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Old Tuesday, September 01, 2020
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Post Attempting questions from past papers of Pakistan Affairs

Hello everyone,not sure if there's already a discussion available on sharing the attempted questions from past papers of Pakistan Affairs. Therefore i have started a new one.

Other aspirants also can attempt questions and share, so that everyone can share their opinion.

I have attempted question from question paper of Pakistan Affairs 2020, please let me know your feedback, it will help a lot to know what improvements are required.

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Old Tuesday, September 01, 2020
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Default Question from Pakistan Affairs 2020

What are the major provisions of Simla Agreement (1972) between Pakistan and India? How it was helpful for establishment of durable peace in the region?


The dissolution of British from India led the foundation of two sovereign states namely Union of India and Dominion of Pakistan. Independence of newly states did not end with peace in the region because of ill-organized decisions made under RadCliffe Award. It resulted contention over the territory of Kashmir. The skrimishes between two states continued, sometimes, in the form of water dispute, cross-border insurgency and undeclared wars between two - Pakistan and India. Following the rebellion in the East Pakistan and political instability in West Pakistan paved way for Indian military intervention and concluded with fall of Dhaka in December, 1971. Hence, it created a dire need for a peace treaty between Pakistan and India to maintain bilateral relations and respect sovereignty of each other. Efforts of external ministries of both countries shaped the treaty named as Simla Agreement.

Major Provisions of Simla Agreement

Simla Agreement is also known as peace treaty. It was signed by the President of Pakistan Zulfiquar Ali Bhutto and Indian Prime Minister Indra Gandhi to ensure peace in the region by withdrawing forces on borders from both sides. Below are some major provisions of Simla Agreement.

(i) Resolving the conflicts with peace talks
One of key component of the treaty was to eliminate the arms confrontation and dissent with each other. Bringing up the conflicts over table and resolving them with bilateral peace deals

(ii) Respect of Sovereignty
Through this treaty, it was a sign of showing respect to territorial sovereignty, political relations and avoiding any kind of interference in internal matters of the state

(iii) Ensurance for improvement of bilateral relations
To ensure strong ties between two - Pakistan and India, it was decided to held communication through telephone conversations and other sources. Also such activities will be brought between countries which could bring both nations closer to each other.

(iv) Frequent visits of Head of states
To maintain mutual understanding and resolving the rifts, frequent meetings were decided to ensure productivity of peace talks and agreements

(v) Decision of Kashmir Conflict
It was decided by both parties that Kashmir conflict will be observed as a bilateral issue so there wouldn't be need of bringing any third party international organization like United Nations

Significance of Simla Agreement for maintaining durable peace in the region

(i) Putting an End to Long Standing Arms Conflicts
Simla Agreement has played a vital role in the political history of Pakistan and India. Partition of India didn't end with peace and bright tomorrow of both countries. Soon after partition, both countries fell into series of conflicts with each other including Kashmir conflict 1947-49, water dispute 1948, War of 1965, War of 1971, until peace treaty in the form of Simla Agreement came into existence.

(ii) Interest for Mutual Cooperation
Deals discussed under this treaty shows that there is deep interest present on both sides for cooperation with each other as much as possible. Hence, series of such meetings can result in a very effective manner.

(iii) Simla Agreement as Pioneer to Future Summits
Simla Agreement has proved as a gateway to future summits such as Lahore Summit 1999 and Agra Summit 2001. However, these meetings didn't prove much fruitful due to Kargil and Siachen border issues but apart from these conflicts if there are number of summits, conferences and meetings are held then surely, there can be seen much improvements in the relations as compared to dark history of past relations.

(iv) Withdraw of Armies from Borders
It was a great achievement of Simla Agreement in which it was decided by leaders of both countries to resist border insurgency and peacefully removing the armies from both sides of borders

(v) Peace Agreements over Kashmir Issue
Kashmir issue has been the integral part of conflict between Pakistan and India, it was notable point of the agreement that for the first time in history, both countries were ready to bring the Kashmir Issue on the table and discuss over it without bringing interference of external source.

(vi) Devastation of Simla Agreement
There are non-removable imprints of Simla Agreement in history of Pakistan and India relations. It also could be proved as a long lasting bond between relation of these two countries if Operation Meghboot was not made by Indian Army followed by Kargil conflict of 1989 and Kargil War 1999.

Criticism on Simla Agreement

(i) Criticism over Removing the Forces from Border
As both leaders agreed to withdraw armies from borders, it was criticized that this decision is only based on Head-to-Head of the state, there is no any involvement in favor of this decision from government or public of any side. It was considered that by removing the forces, cease fire is being converted into Line of Control and both leaders are considering it International Border. Hence, it is violation of Karachi Agreement 1949 resolution laid by United Nations Military Observer in India and Pakistan.

(ii) Criticism Over Kashmir Dispute
It was discussed in the Agreement that all issues and Kashmir conflict will be resolved by bilateral talks of both countries as all concerns belong to us. Hence there is no need of any external force. However, whenever there is a point related to Kashmir then that is taken to under eyes of United Nations.


Simla Agreement has left remarkable imprints on relations of India and Pakistan. There is dire need of series of conferences, summits and agreements like Simla Agreement which can extinguish contentions in the region. As per current scenario, it seems typical to have fruitful agreements because of certain recent events such as Attack on Indian Parliament, Mumbai Attacks, presence of Raw Agents in Pakistan like Kulbushan Yadev, Pathankot attack 2016, Pulwama attack 2019, strike attacks of 2019 and recently more fuel added to fire by action of Indian government through revoking special status of Kashmir. Last but not least, international organizations can play key role for betterment of Pak-India relations. Lastly, forthcoming governments from any side also can come up with brave moves which can resolve all conflicts in a blink
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Old Thursday, November 05, 2020
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Default Another question from CSS Pakistan Affairs 2020

Someone senior, please evaluate my topics so that I can improve my writing skills

China, Pakistan-Russia cooperation will find suitable support mechanism in Shanghai Cooperation Organization. Elaborate

What is Shanghai Cooperation Organization?
Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) is a Eurasian political, economic and military organization and world's largest organization in terms of land mass covering 80 percent Eurasia and in population covering third-fifth population of the world. This organization was formed in 1996 by signing Treaty on Deepening Military Trust on Borders by the leaders of China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan as Shanghai Five. It was renamed as Shanghai Cooperation after inclusion of Uzbekistan in 2001. SCO has 8 members including Pakistan and India in 2015. IT has Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure (RATS) as its permanent organ having headquarters in Uzbekistan targeting three evils terrorism, extremism and separatism.
SCO is so far maintaining regional peace and security, and increasing cooperation among member states. It is also succeeded in maintaining diplomatic relations with other organization such as United Nations, Commonwealth of Independent States and European Union. The organization has also attracted others countries that are showing interest to join SCO as full members. These states include Afghanistan, Iran, Mongolia, United States, Belarus, Turkey and so on. The driving force for the development of this organization is that the founding members of SCO have failed to implement liberal democracy in their states.

How China, Pakistan-Russia will find suitable support mechanism in SCO?

SCO will serve for Pakistan as negotiating platform to resolve regional conflicts with India
Twin independent states Union of India and Dominion of Pakistan have celebrated 73 years of independence but both enjoy chilling childish behavior for addressing their issues in which they have fought three wars so far. Under the umbrella of SCO, they can learn from other members states such as China and Russia who share more than 3000 kilo meters long border and have succeeded to curtail down their border skirmishes through peace and cooperation. Pakistan and India blame each other for spreading cross-border terrorism. Members of SCO are excited and hope that both countries will pay due attention to primary motive of SCO which is to deepen military trust on borders and reduction of military on borders.

SCO can play a vital role for resolving Pakistan and India's Kashmir issue so called an unfinished agenda
Kashmir has become hotspot for contention between India and Pakistan. There is dire need of such platform which can bring both countries onto a negotiating table, so that both countries can come to an agreement and resolve Kashmir issue throughout bilateral talks.

SCO can boost trade in the region
Member countries of SCO are world leading economies. Every country is striving for better economy specially through trade. SCO can be used as a major component to boost trade among member states as well as other countries by peace and cooperation.

Border escalations between China and India
SCO can work as a mediate between India and China to resolve their escalations over border.

China seeking cooperation over South China Sea Dispute
China is having conflicts over South China Sea with ASEAN countries backed by USA. SCO can play an immense role for backing China and have win-win situation over sea territories and islands.

China Encroachment Policy
China is emerging as world's largest economic power. The west is trying to counter China's economic influence by different strategies. Alliance is created alongside the China to reduce its growth. Hence, SCO is very essential key player for China to maintain and stand up with same position and keep same pace of economic growth.

China-US trade war
Since Trump administration, US is trying to curtail China's economic power by introducing heaving tariffs on Chinese import in the country. So far, US has imposed 25 percent tariffs on more than 375 billion dollars worth Chinese imports, while China has retaliated by imposing tariffs on 110 billion dollars US goods. During this trade war era, companies are looking for other alternatives than the US and China. SCO can play a major role for China to maintain its economy by replacing US as trade partner with member states of SCO.

Russia looking for new trade partners
US is reducing China's rise by China encroachment policy. Therefore, US is trying to attract neighbor states of China by providing some affectionate deals, India is one of them. Hence, it feels betrayal to Russia because Russia was one of major exporter to India. SCO can help Russia to increase trade with its member states and find new trading partners in South Asia.

SCO a lifeline to Russia and Pakistan relations
Soviet Union invasion in Afghanistan during 1979-89 has played major role in drawing shape of Russia and Pakistan relations. Both have remained in silent confrontation. While both have learnt from their past mistakes. Both countries are excited to warm welcome their relations. Under the shadow of SCO, both parties can engage themselves in major energy projects. Currently, both countries are working on North-South LNG project from Lahore-Karachi worth of 2.5 billion dollars and other project CASA-1000 in which Russia is investing 500 million dollars in Pakistan for electricity supply from Uzbekistan to Pakistan.

Pakistan as a gateway to Middle East for SCO countries
While Pakistan has remained a security state but its geographic location also has played immense role for shaping its foreign policy. Specially its Gwadar deep sea port which lies in the mouth of gulf states. Eurasian countries are forthcoming and world's emerging economies. Pakistan can gain benefit by providing them gateway to Middle East countries. It will increase economy for both Pakistan and SCO member states using Gwadar Port.

China-Pakistan Economic Corridor a flagship project
The most discussed and debated topic and multi-billion, and multi-purpose project having initial worth of 46 billion dollars is being initiated by collaboration of Pakistan and China. It is part of China's Belt and Road Initiative. CPEC is a very crucial project which can become a driving force for major Middle East, South Asian and Eurasian countries to reply their foreign policies on. CPEC itself can be considered as a economy generator. It can also strengthen the ties between member states of SCO. CPEC has capability to eliminate external aggression. Whole world is silently and closely monitoring its progress. Hence, it can be rightly said that SCO member states such as Pakistan, China and Russia can find suitable support mechanism through this flagship project named as China-Pakistan Economic Corridor.
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Share more such threads.... جزاک اللہ
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