the East. He is also called Muffakir-e-Pakistan ("The Inceptor of Pakistan"), and Hakeem-ul-Ummat ("The Sage of the Ummah"). Pakistan has officially recognised him as its "National Poet". In Iran and Afghanistan he is famous as Iqbal-e Lahori (Iqbal of Lahore), and he is most appreciated for his Persian work. His birthday is celebrated on November 9 and is a public holiday in Pakistan.

1963: The Council of Pakistan Newspaper Editors adopts code of Press Ethics.

1972: Martial Law lifted; constitutional rule is restored in the country. Hamoodu-ur-Rehman is sworn in as Chief Justice of Pakistan.

April 22

1864 - "In God We Trust" was included on all newly minted U.S. coins by an Act of Congress.

1961: Government of Pakistan institutes Film Awards

Birthday - Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924) was born in Simbirsk, Russia. He led the Russian Revolution of October 1917 which toppled Czar Nicholas and paved the way for a harsh Communist regime. Following his death in 1924, his body was embalmed and placed on display in Moscow's Red Square, becoming a shrine that was visited by millions during the years of the Soviet Union.

April 23

Birthday - William Shakespeare (1564-1616) was born at Stratford-on-Avon, England. Renowned as the most influential writer in the English language, he created 36 plays and 154 sonnets, including Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet and The Merchant of Venice.

April 24

1800 - The Library of Congress was established in Washington, D.C. It is America's oldest federal cultural institution and the world's largest library. Among the 145 million items in its collections are more than 33 million books, 3 million recordings, 12.5 million photographs, 5.3 million maps, 6 million pieces of sheet music and 63 million manuscripts. About 10,000 new items are added each day.

April 25

1967 - The first law legalizing abortion was signed by Colorado Governor John Love, allowing abortions in cases in which a panel of three doctors unanimously agreed.

1995: Veteran politician, G. M. Syed dies in Karachi.

1996 Imran Khan launches new political party, Tehrik-i-Insaf.

Birthday - Radio inventor Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937) was born in Bologna, Italy. He pioneered the use of wireless telegraphy in the 1890's. By 1921, Marconi's invention had been developed into wireless telephony (voice radio).

April 26

1986 - At the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the Ukraine, an explosion caused a meltdown of the nuclear fuel and spread a radioactive cloud into the atmosphere, eventually covering most of Europe. A 300-square-mile area around the plant was evacuated. Thirty one persons were reported to have died while an additional thousand cases of cancer from radiation were expected. The plant was then encased in a solid concrete tomb to prevent the release of further radiation.

1992: Pakistan's Alam Channa enters Guinness Book of World Records as the tallest man in the world.

1994 - Multiracial elections were held for the first time in the history of South Africa. With approximately 18 million blacks voting, Nelson Mandela was elected president and F.W. de Klerk vice president.

2006: Pervez Musharraf lays foundation-stone of Diamir-Bhasha dam.

April 27

1962 Vetern statesman of Pakistan, A. K. Fazlul Haq passes away in Dhaka at age 89.

1984: Ban imposed on use of Islamic nomenclature by Ahmadis.

Birthday - Telegraph inventor Samuel F.B. Morse (1791-1872) was born in Charlestown, Massachusetts. He developed the idea of an electromagnetic telegraph in the 1830's and tapped out his first message "What hath God wrought?" in 1844 on the first telegraph line, running from Washington, D.C., to Baltimore. The construction of the first telegraph line was funded by Congress ($30,000) after Morse failed to get any other financial backing. After Western Union was founded in 1856, telegraph lines were quickly strung from coast to coast in America.

April 28

1945 - Twenty-three years of Fascist rule in Italy ended abruptly as Italian partisans shot former Dictator Benito Mussolini. Other leaders of the Fascist Party and friends of Mussolini were also killed along with his mistress, Clara Petacci. Their bodies were then hung upside down and pelted with stones by jeering crowds in Milan.

April 29

1992 - Riots erupted in Los Angeles following the announcement that a jury in Simi Valley, California, had failed to convict four Los Angeles police officers accused in the videotaped beating of an African American man.

April 30

1789 - George Washington became the first U.S. President as he was administered the oath of office on the balcony of Federal Hall at the corner of Wall and Broad Streets in New York City.

1948 - Palestinian Jews declared their independence from British rule and established the new state of Israel. The country soon became a destination for tens of thousands of Nazi Holocaust survivors and a strong U.S. ally.

1967 - Boxer Muhammad Ali was stripped of his world heavyweight boxing championship after refusing to be inducted into the American military. He had claimed religious exemption.

2002: Musharraf wins in a referendum.

International Days to be celebrated in April

2 April World Autism Awareness Day.
4 April International Day for Mine Awareness and Assistance in Mine Action.
7 April Day of Remembrance of the Victims of the Rwanda Genocide .
7 April World Health Day.
12 April International Day of Human Space Flight.
22 April International Mother Earth Day.
23 April World Book and Copyright Day.
25 April World Malaria Day.
26 April World Intellectual Property Day.
28 April World Day for Safety and Health at Work.
29 April Day of Remembrance for all Victims of Chemical.
30 April International Jazz Day.

Independence Day, National Day or other significant day

Hungary - Liberation Day April 4
Senegal - Independence Day April 4
Denmark - Queen's Birthday April 16
Syria - Independence Day April 17
Zimbabwe/Rhodesia - Independence Day April 18
Austria - Founding of the Second Republic April 27
Sierra Leone - Independence Day April 27
Togo - Independence Day April 27
Japan - Emporer's Birthday April 29
The Netherlands/Holland - Queen's Birthday April 30
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According to the early Roman calendar, May was the third month. Later, the ancient Romans used January 1, for the beginning of their year, and May became the fifth month. May has always had 31 days.

Several stories are passed around to show how the month of May was named. The most widely accepted explanation is that it was named for Maia, the Roman goddess of spring and growth. Her name is related to a Latin word that means increase or growth.

May is of the most beautiful months of the year in the North Temperate Zone. Usually the snow and ice are gone and the hot temperatures haven't arrived. In Pakistan, May is the beginning of summer season. Gardens show withering of flowers. Harvesting of Rabi (Spring) crops gets almost completed. Migratory birds start their back home journey towards the cold regions.

May Day, a holiday and spring festival since ancient times, is also observed in many countries including Pakistan as a Labour Day.

May 1

1707 - Great Britain was formed from a union between England and Scotland. The union included Wales which had already been part of England since the 1500's. The United Kingdom today consists of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

1931 -.Empire State Building opened.

1960 - An American U-2 spy plane flying at 60,000 feet was shot down over Sverdlovsk in central Russia. U-2 was a US spy plane operating from Badaber base near Peshawar. It was shot down by Soviet SA-2 missile and its pilot Gary Powers was captured. The incident severely compromised Pakistan security and brought the Soviet ire on Pakistan. Soviets paid back Pakistan within a decade during East Pakistan crisis.

1972 Labour Day was celebrated for the first time in Pakistan.

2004 - Eight former Communist nations and two Mediterranean countries joined the European Union (EU) marking it's largest-ever expansion. The new members included Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, along with the island of Malta and the Greek portion of the island of Cyprus. They joined 15 countries already in the EU, representing in all 450 million persons.

May 2

2011 - U.S. Special Operations Forces killed Osama bin Laden during a raid on his secret compound in Abbottabad, Pakistan. The raid marked the culmination of a decade-long manhunt for the elusive leader of the al-Qaeda terrorist organization based in the Middle East. Bin Laden had ordered the coordinated aerial attacks of September 11th, 2001, in which four American passenger jets were hijacked then crashed, killing nearly 3,000 persons. Two jets had struck and subsequently collapsed the 110-story Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York, while another struck the Pentagon building in Washington, D.C. A fourth jet also headed toward Washington had crashed into a field in Pennsylvania as passengers attempted to overpower the hijackers on board.

Birthday - Pope Leo XIII (1810-1903) was born in Carpino, Italy (as Gioacchino Pecci). He was elected Pope in 1878 at age 67, and lived to govern the church another 25 years, laying the foundation for modernization of Church attitudes toward a rapidly industrializing and changing world.

May 3

Birthday - Italian writer and statesman Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527) was born in Florence, Italy. He offered a blunt, realistic view of human nature and power in his works The Prince and Discourses on Livy.

Birthday - Golda Meir (1898-1978) was born in Kiev, Ukraine. She was one of the founders of the modern state of Israel and served as prime minister from 1969 to 1974.

May 4

1494 - During his second journey of exploration in the New World, Christopher Columbus discovered Jamaica.

May 5

1961 - Alan Shepard became the first American in space. He piloted the spacecraft Freedom 7 during a 15-minute 28-second suborbital flight that reached an altitude of 116 miles (186 kilometers) above the earth. Shepard's success occurred 23 days after the Russians had launched the first-ever human in space, cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin, during an era of intense technological competition between the Russians and Americans called the Space Race.

Birthday - Communism founder Karl Marx (1818-1883) was born in Treves, Germany. He co-authored Das Kapital and The Communist Manifesto, advocating the abolition of all private property and a system in which workers own all the means of production, land, factories and machinery.

May 6

Birthday - Psychoanalysis founder Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was born in Freiberg, Moravia. His theories became the foundation for treating psychiatric disorders by psychoanalysis and offered some of the first workable cures for mental disorders.

May 7

1954 - The French Indochina War ended with the fall of Dien Bien Phu, in a stunning victory by the Vietnamese over French colonial forces in northern Vietnam. The country was then divided in half at the 17th parallel, with South Vietnam created in 1955.

Birthday - Composer Johannes Brahms (1833-1897) was born in Hamburg, Germany. He composed over 300 songs and numerous orchestral, choral, piano, and chamber works, including his German Requiem commemorating the death of his mother.

May 8

1945 - A second German surrender ceremony was held in Berlin. Soviet Russia's leader Josef Stalin had refused to recognize the German surrender document signed a day earlier at Reims. This time, German Field Marshal, Wilhelm Keitel signed the surrender document which declared, as did the first, that hostilities would end as of 121 a.m. on May 9th.

Birthday - International Red Cross founder and Nobel Prize winner Henri Dunant (1828-1910) was born in Geneva, Switzerland. He was also a founder of the YMCA and organized the Geneva Conventions of 1863 and 1864.

Birthday - Harry S. Truman (1884-1972) the 33rd U.S. President was born in Lamar, Missouri. He became president upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt in April 1945. Two weeks after becoming president he was informed of the top secret Atomic bomb project. In the war against Japan, an Allied invasion of Japan was being planned which would cost a minimum of 250,000 American lives. Truman then authorized the dropping of the bomb. On August 6, 1945, the first bomb exploded over Hiroshima, followed by a second bomb dropped on Nagasaki on August 9th. The next day, Japan sued for peace. Truman served as President until January of 1953. He was the last of only nine U.S. Presidents who did not attend college. His straightforward, honest, no-nonsense style earned him the nickname, "Give 'em hell, Harry."

May 10

1994 - Former political prisoner Nelson Mandela was inaugurated as president of South Africa. Mandela had won the first free election in South Africa despite attempts by various political foes to deter the outcome.

1980 Pakistan boycotted Moscow Olympics

May 11

1951 University of Karachi was established.

Birthday - Songwriter Irving Berlin (1888-1989) was born (as Israel Isidore Baline) in Tyumen, Russia. At the age of four, Berlin moved with his family to New York City and later began singing in saloons and on street corners to help his family following the death of his father. Although he could not read or write musical notation, he became one of America's greatest songwriters, best known for songs such as God Bless America, White Christmas, There's No Business Like Show Business, Alexander's Ragtime Band, Puttin' On the Ritz, and Oh! How I Hate to Get Up in the Morning.

Birthday - Modern dance pioneer Martha Graham (1893-1991) was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. She began her dance career at age 22, in the Greenwich Village Follies. She later incorporated primal emotions and ancient rituals in her works, bringing a new psychological depth to modern dance. In a career spanning 70 years, she created 180 dance works. She performed until the age of 75.

May 12

1937 - George VI was crowned at Westminster Abbey in London, following the abdication of his brother, Edward VIII. King George reigned until his death in 1952. He was succeeded by his daughter Elizabeth, the current reigning monarch.

1956 Prime Minister of Pakistan Ch. Muhammad Ali presents the first five-year plan.

Birthday - British nurse and public health activist Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) was born in Florence, Italy. She volunteered to aid British troops in Turkey where she improved hospital sanitary conditions and greatly reduced the death rate for wounded and sick soldiers. She received worldwide acclaim for her unselfish devotion to nursing, contributed to the development of modern nursing procedures, and emphasized the dignity of nursing as a profession for women.

May 13

1981 - Pope John Paul II was shot twice at close range while riding in an open automobile in St. Peter's Square in Rome. Two other persons were also wounded. An escaped terrorist, already under sentence of death for the murder of a Turkish journalist, was immediately arrested and was later convicted of attempted murder. The Pope recovered and later held a private meeting with the would-be assassin and then publicly forgave him.

May 14

1796 - Smallpox vaccine was developed by Dr. Edward Jenner, a physician in rural England. He coined the term vaccination for the new procedure of injecting a milder form of the disease into healthy persons resulting in immunity. Within 18 months, 12,000 persons in England had been vaccinated and the number of smallpox deaths dropped by two-thirds.

2000 = Supreme Court validated the October 1999 coup and granted General Pervez Musharraf executive and legislative authority for three years.

2006 = Charter of democracy (CoD) was signed by two former prime ministers of Pakistan, Nawaz Sharif and Benazir Bhutto in London.

Birthday - German physicist Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686-1736) was born in Danzig, Germany. He introduced the use of mercury in thermometers and greatly improved their accuracy. His name is now attached to one of the major temperature measurement scales.

Birthday - British landscape and portrait painter Thomas Gainsborough (1727-1788) was born in Sudbury, Suffolk, England. Among his best known works: The Blue Boy, The Watering Place and The Market Cart.

May 16

1991 – Pakistan National Assembly adopted Shariat Bill.

May 17

1792 - Two dozen merchants and brokers established the New York Stock Exchange. In good weather they operated under a buttonwood tree on Wall Street. In bad weather they moved inside to a coffeehouse to conduct business.

May 18

1804 - Napoleon Bonaparte became Emperor of France, snatching the crown from the hands of Pope Pius VII during the actual coronation ceremony, and then crowning himself.

1950 The Peshawar University wae established.

1998 - In one of the biggest antitrust lawsuits of the 20th century, American software giant Microsoft Corporation was sued by the U.S. Federal government and 20 state governments charging the company with using unfair tactics to crush competition and restrict choices for consumers. The lawsuits alleged Microsoft used illegal practices to deny personal computer owners the benefits of a free and competitive market and also alleged Microsoft extended its monopoly on operating systems to "develop a chokehold" on the Internet browser software market.

May 19

Birthday - Vietnamese leader Ho Chi Minh (1890-1969) was born in the central Vietnamese village of Kim Lien (as Nguyen That Thanh). In 1930, he organized the Indo-Chinese Communist party and later adopted the name Ho Chi Minh, meaning "he who enlightens." In 1945, he proclaimed the independence of Vietnam and served as president of North Vietnam from 1945 to 1969. He led the longest and most costly war during the 20th Century against the French and later the Americans. On April 29, 1975, six years after his death, the last Americans left South Vietnam. The next day the city of Saigon was renamed Ho Chi Minh City.

Birthday - Black nationalist and civil rights activist Malcolm X (1925-1965) was born in Omaha, Nebraska (as Malcolm Little). While in prison he adopted the Islamic religion and after his release in 1952, changed his name to Malcolm X and worked for the Nation of Islam. He later made a pilgrimage to Mecca and became an orthodox Muslim. He was assassinated while addressing a meeting in the Audubon Ballroom in Harlem on February 21, 1965.

Birthday - African American playwright Lorraine Hansberry (1930-1965) was born in Chicago, Illinois. She is best known for A Raisin in the Sun (1959)—a play dealing with prejudice and black pride. The play was the first stage production written by a black woman to appear on Broadway. She died of cancer at the age of 34. A book of her writings entitled ‘To Be Young, Gifted, and Black’ was published posthumously.

May 20

1932 - Amelia Earhart became the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic. She departed Newfoundland, Canada, at 7 p.m. and landed near Londonderry, Ireland, completing a 2,026-mile flight in about 13 hours. Five years later, along with her navigator Fred Noonan, she disappeared while trying to fly her twin-engine plane around the equator.

Birthday - Founder of modern Zionism Theodore Herzl (1860-1904) was born in Budapest, Hungary. He advocated the establishment of a new land for the Jews rather than assimilation into various, historically anti-Semitic, countries and cultures.

May 21

1991 - Former Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated in the midst of a re-election campaign, killed by a bomb hidden in a bouquet of flowers. He had served as prime minister from 1984 to 1989, succeeding his mother, Indira Gandhi, who was assassinated in 1984.

Birthday - Russian physicist and human rights activist Andrei Sakharov (1921-1989) was born in Moscow. Although he helped construct the first atomic and hydrogen bombs for Soviet Russia, he later denounced the Soviet government and was exiled from 1980 to 1986. He was instrumental in formulating the political reform concept called perestroika and in encouraging glasnost (openness) in restrictive communist countries.

May 22

1972 - President Richard Nixon became the first American president to visit Moscow. Four days later, Nixon and Soviet Russia's leader Leonid Brezhnev signed a pact pledging to freeze nuclear arsenals at current levels.

2004 - Pakistan readmitted to Commonwealth.

Birthday - German composer Richard Wagner (1813-1883) was born in Leipzig, Germany. He made revolutionary changes in the structure of opera and is best known for The Ring of the Nibelung, a series of operas based on old German myths which include: Das Rheingold, Die Walkure, Siegfried, and Gõtterdammerung.

Birthday - Sherlock Holmes creator Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930) was born at Edinburgh, Scotland. He was also deeply interested in and lectured on spiritualism.

Birthday - Laurence Olivier (1907-1989) was born in Dorking, England. Considered one of the most influential actors of the 20th Century, he was honored with nine Academy Award nominations, three Oscars, five Emmy awards, and a host of other awards. His repertoire included most of the major Shakespearean roles, and films such as The Entertainer, Rebecca, Pride and Prejudice, The Boys from Brazil, Marathon Man and Wuthering Heights. He was knighted in 1947, and made a peer of the throne in 1970.

May 23

2009- Pakistan Army launched Operation Rah-e-Rast and cleared Swat Valley of all Taliban elements. It is regarded as one of the most successful counter-insurgency operation in modern age

Birthday - Journalist Margaret Fuller (1810-1850) was born in Cambridgeport, Massachusetts. She became the first American woman to serve as a foreign correspondent, reporting for the New York Tribune. Her book Women in the Nineteenth Century, published in 1845, is considered the first feminist statement by an American writer, and brought her international acclaim. Sailing from Italy to the U.S. in 1850, she died, along with her husband and infant son, in a shipwreck off Fire Island, New York.

May 24

1844 - Telegraph inventor Samuel Morse sent the first official telegraph message, "What hath God wrought?" from the Capitol building in Washington, D.C., to Baltimore.

May 25

1994 - After 20 years in exile, Russian author Alexander Solzhenitsyn returned to his homeland. He had been expelled from Soviet Russia in 1974, after his three-volume work exposing the Soviet prison camp system, The Gulag Archipelago, was published in the West.

Birthday - American author and philosopher Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882) was born in Boston, Massachusetts. His works include: Nature (1836), Essays, First Series (1841), Essays, Second Series (1844), Poems (1847, 1865), Representative Men (1850), English Traits (1856), The Conduct of Life (1860), and Society and Solitude (1870).

May 26

1980 - Establishment of Federal Shariat Court announced.

1989 - ISI Chief Lt. Gen. Hameed Gul was replaced by Shamsur Rahman Kallu.

1993 - Supreme Court restored National Assembly and Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif.

May 27

1937 - In San Francisco, 200,000 people celebrated the grand opening of the Golden Gate Bridge by strolling across it.

May 28

1961 - Amnesty International was founded by London lawyer Peter Berenson. He read about the arrest of a group of students in Portugal then launched a one-year campaign to free them called Appeal for Amnesty. Today Amnesty International has over a million members in 150 countries working to free prisoners of conscience, stop torture and the death penalty, and guarantee human rights for women.

1998 - Pakistan conducts nuclear tests in Chagai hills in Balochistan.

May 29

1453 - The city of Constantinople was captured by the Turks, who renamed it Istanbul. This marked the end of the Byzantine Empire as Istanbul became the capital of the Ottoman Empire.

1988 - President General Zia dissolved National Assembly and Junejo cabinet.

1998 - State Bank of Pakistan banned opening of new foreign currency accounts and suspended withdrawals.

May 30

Birthday - Founder of the Russian empire Peter the Great (1672-1725) was born near Moscow. He vastly increased the power of the Russian monarchy and turned his backward country into a major power in the Western world. Among his accomplishments, he completely overhauled the government and the Greek Orthodox Church as well as the military system and tax structure. He built St. Petersburg, established printing presses and published translations of foreign books, modernized the calendar, simplified the Russian alphabet and introduced Arabic numerals. He died at age 52 and was succeeded by his wife Catherine.

May 31

Birthday - American poet Walt Whitman (1819-1892) was born in Long Island, New York. His poem Leaves of Grass is considered an American classic. His poetry celebrated modern life and took on subjects considered taboo at the time.

Source: JWT
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Latin Junius mensis "month of Juno". Junius had 30 days, until Numa when it had 29 days, until Julius when it became 30 days long.

Juno is the principle goddess of the Roman Pantheon. She is the goddess of marriage and the well-being of women. She is the wife and sister of Jupiter. She is identified with the Greek goddess Hera.

June Birth Flower is Rose.

The celebration of birthdays is said to have first been observed in ancient Roman times. According to Birth Stones, friends and family of the birthday person would bring flowers as gifts and the giving of particular flowers for each month originated at these times. Roses were also used in Victorian times to convey messages between lovers---the colour of the flower being the indicator of the intended message.

Birthstone for June: Pearl, Ruby, Emerald

June 1

2001 The heir to the Nepalese throne killed his parents and eight other family members before shooting himself, after an argument over his choice of a bride

1948 Israel and Arabs agree to a cease fire

1949 Transjordan renamed Jordan

June 2

2010 Foreign ministers of the Arab League meet in Cairo and agree to ask the UN Security Council to force Israel to end its blockade of Gaza

1964 Lal Bahadur Shastri elected premier of India

June 3

1989 Chinese troops kill hundred of pro-democracy students in Beijing

1970 1st artificial gene synthesized

1098 After 5-month siege in 1st Crusade, the Crusaders seize Antioch Turkey

June 4

1971 Zaheer Abbas scores Cricket 274 at Edgbaston, 544 minutes 38 fours

1940 The synthetic rubber tire unveiled

1912 Massachusetts passes 1st U.S. minimum wage law

June 5

1993 Somali warlord Aididi murders 23 Pakistani

1984 Indira Gandhi orders attack on Sikh's holiest site, Golden Temple

1873 Sultan Bargash closes slave market of Zanzibar

June 6

2006 Union of Islamic Courts takes over Mogadishu, Somalia

1984 1,200 die in Sikh "Golden Temple" uprising India

1850 Levi Strauss made his 1st blue jeans

1844 Young Men's Christian Association, YMCA, forms in London

June 7

1967 Israel captures Wailing Wall in East Jerusalem, Jericho and Bethlehem

June 8

1971 North Vietnam demands U.S. end aid to South Vietnam

1968 James Earl Ray, alleged assassin of Martin Luther King, Jr., captured

June 9

2011 In Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, six women were arrested for practicing driving in an empty car lot; women are banned from driving on the road

1967 Israeli troops reach Suez Canal

June 10

1985 Coca Cola announces they'd bring back their 99-year-old formula

1977 James Earl Ray (Martin Luther King's killer) escapes from prison

June 11

1971 US ends ban on China trade

1921 Brazil adopts women suffrage

June 12

1964 Nelson Mandela is sentenced to life in prison in South Africa

June 13

1982 Fahd becomes king of Saudi Arabia when King Khalid dies at 69

1977 Convicted Martin Luther King assassin James Earl Ray recaptured

June 14

1934 Hitler and Mussolini meet in Vienna

1907 Norway restricts woman's voting rights

June 15

1978 Jordan's King Hussein marries Elizabeth Halaby, 26-yr-old American

1864 US Congress passes legislation equalizing pay for Black soldiers

1215 King John signs Magna Carta at Runnymede, England

June 16

1990 Nelson and Winnie Mandela visit Leidseplein, Amsterdam

1815 Battle at Ligny: French army under Napoleon beats Prussia

June 17

1991 South Africa abolishes last of its apartheid laws

1967 1st Chinese hydrogen bomb explodes

1950 1st kidney transplant, Chicago

June 18

1987 Charles Glass, ABC journalist, kidnapped in Lebanon

1941 Turkey signs peace treaty with Nazi-Germany

June 19

1974 Yemen Arab Republic, North Yemen, suspends constitution

1862 Slavery outlawed in US territories

June 20

1990 Nelson Mandela lands in New York City to begin a tour of US

1963 US and USSR agree to set up Hot Line

1791 King Louis XVI caught trying to escape French Revolution

June 21

1942 Seinheuer throws female world record spear (47.24m)

1547 Great fire in Moscow

June 22

Napoleon's Grand Army invades Russia

June 23

1994 South Africa reclaims its seat in UN

1983 Syria throws out PLO leader Arafat

1860 US Secret Service created

June 24

1941 Entire Jewish male population of Gorzhdy Lithuania, exterminated

1901 1st exhibition by Pablo Picasso, 19, opens in Paris

1817 1st coffee planted in Hawaii on Kona coast

June 25

1991 Slovenia and Croatia declare independence from Yugoslavia

1967 Mohammed Ali, Cassius Clay, sentenced to 5 years

June 26

1994 PLO-leader Yasser Arafat returns to Gaza after 27 years

1991 ANC leader Nelson Mandela addresses congress

1979 Heavyweight Muhammad Ali confirms that his 3rd retirement is final

June 27

2008 Bill Gates resigns from Microsoft to focus on his charity work

1977 Djibouti (Afars and Issas) claims Independence from France

June 28

1967 Israel annexes East Jerusalem

1894 Labour Day established as a federal employees holiday

June 29

1981 Bomb attack on headquarters of Islamic Party in Teheran, 72 killed

1969 1st Jewish worship service at White House

1949 South Africa begins implementing apartheid; no mixed marriages

June 30

1962 Rwanda and Burundi become independent

1948 Last British armies leave Israel

1894 Korea declares independence from China, asks for Japanese aid

Source: JWT
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July 1

1862 - President Abraham Lincoln signed the first income tax bill, levying a 3% income tax on annual incomes of $600-$10,000 and a 5% tax on incomes over $10,000. Also on this day, the Bureau of Internal Revenue was established by an Act of Congress.

1863 - Beginning of the Battle of Gettysburg during the American Civil War.

July 2

1776 - The Continental Congress in Philadelphia adopted the following resolution, originally introduced on June 7, by Richard Henry Lee of Virginia: "Resolved, That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States, that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved. That it is expedient forthwith to take the most effectual measures for forming foreign Alliances. That a plan of confederation be prepared and transmitted to the respective Colonies for their consideration and approbation."

1964 - President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964, prohibiting discrimination on the basis of race in public accommodations, publicly owned or operated facilities, employment and union membership and in voter registration. The Act allowed for cut-off of Federal funds in places where discrimination remained.

July 3

1988 - Iran Air Flight 655 was destroyed while flying over the Persian Gulf after the US Navy Warship Vincennes fired two surface-to-air missiles, killing all 290 passengers aboard. A subsequent US military inquiry cited stress related human failure for the mistaken identification of the civilian airbus as an enemy F-14 fighter jet.

July 4

1187 - Saladin defeats Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem, at the Battle of Hattin.

July 5

1687 - Isaac Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica is published.

1791 - George Hammond was appointed the first British Ambassador to the USA.

1975 - American Arthur Ashe becomes the first black man to win the Wimbledon singles title.

July 6

1785 - Following Thomas Jefferson's recommendation, the US adopts the dollar as the world's first decimal currency system.

1923 - The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was formed.

1885 - Louis Pasteur gave the first successful anti-rabies inoculation to a boy who had been bitten by an infected dog.

July 7

1456 - Joan of Arc acquitted, 25 years after her execution.

1898 - President William McKinley signed a resolution annexing Hawaii. In 1900, Congress made Hawaii an incorporated territory of the US, which it remained until becoming a state in 1959.

July 8

1822 - Leading romantic poet Percy Bysshe Shelley drowned in the Bay of Spezia, when his boat sunk in a storm.

July 9

1868 - The 14th Amendment to the US Constitution was ratified. The Amendment defined US citizenship and prohibited individual States from abridging the rights of any American citizen without due process and equal protection under the law. The Amendment also barred individuals involved in rebellion against the US from holding public office.

July 10

48 BC - Battle of Dyrrhachium: Julius Caesar barely avoids a catastrophic defeat to Pompey in Macedonia.

138 - Death of the Roman Emperor Hadrian who ordered the building of a wall across northern England to keep out the barbarian Scottish tribes.

July 11

1740 - Jews are expelled from Little Russia.

1859 - A Tale Of Two Cities by Charles Dickens was published.

1955 - The national motto ‘In God We Trust’ was added to US currency.

July 12

100 BC - Born: Roman King Julius Caesar.

1943 - During World War II, in the Battle of Kursk, the largest tank battle in history took place outside the small village of Prohorovka, Russia. About nine hundred Russian tanks attacked an equal number of German tanks fighting at close range. When Hitler ordered a cease-fire, 300 German tanks remained strewn over the battlefield.

July 13

1978 - Chairman Henry Ford II fired Lee Iacocca as president of Ford Motor Company. (Iacocca then became head of Chrysler Corp., and is credited with saving Chrysler from bankruptcy and liquidation.)

July 14

1789 - The fall of the Bastille occurred at the beginning of the French Revolution.

July 15

1606 - Dutch painter Rembrandt van Rijn was born in Leiden, Holland. Best known for The Night Watch and many portraits and self portraits.

July 16

1945 - The US exploded its first atomic bomb, in the desert of Alamogordo, N.M.

1969 - The Apollo 11 Lunar landing mission began with a liftoff from Kennedy Space Center at 9:37 a.m.

July 17

1918 - In the Russian town of Ekaterinburg in Siberia, former Czar Nicholas II, his wife Alexandra, and their five children were brutally murdered by Bolsheviks.

July 18

64 AD - The Great Fire of Rome erupted on this night. (Did Nero really play a fiddle and watch?)

1947 - Nelson Mandela was born the son of a Tembu tribal chieftain on July 18, 1918, at Qunu, near Umtata, in South Africa.

July 19-20

1848 - A women's rights convention was held at Seneca Falls, New York. Topics discussed included voting rights, property rights and divorce. The convention marked the beginning of an organised women's rights move ment in the US.

July 21

1899 - Ernest Hemingway was born in Oak Park, Illinois. His works included; The Sun Also Rises (1926), A Farewell to Arms (1929), For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940) and The Old Man and the Sea (1952). Awarded the Nobel Prize in 1954, he wrote little afterward, became ill and shot himself to death on July 2, 1961.

July 22

1946 - More than a year after the end of World War II, bread is rationed in Britain. The shortage is blamed upon a poor harvest and drought.

July 23

1952 - Egyptian military officers led by Gamal Abdel Nasser overthrew King Farouk I.

July 24

1799 - Napoleon Bonaparte defeats Turks at Aboukir in Egypt.

July 25

1943 - World War II — Benito Mussolini was dismissed as premier of Italy by King Victor Emmanuel III, and placed under arrest. (However, Mussolini was later rescued by the Nazis, and reasserted his authority.)

1978 - Louise Joy Brown, the first test-tube baby, was born in Oldham, England; she'd been conceived through the technique of in-vitro fertilization.

July 26

1953 - The beginning of Fidel Castro's revolutionary "26th of July Movement." In 1959, Castro led the rebellion that drove out dictator Fulgencio Batista.

1856 - Irish playwright George Bernard Shaw was born in Dublin, Ireland.

July 27

1794 - French revolutionary leader Maximilien Robespierre was overthrown and placed under arrest; he was executed the following day.

1974 - Watergate Scandal — The House Judiciary Committee voted 27-11 to recommend President Nixon's impeachment on a charge that he had personally engaged in a "course of conduct" designed to obstruct justice.

July 28

1945 - A US army bomber crashed into the 79th floor of New York's Empire State Building, killing 14 people.

July 29

1957 - The International Atomic Energy Agency is established.

1981 - Diana, Princess of Wales, the Lady Diana Frances Spencer, marries Charles, Prince of Wales at St. Paul's Cathedral in London. (The couple divorced in 1996.)

July 30

1945 - WW II — A Japanese submarine sank the USS Indianapolis, killing 880 of the 1196 total on board in the worst single loss in the history of the US Navy.

1980 - The Israeli Knesset passed a law reaffirming all of Jerusalem as the capital of the Jewish state.

July 31

1498 - On his third voyage to the Western Hemisphere, Christopher Columbus becomes the first European to discover the island of Trinidad.

1776 - During the American Revolution, Francis Salvador became the first Jew to die in the conflict. He had also been the first Jew elected to office in Colonial America, voted a member of the South Carolina Provincial Congress in January 1775.

Source: JWT
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August 1

1838 - Slavery was abolished in Jamaica. It had been introduced by Spanish settlers 300 years earlier in 1509.

August 2

1939 - Albert Einstein wrote a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt concerning the possibility of atomic weapons. "A single bomb of this type carried by boat and exploded in a port, might very well destroy the whole port together with some of the surrounding territory." Six years later, on August 6, 1945, the first atomic bomb, developed by the US, was dropped on the Japanese port of Hiroshima.

1990 - Iraq invaded Kuwait, leading to the Gulf War of 1991.

August 3

1492 - Christopher Columbus sets sail from Palos, Spain.

1914 - World War I — Germany declares war against France.

1960 - Niger gained independence from France.

August 4

1962 - Apartheid opponent Nelson Mandela was arrested by security police in South Africa. He was then tried and sentenced to five years in prison.

1961 - Barack Obama the 44th US president was born in Honolulu, Hawaii. His father was from Kenya, Africa, while his mother was originally from Kansas.

August 5

1861 - President Abraham Lincoln signed into law the first Federal income tax, a 3 percent tax on incomes over $800, as an emergency wartime measure during the Civil War. However, the tax was never actually put into effect.

1604 - John Eliot was born in Hertfordshire, England. Known as the "Apostle to the Indians," his translation of the Bible into an Indian tongue was the first Bible to be printed in America.

1914 - The first electric traffic light was installed in Cleveland, Ohio.

1962 - Film star Marilyn Monroe died at age 36 from an overdose of sleeping pills. She made 29 films during her career and came to symbolise Hollywood glamour.

August 6

1881- Penicillin discoverer Alexander Fleming was born in Lochfield, Scotland. By accident, he found that mold from soil killed deadly bacteria without injuring human tissue. He received the Nobel Prize in 1954.

1945 - The first atomic bomb was dropped over the centre of Hiroshima at 8:15 a.m., by the American B-29 bomber Enola Gay. The bomb detonated about 1,800 ft. above ground, killing over 105,000 persons and destroying the city. Another estimated 100,000 persons later died as a result of radiation effects.

1960 - Fidel Castro nationalised American and foreign-owned property in Cuba.

1962 - Jamaica achieved independence after centuries of British and Spanish rule.

1809 - British poet Alfred Lord Tennyson was born in Somersby, Lincolnshire, England.

August 7

1782 - George Washington orders the creation of the Badge of Military Merit to honour soldiers wounded in battle. It is later renamed the "Purple Heart".

1990 - Just five days after the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, President George Bush ordered Desert Shield, a massive military build-up to prevent further Iraqi advances.

1876 - International spy Mata Hari was born (as Margaret Gertrude Zelle) in Leewarden, Netherlands. Arrested by the French in 1917 as a German spy, she was tried, convicted and sentenced to death. At her execution, she refused a blindfold and instead threw a kiss to the French firing squad.

August 8

1876 - Thomas Edison received a patent for his mimeograph.

1945 - Soviet Russia declared war on Japan and sent troops into Japanese-held Manchuria.

August 9

1945 - The second atomic bombing of Japan occurred as an American B-29 bomber headed for the city of Kokura, but because of poor visibility then chose a secondary target, Nagasaki. About noon, the bomb detonated killing an estimated 70,000 persons and destroying about half the city.

1974 - Effective at noon, Richard M. Nixon resigned the presidency as a result of the Watergate scandal. Nixon had appeared on television the night before and announced his decision to the American people. Facing possible impeachment by Congress, he became the only US president ever to resign.

August 10

1974 - Herbert Hoover (1874-1964) the 31st US president was born in West Branch, Iowa. He was the first president born west of the Mississippi.

August 11

1921 - Roots author Alex Haley (1921-1992) was born in Ithaca, New York. His Pulitzer Prize-winning novel, published in 1976, explored seven generations of his family from its origins in Africa through slavery in America and eventual hard-fought freedom. Roots was translated into 37 languages and also became an eight-part TV mini-series in 1977 which attracted a record American audience and raised awareness concerning the legacy of slavery.

August 12

1851 - Isaac Singer was granted a patent on his sewing machine.

August 13

1899 - British film director Alfred Hitchcock was born in London.

1927 - Cuban President Fidel Castro was born in Mayari, Oriente Province, Cuba.

1961 - The Berlin Wall came into existence after the East German government closed the border between east and west sectors of Berlin with barbed wire to discourage emigration to the West.

August 14

1947 - Pakistan became independent of British rule.

August 15

1877 - Thomas Edison made the first-ever recording — "Mary Had a Little Lamb."

1947 - India became independent of British rule.

1960 - Republic of the Congo (Brazzaville) declares independence from France.

1969 - Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleone Buonaparte), in the city of Ajaccio on Corsica one year after France bought the island from the Republic of Genoa.

August 16

1861 American Civil War — President Lincoln prohibited the states of the Union from trading with the seceding states of the Confederacy.

1896 - Gold was discovered in Rabbit Creek, a tributary of the Klondike River in Alaska, resulting in the Great Klondike Gold Rush.

1977 - Elvis Presley was pronounced dead at the Memphis Baptist Hospital at 3:30 p.m., at age 42.

August 17

1978 - The first transatlantic balloon trip was completed by three Americans: Max Anderson, Ben Abruzzo, and Larry Newman, all from Albuquerque, New Mexico. Starting from Maine on August 11th, they travelled in Double Eagle II over 3,000 miles in 137 hours, landing about 60 miles west of Paris.

1988 - Gen Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq died in planecrash.

August 18

1920 - The 19th Amendment to the US Constitution was ratified, granting women the right to vote.

August 19

1934 - In Germany, a plebiscite was held in which 89.9 per cent of German voters approved granting Chancellor Adolf Hitler additional powers, including the office of president.

1833 - Benjamin Harrison the 23rd US president was born in North Bend, Ohio. He was the grandson of William Henry Harrison, the 9th president.

August 20

1866 - President Andrew Johnson formally declared the Civil War over, months after the fighting had stopped.

August 21

1959 - President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed a proclamation admitting Hawaii to the Union as the 50th state.

1983 - Filipino opposition leader Benigno S. Aquino, Jr., was assassinated at the Manila airport while leaving his plane. Public outcry over the killing ultimately led to the collapse of the government of Ferdinand E. Marcos and the inauguration of Corazon C. Aquino, widow of the slain man, as president.

August 22

1846 - The United States annexed New Mexico.

1902 - President Theodore Roosevelt became the first US chief executive to ride in an automobile, in Hartford, Conn.

1911 - It was announced in Paris that Leonardo da Vinci's "Mona Lisa" had been stolen from the Louvre Museum the night before. The painting turned up two years later, in Italy.

August 23

1927 - Italian immigrants Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were electrocuted inside a prison at Charlestown, Massachusetts. They had been convicted of a shoe factory payroll robbery during which the paymaster and a guard had been killed.

August 24

1572 - Thousands of Protestant Huguenots were massacred in Paris and throughout France by Catholics, in what became known as the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre.

1932 - Amelia Earhart became the first woman to fly non-stop across the United States, travelling from Los Angeles to Newark, N.J., in just over 19 hours.

August 24-25

1814 - During the War of 1812, Washington, D.C., was invaded by British forces that burned the Capitol, the White House and most other public buildings along with a number of private homes. The burning was in retaliation for the earlier American burning of York (Toronto).

August 26

1920 -The 19th amendment to the US Constitution, giving women the right to vote, was declared in effect.

August 27

1910 - Mother Teresa was born (as Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu) in Skopje, Yugoslavia. She founded a religious order of nuns in Calcutta, India, called the Missionaries of Charity and spent her life working to help the poor and sick of India.

August 28

1749 - German author-philosopher Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was born in Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

August 29

1991 - Following the unsuccessful coup of August 19-21, the Soviet Communist Party was suspended, thus ending the institution that ruled Soviet Russia for nearly 75 years.

August 30

1797 - Frankenstein author Mary Shelley was born in London.

August 31

1997 - Britain's Princess Diana died at age 36 from massive internal injuries suffered in a high-speed car crash, reportedly after being pursued by photographers.

Source: JWT
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September 1

1939 - At 5.30 a.m., Hitler's armies invaded Poland starting World War II in Europe.

1969 - Military officers overthrew the Libyan government. The Libyan Arab Republic was then proclaimed under Colonel Muammar Gaddafi.

1983 - Korean Airlines Flight 007 was shot down by a Russian fighter jet while on route from New York to Seoul, killing all 269 persons on board.

September 2

1666 - The Great Fire of London began in a bakery in Pudding Lane near the Tower. Over the next three days more than 13,000 houses were destroyed, although only six lives were believed lost.

1870 - Napoleon Bonaparte surrendered to the Prussians during the Battle of Sedan, resulting in the fall of the Second French Empire.

1945 - Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the independence of Vietnam and the establishment of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.

September 3

1783 - The Treaty of Paris was signed by John Adams, Ben Franklin and John Jay, formally ending the American Revolutionary War between Britain and the United States.

September 4

1886 - The last major US-Indian war came to an end as Geronimo was captured. He died of natural causes in 1909 at Fort Sill, Oklahoma.

September 5

1972 - Eleven members of the Israeli Olympic team were killed during an attack on the Olympic village in Munich by members of the Black September faction of the Palestinian Liberation Army.

1997 - Mother Teresa died in Calcutta at age 87, after a life of good works spent aiding the sick and poor in India through her Missionaries of Charity order.

September 6

1965 - Pakistani armed forces rebuffed the Indian attack on Pakistani soil.

September 7

1822 - Brazil declared its independence from Portugal after 322 years as a colony.

September 8

1900 - A hurricane with winds of 120 mph struck Galveston, Texas, killing over 8,000 persons, making it the worst natural disaster in US history. The hurricane and tidal wave that followed destroyed over 2,500 buildings.

1974 - A month after resigning the presidency in disgrace as a result of the Watergate scandal, Richard Nixon was granted a full pardon by President Gerald R. Ford for all offenses committed while in office.

September 9

1776 - The United States came into existence as the Continental Congress changed the name of the new American nation from the United Colonies.

1948 - Following the withdrawal of Soviet forces from North Korea, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was proclaimed with Pyongyang as its capital.

1976 - Long time leader of Communist China, Chairman Mao Zedong, died. As a Chinese revolutionary soldier and statesman, he had proclaimed the People's Republic of China in 1949 in Beijing.

1993 - Israel and the PLO (Palestine Liberation Organisation) agreed to recognise each other, paving the way for a possible peaceful end to the hundred year old conflict between Arabs and Jews in the Mideast.

September 10

1943 - Hitler's troops occupied Rome and took over the protection of Vatican City.

September 11

1948 – Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah founder of Pakistan died. He was 71.

2001 - The September 11 attacks also referred to as 9/11 were a series of four suicide attacks that were committed in the United States. On that Tuesday morning, 19 terrorists hijacked four passenger jets. The hijackers intentionally piloted two of those planes into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center complex in New York City; both towers collapsed within two hours. Nearly 3,000 people died in the attacks including the 227 civilians and 19 hijackers aboard the four planes, none of whom survived.

1917 - Ferdinand Marcos was born in Sarrat, Philippines. He ruled the Philippines from 1966, imposing an authoritarian regime until he was ousted in 1986.

September 12

1943 - Former Italian Dictator Benito Mussolini was rescued by German paratroopers on orders from Adolf Hitler. Mussolini was being held prisoner by Italian authorities following the collapse of his Fascist regime.

September 13

1814 - The Battle of Fort Henry in Baltimore Harbour occurred, observed by Francis Scott Key aboard a ship.

September 14

1812 - Napoleon and his troops first entered Moscow as the retreating Russians set the city on fire. Napoleon found it was impossible to stay through the winter in the ruined city. He then began a retreat from Moscow which became one of the great disasters of military history. Fewer than 20,000 of the original 500,000 men with him survived the Russian campaign.

1960 - The Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) was formed by representatives of oil-producing countries meeting in Baghdad.

September 15

1776 - British forces under General William Howe captured New York during the American Revolution.

1890 - British mystery author Agatha Christie was born in Torquay, England. She wrote nearly a hundred books including mysteries, dramas, poetry and nonfiction.

September 16

1620 - The Mayflower ship departed from England, bound for America with 102 passengers and a small crew. The ship weathered dangerous Atlantic storms and reached Provincetown, Massachusetts on November 21. The Pilgrims disembarked at Plymouth on December 26.

1982 - Beginning of a two-day massacre in Palestinian refugee camps in West Beirut as Christian militiamen (the Phalangists) entered Sabra and Shatila and began shooting hundreds of Palestinians, including elderly men, women and children.

September 17

1941- Death penalty abolished... for the time being. The Labour Party had opposed capital punishment, and, after it took office in 1935, it commuted all death sentences to life in prison. This policy was confirmed by the abolition of the death penalty for murder in 1941.

September 18

1810 - Chile declared its independence from Spain after 269 years as a colony.

September 19

1893 - New Zealand became the first country to grant women the right to vote.

1994 - US troops invaded Haiti, with the stated goal of restoring democracy.

September 20

1989 - F. W. De Klerk was sworn-in as president of South Africa. He began an era of reform aimed at ending apartheid and was succeeded by Nelson Mandela.

September 21

1949 - The People's Republic of China was proclaimed by its Communist leaders.

September 22

- President Abraham Lincoln issued a preliminary Emancipation Proclamation freeing the slaves in territories held by Confederates as of January 1, 1863.

1996 - Australian Bob Dent, a cancer victim, became the first person to commit legally assisted suicide, via a lethal injection, under a voluntary euthanasia law.

1791 - British scientist Michael Faraday was born in Surrey, England. His discovery of electromagnetic induction proved that moving a magnet through a coil of wire produces a current, resulting in the development of electric generators.

September 23

1991 - Armenia declared its independence from the Soviet Union.

September 24

1980 - War erupted between Iran and Iraq as Iraqi troops crossed the border and encircled Abadan, then set fire to the world's largest oil refinery.

September 25

1690 - The first American newspaper was published. A single edition of Publick Occurrences Both Foreign and Domestick appeared in Boston, Massachusetts. However, British authorities considered the newspaper offensive and ordered its immediate suppression.

September 26

1984 - Britain agreed to allow Hong Kong to revert to Chinese sovereignty in 1997.

September 27

1995 - The Israeli cabinet agreed to give Palestinians control of much of the West Bank which had been occupied by Israel for 28 years.

September 28

1542 - California was discovered by Portuguese navigator Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo upon his arrival at San Diego Bay.

1995 - Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Palestine Liberation Organisation leader Yasser Arafat signed an accord at the White House establishing Palestinian self-rule in the West Bank.

September 29

1901 - Nuclear physicist Enrico Fermi was born in Rome. While teaching at the University of Chicago, he developed a method of causing nuclear fission, producing a chain reaction releasing explosive nuclear energy which led to the development of the Atomic bombs.

September 30

1966 - Nazi war criminals Albert Speer and Baldur von Schirach were released from Spandau prison after serving 20 years. The prison, originally built for 600 inmates, was left with only one prisoner, former Deputy Führer Rudolf Hess.

Source: JWT
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October 1

1908 - Henry Ford's Model T, a "universal car" designed for the masses, went on sale for the first time.

1946 - Twelve Nazi leaders were sentenced to death at the International War Crimes Tribunal in Nuremberg, Germany.

1949 - The People's Republic of China was founded with Mao Zedong as chairman.

October 2

1869 - Indian political leader Mohandas (Mahatma) Gandhi was born in Porbandar, India.

1975 - Japanese Emperor Hirohito made his first-ever visit to the White House.

October 3

1929 - Yugoslavia became the official name of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.

1932 - Iraq gained independence from Britain and joined the League of Nations.

October 4

1582 - The Gregorian Calendar took effect in Catholic countries as Pope Gregory XIII issued a decree stating the day following Thursday, October 4, 1582, would be Friday. Britain and the American colonies adopted the Gregorian Calendar in 1752.

1830 - Belgium gained its independence, after having been a part of the Netherlands since 1815.

1957 - The Space Age began as the Russians launched the first satellite into orbit. Sputnik I weighed just 184 lbs. and transmitted a beeping radio signal for 21 days.

October 5

1908 - Bulgaria proclaimed its independence from the Ottoman Empire.

1910 - Portugal became a republic following a successful revolt against King Manuel II.

October 6

1846 - Engineer and inventor George Westinghouse was born in Central Bridge, New York. He developed air brakes for trains and was later responsible for the adoption of alternating current (AC) systems for electric power transmission in the US.

1928 - Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek became president of the Republic of China upon the introduction of a new constitution.

1973 - The Yom Kippur War started as Egypt and Syria launched attacks on Israeli positions on the East Bank of the Suez and the Golan Heights.

1978 - Iranian religious leader Ayatollah Khomeini was granted asylum in France after being expelled from Iran.

1981 - Egyptian President Anwar Sadat (1918-1981) was assassinated in Cairo by Muslim fundamentalists while watching a military parade.

October 7

1949 - The German Democratic Republic came into existence in East Germany. Dominated by Soviet Russia, it lasted until German reunification in 1990.

October 8

1871 - The Great Fire of Chicago erupted. According to legend, it started when Mrs. O'Leary's cow kicked over a lantern in her barn on DeKoven Street. Over 300 persons were killed and 90,000 were left homeless as the fire levelled 3.5 square miles, destroying 17,450 buildings. Financial losses totalled over $200 million.

1993 - The UN General Assembly lifted economic sanctions against South Africa following the end of racial apartheid. The sanctions had been imposed since the 1960s.

1996 - Palestinian President Yasser Arafat made his first public visit to Israel for talks with Israeli President Ezer Weizman at his private residence.

1998 - The US House of Representatives voted 258-176 to approve a resolution launching an impeachment inquiry of President Bill Clinton.

October 9

1962 - Uganda achieved independence after nearly 70 years of British rule.

1970 - Cambodia declared itself the Khmer Republic following the abolishment of the monarchy by the legislature.

October 10

1954 - Ho Chi Minh entered Hanoi, Vietnam, after the withdrawal of French troops, in accordance with armistice terms ending the seven-year struggle between Communist Vietnamese and the French.

October 11

1939 - Albert Einstein warned President Franklin D. Roosevelt that his theories could lead to Nazi Germany's development of an atomic bomb. Einstein suggested the US develop its own bomb. This resulted in the top secret "Manhattan Project."

October 12

1492 - After a 33-day voyage, Christopher Columbus made his first landfall in the New World in the Bahamas. He named the first land sighted as El Salvador, claiming it in the name of the Spanish Crown.

1811 - Paraguay declared its independence from Spain and Argentina.

1960 - During a debate over colonialism in the United Nations, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev took off his shoe and pounded his desk repeatedly.

1999 General Pervez Musharraf dismissed the government and and became chief executive of the country. The coup was widely criticized by the international community

October 13

1884 - Greenwich was established as the universal time from which standard times throughout the world are calculated.

October 14

1933 - Nazi Germany announced its withdrawal from the League of Nations and stated it would take no further part in the Geneva Disarmament Conference.

1947 - US Air Force Captain Chuck Yeager became the first man to break the sound barrier, flying in a rocket-powered research aircraft.

1964 - Civil Rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr., became the youngest recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. He donated the $54,000 in prize money to the Civil Rights movement.

October 15

1815 - Napoleon Bonaparte arrived on the Island of St. Helena beginning a British-imposed exile following his defeat at the Battle of Waterloo.

1917 - World War I spy Mata Hari was executed by a French firing squad at Vincennes Barracks, outside Paris.

1946 - Nazi leader Hermann Goering committed suicide by swallowing poison in his Nuremberg prison cell just hours before his scheduled hanging for war crimes.

October 16

1853 - The Crimean War began after the Turkish Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia, Britain, France and portions of Italy allied with the Turks against Russia. It became the first war observed up close by newspaper reporters and photographers. One of the battles was immortalised in Tennyson's poem, The Charge of the Light Brigade. Amid poor sanitary conditions, disease killed many wounded French and British troops. British nurse Florence Nightingale then pioneered modern-style sanitation methods, saving many lives.

1964 - China detonated its first nuclear bomb at the Lop Nor test site in Sinkiang.

October 17

1777 - During the American Revolutionary War, British General John Burgoyne and his entire army of 5,700 men surrendered to American General Horatio Gates after the Battle of Saratoga, the first big American victory.

October 18

1945 - The Nuremberg War Crimes Trial began with indictments against 24 former Nazi leaders including Hermann Göring and Albert Speer. The trial lasted 10 months, with delivery of the judgment completed on October 1, 1946. Twelve Nazis were sentenced to death by hanging, three to life imprisonment, four to lesser prison terms, and three were acquitted.

October 19

1960 - The US embargo of Cuba began as the State Department prohibited shipment of all goods except medicine and food.

October 20

1935 - Mao Zedong's 6,000 mile "Long March" ended as his Communist forces arrived at Yanan, in northwest China, almost a year after fleeing Chiang Kai-shek's armies in the south.

October 21

1805 - The Battle of Trafalgar took place between the British Royal Navy and the combined French and Spanish fleets. The victorious British ended the threat of Napoleon's invasion of England. British naval hero Admiral Horatio Nelson was mortally wounded aboard his ship Victory.

1879 - Thomas Edison successfully tested an electric incandescent lamp with a carbonised filament at his laboratory in Menlo Park, New Jersey, keeping it lit for over 13 hours.

October 22

1979 - The exiled Shah of Iran arrived in the United States for medical treatment. Iranians demanded the return of the Shah for trial. The US refused. The Shah died of cancer in July of 1980.

October 23

1989 - Hungary declared itself a republic 33 years after Soviet Russian troops crushed a popular revolt against Communist rule.

October 24

1945 - The United Nations was founded.

1980 - Communist authorities in Poland granted recognition to the trade union "Solidarity".

October 25

1881 - Artist Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) was born in Malaga, Spain.

1955 - Austria reassumed its sovereignty with the departure of the last Allied forces.

October 26

1951 - Winston Churchill became Britain's prime minister for a second time.

October 27

1958 - Ayub Khan deposed Iskander Mirza and took over the control of the country in a bloodless coup.

1978 - The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded jointly to Menachem Begin of Israel and Anwar Sadat of Egypt.

October 28

1918 - The Republic of Czechoslovakia was founded, assembled from three provinces - Bohemia, Moravia, and Slovakia - which had been part of the former Austro-Hungarian empire.

1949 - Helen Anderson became the first woman ambassador, appointed by President Harry Truman to be ambassador to Denmark.

1962 - The Cuban Missile Crisis ended with the announcement by Soviet Russia's leader Nikita Khrushchev that his Soviet government was halting construction of missile bases in Cuba and would remove the offensive missiles. President Kennedy immediately accepted the offer then lifted the US naval blockade of Cuba.

1955 - Microsoft founder Bill Gates was born in Seattle, Washington. In 1975, he co-founded Microsoft with Paul Allen, designing software for IBM computers.

October 29

1618 - British explorer Sir Walter Raleigh was executed in London for treason on orders from King James I.

1897 - Nazi propaganda minister Paul Joseph Goebbels was born in Rheydt, near Dusseldorf, Germany. Considered a master propagandist, he controlled all Nazi newspapers, radio and film production. He was a virulent anti-Semite who advocated the extermination of the Jews. Devoted to Hitler until the end, he died at Hitler's Berlin bunker in 1945 after poisoning his six children.

October 30

1735 - John Adams the second US president was born in Braintree, Massachusetts. He served from March 4, 1797 to March 3, 1801. He had been George Washington's vice president, and was the father of John Quincy Adams, the sixth President.

1990 - For the first time since the Ice Age, Great Britain was connected with the European continent, via a new rail tunnel under the English Channel.

October 31

1517 - Martin Luther nailed his 95 Theses to the door of Wittenberg's palace church, denouncing the selling of papal indulgences and questioning various ecclesiastical practices. This marked the beginning of the Protestant Reformation in Germany.

1952 - The US detonated its first hydrogen bomb at the Elugelab Atoll in the Eniwetok Proving Grounds in the Pacific Marshall Islands.

1984 - Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was assassinated by three Sikh members of her bodyguard while walking in the garden of her New Delhi home.

Source: JWT
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