The Compilation of Hadith
The protection and preservation of A Hadith came about in three ways:
1. The Ummah acting upon the A Hadith.
2. Memorisation and writing.
3. Narrating and teaching A Hadith in study circles.
Using these methods the gathering, compilation, classification, formation and writing of A Hadith over time can be classified into four periods. They are:
The First Period:
This era extended from the lifetime of the Messenger of Allah (Sal-Allahu alayhe wa sallam) up until the first century Hijrah. In this period A Hadith were gathered by memorisation, teaching and compilations. The details of this are:
Famous Memorizers of Hadith
The Sahabah (Companions)
1. Abu Hurairah (Abdur-Rahman) (radi-Allahu ‘anhu) d.59H at the age of 78; he narrated 5374 A Hadith... The number of his students reaches 800
2. Abdullah Ibn Abbas (radi-Allahu ‘anhu) d.68H at the age of 71; he narrated 2660 A Hadith.
3. Aisha Siddeqa (radi-Allahu ‘anha) d.58H at the age of 67; she narrated 2210 A Hadith.
4. Abdullah Ibn Umar (radi-Allahu ‘anhu) d.73H at the age of 84; he narrated 1630 A Hadith.
5. Jabir Ibn Abdullah (radi-Allahu ‘anhu) d.78H at the age of 94; he narrated 1560 A Hadith.
6. Anas Ibn Malik (radi-Allahu ‘anhu) d.93H at the age of 103; he narrated 1286 A Hadith and
7. Abu Sa’ed al-Khudre (radi-Allahu ‘anhu) d.74H at the age of 84; he narrated 1170 A Hadith...
These Companions were amongst those who had memorised more than 1000 A Hadith...
8. Abdullah Ibn Amr Ibn al-As (radi-Allahu ‘anhu) d.63H
9. Ali Ibn Abe Talib (radi-Allahu ‘anhu) d.40H and
10. Umar Ibn al-Khattab (radi-Allahu ‘anhu) d.33H
Are amongst those Companions who narrated between 500 and 1000 A Hadith...
11. Abu Bakr as-Siddeq (radi-Allahu ‘anhu) d.13H
12. Usman Ibn Affan Dhun-Noorain (radi-Allahu ‘anhu) d.36H
13. Umm Salamah (radi-Allahu ‘anha) d.59H
14. Abu Musa al-Asha'are (radi-Allahu ‘anhu) d.52H
15. Abu Dharr al-Ghaffare (radi-Allahu ‘anhu) d.32H
16. Abu Ayub al-Ansare (radi-Allahu ‘anhu) d.51H
17. Ubay Ibn Ka’ab (radi-Allahu ‘anhu) d.19H and
18. Mu’adh Ibn Jabal (radi-Allahu ‘anhu) d.81H
Are amongst those Companions who narrated more than 100 but less than 500 A Hadith...
The Tabi’en (Successors)
And we cannot forget the major Tabi’en (Successors) who, after endless striving, gathered the treasures of the Sunnah so the Ummah of Muhammad (Sal-Allahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) could become enriched with it forever; from amongst them are:
1) Sa’ed Ibn al-Musayab
He was born in the second year of the reign of Umar (radi-Allahu ‘anhu) in Medina and died in 105H. He learnt A Hadith and its knowledge from Usman, Aisha, Abu Hurairah and Zaid Ibn Thabit (radi-Allahu ‘anhum).
2) Urwah Ibn Zubair
He was counted from amongst the great people of knowledge from Medina and he was the nephew of A’ishah (radi-Allahu ‘anha). He narrated mostly from his aunt. He had the pleasure of being the student of Abu Hurairah (radi-Allahu ‘anhu) and Zaid Ibn Thabit (radi-Allahu ‘anhu). Salih Ibn Kiysan and Imam az-Zuhre are counted from amongst his students. He died in the year 94H.
3) Salim Ibn Abdullah Ibn Umar
He was from the famous Jurists of Medina; he learnt A Hadith from his father Abdullah Ibn Umar (radi-Allahu ‘anhu) and other Companions. Naf’i, az-Zuhre and other famous Successors were from his students. He died in 106H.
He was the servant of Abdullah (radi-Allahu ‘anhu). He was his special student and the teacher of Imam Malik from Naf’i from Abdullah Ibn Umar from the Messenger of Allah (Sal-Allahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) is known amongst the scholars of Hadith as the golden chain. Naf’i died in 117H.
The Written Works of the First Period:
1. Sahifa Sadiqa
This has been attributed to Abdullah Ibn Amr al-As (d.63H at the age of 77). He had a great love for writing and making notes and whatever he heard from the Prophet Muhammad (Sal-Allahu ‘alayhe wa sallam), he would write down. He personally had permission from the Messenger of Allah (Sal-Allahu ‘alayhe wa sallam). This treatise is composed of about 1000 A Hadith... It remained secure and preserved within his family for a long time. All of it can be found in the Musnad of Imam Ahmad.
2. Sahifa Saheha
This is attributed to Humam Ibn Munabbeh (d.101H). He was from the famous students of Abu Hurairah (radi-Allahu ‘anhu); he wrote all the A Hadith from his teacher. Copies of this manuscript are available from libraries in Berlin (Germany) and Damascus (Syria); Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal has categorised all of this Sahifa in his Musnad, under Abu Hurairah (radi-Allahu ‘anhu). This treatise, after considerable effort by Dr. Hamedullah, has been printed and distributed from Hyderabad (Deccan). It contains 138 narrations. This Sahifa is a part of the A Hadith narrated from Abu Hurairah, most of its narration’s are in Bukhare and Muslim; the words of the A Hadith are extremely similar and there are no major differences between them.
3.SahifaBasher Ibn Nahek
He was the student of Abu Hurairah (radi-Allahu ‘anhu). He also gathered and wrote a treatise of A Hadith which he read to Abu Hurairah (radi-Allahu ‘anhu), before they departed, and he verified it.
4. Musnad Abu Hurairah (radi-Allahu ‘anhu)
It was written during the time of the Companions. Its copy was with the father of Umar Ibn Abdul Aziz (radi-Allahu ‘anhu), Abdul Aziz Ibn Marwan, the Governor of Misr who died in 86H. He wrote to Kather Ibn Murrah instructing him to write down all the Hadith he heard from the Companions and to send them to him. Along with this command, he told him not to send the A Hadith of Abu Hurairah as he already had them.
And the Musnad of Abu Hurairah (radi-Allahu ‘anhu) was hand-written by Ibn Taymiyah It is available in a library in Germany.
5.Sahifali (radi-Allahu ‘anhu)
We find from Imam Bukhare’s checking that this collection was quite voluminous and it had in it issues of zakat, and from the actions that were permissible or impermissible in Medina, the Khutbatul-Hajjah al-Widah and Islamic guidelines.
6. The Final Sermon of the Messenger of Allah (Sal-Allahu ‘alayhe wa sallam)
On the conquest of Makah the Messenger of Allah (Sal-Allahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) told Abu Shah Yamane (radi-Allahu ‘anhu) to write down the final sermon.
7.SahifaJabir (radi-Allahu ‘anhu)
His students, Wahb Ibn Munabbeh (d.110H) and Suleiman Ibn Qais Lashkare, collected the narrations of Jabir (radi-Allahu ‘anhu). In it they wrote down issues of Hajj and the Khutbatul-Hajjah al-Widah.
8. Narrations of Aisha Siddeqa (radi-Allahu ‘anha)
The narrations of Aisha Siddeqa were written by her student, Urwah Ibn Zubair.
9. A Hadith of Ibn Abbas (radi-Allahu ‘anhu)
There were many compilations of the A Hadith of Ibn Abbas (radi-Allahu ‘anhu). Sa’ed Ibn Jubair would compile his A Hadith..
10. The Sahifa of Anas Ibn Malik (radi-Allahu ‘anhu)
Sa’ed Ibn Hilal narrates that Anas Ibn Malik (radi-Allahu ‘anhu) would mention everything he had written by memory; whilst showing us he would say:
“I heard this narration from the Messenger of Allah (Sal-Allahu alayhe wa sallam) myself and I would write it down and repeat it to the Messenger of Allah (Sal-Allahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) so that he would affirm it.”
11. Amr Ibn Hazm (radi-Allahu ‘anhu)
When he was made the Governor and sent to Yemen he was given written instructions and guidance. Not only did he protect the guidelines but he also added commands of the Messenger of Allah (Sal-Allahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) and he made it into the form of a book.
12. Risalah of Samurah Ibn Jundub (radi-Allahu ‘anhu)
This was given to his son in the form of a will; this was a great treasure.
13. Sa’ad Ibn Ubadah (radi-Allahu ‘anhu)
He knew how to read and write from the time of Jahiliyah.
14. Maktoob Naf’i (radi-Allahu ‘anhu)
Suleiman Ibn Musa narrates that Abdullah Ibn Umar (radi-Allahu ‘anhu) would dictate and Naf’i would write.
15. Ma’an narrates that Abdur-Rahman Ibn Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood took out a book and whilst raising the cover he would say: ‘My father wrote this.’
If the research were to continue the number of examples and occurrences would be too great. During this time the Companions (radi-Allahu ‘anhum) and the major Successors concentrated on using their memories to write. During the second period the gathering of A Hadith started.
The Second Period:
The second period started from about half of the second century Hijrah. During this time a major group of the Successors compiled earlier works in to the form of books.
Compilers of Hadith
1. Muhammad Ibn Shihab az-Zuhre (d.124H)
He is considered from amongst the greatest Scholars of Hadith of his time. He acquired knowledge from great people amongst the Companions (radi-Allahu ‘anhum ajma’en):
• Abdullah Ibn Umar (radi-Allahu ‘anhu)
• Anas Ibn Malik (radi-Allahu ‘anhu) and
• Sahl Ibn Sa’ad (radi-Allahu ‘anhu)
And from the Tabi’en:
• Sa’ed Ibn al-Mussayab and
• Mahmood Ibn Rabe’ah
From amongst his students are:
• Imam al-Awza’e (d.167H)
• Imam Malik (d.179H) and
• Sufyan Ibn Uyainah (d.168H)
His students are from amongst the greatest Imams of Hadith. During the year 101H. he was instructed by Umar Ibn Abdul Aziz to gather and compile Hadith. Apart from this Umar Ibn Abdul Aziz gave guidance to the Governor of Medina, Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Amr Ibn Hazm, to write all the A Hadith which Umrah bint Abdur Rahman and Qasim Ibn Muhammad had. Umrah was from the main students of A’ishah (radi-Allahu ‘anha) and Qasim Ibn Muhammad her brother. A’ishah (radi-Allahu ‘anha) looked after and educated him. When Umar Ibn Abdul Aziz commanded all the responsible people within the Islamic state to gather A Hadith., it resulted in books. When they reached the capital Damascus, copies were sent to every corner (i.e. every corner of the Muslim lands). After Imam az-Zuhre started collecting A Hadith., other people of knowledge of his time joined him. The major ones from amongst them include:
2. Abdul Malik Ibn Juraij (d.150H) in Makkah
3. Imam al-Awza’e (d.157H) in Sham (Syria)
4. Mu’ammar Ibn Rashid (d.153H) in Yemen
5. Imam Sufyan ath-Thawre (d.161H) in Kufah
6. Imam Hamad Ibn Salamah (d.167H) in Basra
7. Abdullah Ibn al-Mubarak (d.181H) in Khurasan and
8. Malik Ibn Anas (b.93H / d.179H)
Imam Malik had the position of teaching Hadith in Medina after Imam az- Zuhre; he gained knowledge from Imam az-Zuhre, Imam Naf’i and other great people of knowledge. The number of his teachers reaches 900 and his teachings spread to Hijaz, Sham, Iraq, Palestine, Misr, Africa and Andalus. From amongst his students are:
• Laith Ibn Sa’ad (d.175H)
• Abdullah Ibn al-Mubarak (d.181H)
• Imam ash-Shafi’e (d.204H) and
• Imam Muhammad Ibn Hasan ash-Shaybane (d.189H)
The Written Works of the Second Period
Other Works of the Second Period
1. Muwatta Imam Malik
During this time a number of books of Hadith were compiled; Muwatta had a status in this period. It was written between 130H and 141H. It has approximately 1720 A Hadith from which:
• 600 are marfoo (raised to the Prophet sal-Allahu ‘alayhe wa sallam)
• 222 are mursal (omission of the Companion)
• 617 are mawqoof (to a Successor only)
• 275 are the sayings of Successors.
Other Books Compiled during this Time
2. Jami Sufyan ath-Thawre (d.161H)
3. Jami Abdullah Ibn al-Mubarak (d.181H)
4. Jami Imam al-Awza’e (d.157H)
5. Jami Ibn Juraij (d.150H)
6. Kitab al-Akhraj of Qadhi Abu Yusuf (d.182H)
7. Kitab al-Athar of Imam Muhammad (d.189H)
During this time the A Hadith of the Messenger of Allah (sal-Allahu ‘alayhe wa sallam), athar of the Companions and verdicts of the Successors were gathered, accompanied with explanations that a particular statement was of a Companion or a Successor or a Hadith of the Messenger of Allah (sal- Allahu ‘alayhe wa sallam).
The Third Period:
This period extended from about half of the second century Hijrah to the end of the fourth century Hijrah.
Specificity of this Period
1. Prophetic A Hadith., athar of the Companions and statements of the Successors were categorised and a distinction made between them.
2. Narration’s that were accepted were gathered separately and the books of the second century were checked and authenticated.
3. During this period not only were the narrations gathered but to preserve A Hadith., the scholars formulated sciences, (more than 10023) on which thousands of books have been written.
Uloom al-Hadith (The Sciences of Hadith)
1. Asma ar-Rijal
In this science the condition, births, deaths, teachers and students of narrators were gathered in detail and from these details judgments on the position of the narrators, as to whether they were truthful, trustworthy or unreliable, were made. This science is very interesting; details of over 500,000 narrators have been collated. In this science many books have been written. Some of them are:
Tahdheb al-Kamil of Imam Yusuf Muze (d.742H), one of the most important books in this field.
Tahdheb at-Tahdheb of Hafidh Ibn Hajr who also authored the famous explanation of Bukhare in 12 volumes by the name of Fath ul-Bare Sharh Saheh al-Bukhare.
Tadhkirratul-Huffadh of ‘Allama Dhahabe (d.748H)
2. Ilm Masatalah al-Hadith (Usool of Hadith)
In the light of this knowledge the standard and rules of A Hadith., their authenticity and weakness were established. The famous books in this field are:
Uloom al-Hadith al-Ma’aroof Muqqadimah of Ibn as-Salah by Abu Amar Usman Ibn as-Salah (d.557H).
Later books include:
Tawjeh an-Nadhar of ‘Allama Tahir Ibn Salih al-Jaza’ire (d.1338H) Qawaid at-Tahdeth of ‘Allama Sayid Jamal-ud-Deen Qasime (d.1332H)
3. Ilm Ghareb al-Hadith
In this knowledge the meaning of difficult words (in Arabic) have been investigated and researched.
al-Faiq of Zamakshare (d.538H)
an-Nihayah of al-Ma’aroof Ibn Ather (d.606H)
4. Ilm Takhrej al-Hadith
From this knowledge we find where a particular Hadith pertaining to a particular science can be found from the well known books of tafser (Exegesis of the Qur’an), belief and jurisprudence. For example:
al-Hidayah of Burhan-ud-Deen Ali Ibn Abe Bakr al-Margi’ane (d.592H)
Ihya Uloom ud Deen of Abu Hamid Gazzali (d.505H)
Both of these books have many narrations without isnads (chains) or references. If someone wanted to find the grading of A Hadith in them or their reference in a well known book of Hadith, then the first books to mention would be:
Hafidh Zaila’e’s (d.792H) book Nasb ur-Rayah
Hafidh Ibn Hajr al-Asqalane’s (d.852H) book ad-Dirayah and Hafidh Zayn-ud-Deen A’raqi’s (d.806H) work al-Mugne an Haml al- Asfar.
5. Ilm al-Hadith al-Mawdoo’ah
In this science the people of knowledge have written books in which they separated the mawdoo (fabricated, forged) narration’s from the authentic ones. And from amongst the better known books are:
Qadhi ash-Shawkane’s (d.1255H) book Fawa’id al-Majmoo’ah.
Jalal-ud-Deen as-Suyoote’s (d.911H) book Ila Ala al-Masnoo’ah.
6. Ilm Naskh wal-Mansookh
In this science one of the most famous works is that of Muhammad Ibn Musa Hazame (d.784H at the age of 35) called Kitab al-E’tibar.
7. Ilm at-Tawfeq Bayn al-Hadith
In this science the authentic (saheh) A Hadith that seem to contradict each other have been explained and resolved.
Imam ash-Shafi’e (d.204H) first talked about this subject in his Risalah famously known as Mukhtalif al-Hadith.
Imam at-Tahawe’s (d.321H) work, Mushkil al-Athar, is also beneficial.
8. Ilm Mukhtalif wal-Ma’atalaf
This science mentions the names of narrators, their kunyah’s, titles, parents, fathers or teachers, whose names may have shown similarities and due to this a person may have made a mistake:
Ibn Hajr’s (d.852H) book, Ta’ber al-Munabbah, is a great example of this.
9. Ilm Atraf al-Hadith
This science helps to find a narration, the book of Hadith it may be found in and its narrators. For example the first part of the Hadith:
“Actions are but by intentions…”
If you wanted to find all the words of a narration and its narrators then one would need to refer to this science and the detailed books authored in it.
Kitab Tuhfa al-Ashraf of Hafidh Muzane (d.742H). It has a list of all the A Hadith in the six books. Muzane spent 26 years on this work, which involved categorization, and after a great effort the books was completed.
10. Fiqh al -Hadith
In this science all the authentic A Hadith related to rulings and commands were compiled. On this topic books that one may benefit from are:
A’lam al-Muwaqqi’en of Shaykh-ul-Islam Ibn al-Qayim al-Jawziyah (d.751H)
Hujjatullah al-Baligha of Shah Waliullah (d.1176H)
Apart from these books, many others have been written concerning other subjects and topics, such as on the issue of wealth:
Abu Ubaid Qasim Ibn Salam’s book (d.224H) Kitab al-Amwal is famous.
Qadhi Abu Yusuf's (d.182H) book Kitab al-Akhraj.
And for those people who reject A Hadith then they are a target of incorrect understanding and for them these books can be beneficial, if consulted:
Kitab al-Umm of Imam ash-Shafi’e (d.204H), volume 7
Ar-Risalah of Imam ash-Shafi’e (d.204H)
Al-Muwaffiqat of Imam Abul Ishaq ash-Shatibe (d.790H), volume 4
Sawa’iq al-Mursalah of Ibn al-Qayim al-Jawziyah (d.751H), volume 2 and
Al-Ahkam of Ibn Hazm al-Andaluse (d.456H)
And in Urdu:
Muqqadimah Tarjaman as-Sunnah of Maulana Badr Alam Merthy and Ithbat al-Khabr of my father Maulana Abdus-Sattar Hasan Amrpoore (d.1916/1324H at the age of 34).
In the history of the knowledge of Hadith these books have a status:
Muqadimah Fathul-Bari of Ibn Hajr al-Asqalane (d.852H)
Jami Bayan al-Ilm of Hafidh Ibn Abdul Barr al-Andaluse (d.463H)
Ma’arifah Uloom al-Hadith of Imam Hakim (d.405H) and
Muqadimah Tuhfatul Ahwadhe Sharh Sunan at-Tirmidhe of Abdur- Rahman Muhaddith Mubarakpuri (d.1353H/1935) and in our time this book, in terms of its comprehensiveness and content, is indispensable.
Compilers Of Hadith In The Third Period
1. Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (b.164H d.241H)
His most important work is Musnad Ahmad; it is the composition of 30,000 A Hadith in 24 volumes. Most of the narrations fall into this book. Rather than categorizing the A Hadith by subject, Imam Ahmad categorized them according to the narrations of certain Companions, under their names, and that which they narrated. Egypt’s famous scholar and Muhaddith, Muhammad Ahmad Shakir, has undertaken the task of categorizing the A Hadith into subjects and has so far published 15 parts; he is still working on it.
2. Imam Muhammad Ibn Isma’el Bukhare (b.194H d.246H)
Saheh al-Bukhare is the most important work of Imam Bukhare. Its full name is “Al-Jami’ as-Saheh al-Musnad al-Mukhtasar man Amoor Rasoolullah sal- Allahu ‘alayhe wa Alihi wa sallam wa Ayameh”; he spent 16 years compiling it. The number of students who read as-Saheh with him number 90,000. Sometimes the number in one gathering would reach 30,000. Imam Bukhare’s standard of checking Hadith was the most stringent of any of the other scholars of Hadith.
3. Imam Muslim Ibn Hajaj al-Qushaire (b.202H d.261H)
Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal and Imam Bukhare are from amongst his teachers. Imam’s at-Tirmidhe, Abu Hatim ar-Raze and Abu Bakr Ibn Khuzaimah are from amongst his students. His book is rated highly in categorization.
4. Abu Dawood Isha’at Ibn Sulaiman as-Sijastane (b.204H d.275H)
His important book is famous by the name of Sunan Abu Dawood. It is compromised mainly of narrations concerning ahkam (rulings) and a compendium of fiqh issues concerning laws. It is composed of 4,800 A Hadith..
5. Imam Abu Esa at-Tirmidhe (b.209H d.279H)
His book Jami Tirmidhe mentions issues of fiqh with detailed explanations. Imam Ahmad Ibn Shu’ayb an-Nasa’e (d.303H) His book is named Sunan al-Mujtabah. His other book is as-Sunan al-Kubra, of which some parts have printed in Bombay by Maulana Abdus-Samad al-Katibe.
7. Imam Muhammad Ibn Yazed Ibn Majah al-Qazdi’ane (d.273H)
His book is famous by the name Sunan Ibn Majah.
Apart from these, more books have been compiled and published. Bukhare, Muslim and Tirmidhe are called Jami, i.e. they contain A Hadith on A’qaid, Worship, Manners, Information and other issues. Abu Dawood, an-Nasa’e and Ibn Majah are called Sunan i.e. they contain A Hadith pertaining to life.
Tabaqat of Books of Hadith
1. On the basis and in terms of Hadith and the reliability of its narrations, Muwatta Imam Malik, Saheh al-Bukhare and Saheh Muslim have a high ranking position.
2. Abu Dawood, at-Tirmidhe and an-Nasa’e. The reliability of narrators in these books does not reach the level of the first category but they are considered and confided in. This category also contains Musnad Ahmad.
3. Ad-Darime (d.225H), Ibn Majah, Baihaqe, Daraqutne (d.385H), the books of at-Tabarane (d.360H), writings of at-Tahawe (d.321H), Musnad Imam ash-Shafi’e and Mustadarak Hakim (d.405H). These books contain all types of Hadith, authentic and weak.
4. Writings of Ibn Jarer at-Tabare (d.310H), the books of Khateb al-Baghdade (d.463H), Abu Nu’aym (d.403H), Ibn Asakir (d.571H), ad-Daylame (d.509H) the author of Firdaus, Kamil of Ibn Adiy (d.365H), the writings of Ibn Maroodiyah (d.410H), Waqide (d.207H) and books by other authors are in this category.
These books are compilations and may contain many fabrications; if they are analyzed a lot of treasures can be gained.
The Fourth Period:
This period extends from the start of the fifth century up until today. The works done in this time are:
1. Explanations, footnotes and translations of important books of Hadith into other languages.
2. More books on the sciences that have been mentioned and explanations and summaries of them.
3. The people of knowledge, due to their keenness and necessity for them, compiled books of Hadith taken from those books written or compiled in the 3rd Century. From them are:
Mishkat al-Masabeh of Wali-ud-Deen Khateb
In it are narrations compiled on creed, worship, dealings/transactions and manners.
Riyadh us-Salihen of Imam Abu Zakariyah Yahiya Ibn Sharf an- Nawawe (d.676H), the explainer of Saheh Muslim. This has Hadith compiled on akhlaq and adab in general. And according to each subject the start of each chapter is began by a using corresponding verse from the Qur’an. This is an important feature of this book and this is also the manner in which Saheh al-Bukhare was compiled.
Muntaqa al-Akhbar of the Mujaddid of the Deen Abul Barakat Abdus- Salam Ibn Taymiyah (d.652H). He was the grandfather of Shaykh- ul-Islam Taqe-ud-Deen Ahmad Ibn Taymiyah (d.728H). Qadhi ash-Shawkane authored an explanation of this book, in 8 volumes, called Nayl al-Awtar.
Buloogh al-Maram of Ibn Hajr al-Asqalane (d.852H), the explainer of Bukhare. It is composed mainly of Hadith pertaining to worship and transactions. An explanation of it was done by Muhammad Isma’el Sana’ane (d.1182H) called Subl as-Salam Sharh Buloogh al-Maram and another by the name of Masak al-Khatam Sharh Buloogh al-Maram, in Farse (Persian), by Shaykh Nawab Siddeque Hasan Khan al-Bhopali (d.1307H). It has been translated into Urdu. Shaykh Abdul Haqq Muhaddith Dehlawe Ibn Saif Turki (d.1052H) spread the teachings of Hadith in India. After him it was spread by Shah Waliullah Dehlawe (d.1176H) and by his offspring and students. After this translation started explanations, printing and distribution and this is continuous up until today and this treatise is also part of this effort.