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Old Tuesday, March 06, 2012
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Default I have completed Pak Aff/but really have not been completed? Why

Salam.....
Please respected membors of Forum help me out..... I have been suffring from Pakistan affairs for last 6 months owing to uncompletation so far....I have been sutudying Rabani's book from bigining to ZA Bhutto ..... (age bi parhna he kaha tak ye book parhun it is really toooooooooo leanthy...) please tell me what to do ........? how to complete Pak Affairs....I have made my own short bullit nots from this book from begining to 1947+ constitutions.... further should i complete this book?? What to do ?
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Originally Posted by ssara View Post
Salam.....
Please respected membors of Forum help me out..... I have been suffring from Pakistan affairs for last 6 months owing to uncompletation so far....I have been sutudying Rabani's book from bigining to ZA Bhutto ..... (age bi parhna he kaha tak ye book parhun it is really toooooooooo leanthy...) please tell me what to do ........? how to complete Pak Affairs....I have made my own short bullit nots from this book from begining to 1947+ constitutions.... further should i complete this book?? What to do ?
As Camran has also suggested. you should consult past 10-12 years papers. Make a list of repeated questions and check from how many angles a questions has asked. Then you have to prepare those 15-20 topics.
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Originally Posted by ssara View Post
Salam.....
Please respected membors of Forum help me out..... I have been suffring from Pakistan affairs for last 6 months owing to uncompletation so far....I have been sutudying Rabani's book from bigining to ZA Bhutto ..... (age bi parhna he kaha tak ye book parhun it is really toooooooooo leanthy...) please tell me what to do ........? how to complete Pak Affairs....I have made my own short bullit nots from this book from begining to 1947+ constitutions.... further should i complete this book?? What to do ?
Sara i have also undergone with this process and completed that book...but i can make your work easy.
do contact me on my email address.
*******@gmail.com
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Originally Posted by ssara View Post
Salam.....
Please respected membors of Forum help me out..... I have been suffring from Pakistan affairs for last 6 months owing to uncompletation so far....I have been sutudying Rabani's book from bigining to ZA Bhutto ..... (age bi parhna he kaha tak ye book parhun it is really toooooooooo leanthy...) please tell me what to do ........? how to complete Pak Affairs....I have made my own short bullit nots from this book from begining to 1947+ constitutions.... further should i complete this book?? What to do ?

Few suggestion for your guidance hope you'll not mind..
First of try to improve your spelling...
It would be better to write incomplete instead of Uncomplete as it seams a bit more natural.
Uncomletation....? incompletion is right word

As far as paper is concerned, it has 3 phases:
1. Pre Partition (Till 1947) including some reformist movements
2. Post Partition (1999-2000)
3. Current era
Its good to focus on pre-partitiion and Current era. By doing this you can attempt 3 or sometimes 4 question. just have thorough and selective study of post partition. In this way you can manage the paper well.
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Don't start with Rabbani's book, the best book to start with is " Trek to Pakistan".
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Default My preparation strategy!!!!!! Wright or Wrong dont know?

Well.....!
I dont mind if you take out my mistake from my grammar, spelling, composition..etc... instead i would thatful to you.....

As far as i am suggested to start with pak affair tehrek pak or whatever u have suggested me. But, I have almost completed my Pak Affair.
as far as i post my short bullet notes please comment these that am i going right way or not......

I have nearly completed Rabani's book from its beginning till Ziaul Haq ....... and have attempted 2011 to 2005 past papers.... now what to do?? and one thing more is i want to know that how to remeber the events as Pak affair is too leanthy subject...... what kind of study do have in order to grip the subject how to remember the events or only is that way to do attempt past paper ........and my strategy is given bellow regarding preparation......

01.first i study any urdu book (B.A/M.A) in order to understand the subject
02.After i use to read its recommended book like Rbani (Pak Aff)
03.From Rabani i make my own outline......
04.After completing the subject.... (whole subj, I take out the past paper and do attempt according to my outline which i have made from rabani books)
05.After completing the pak affair i do repeat my two or three topics in a week in order to grip the topic from my outline instead of attempting again past paper..........


It is my preparation strategy............(Am i going wrong or wright)
i also post my short notes which i have made in order to grip the subject that notes are very short in form of key words etc.......

CRONOLOGICAL EXCLUSIVE OUTLINES
01.EXPENSION OF ISLAM IN THE /EVOLUTION OF MUSLIM NATIONALISTM
(BEFORE ISLAM-PROPHET-712-1206-1526-1857-1947)

02.DEVOLUTION/DOWNFALL OF MUSLIM RULE IN THE SUB-CONTINENT
(CAUESES=Inefficient Succ of Aurangzeb/Weak govt/No Rule 4 Succ/Lack of Resources/Din-e-Illahi/Foreign Invasion/Internal Conspiracies/Spirit of Jihad/Disloyality/Extention of Empire/British Consolidation).

03.WAR OF INDEPENDENCE (1857)
The muslim of the Sub-continent fought a war of Independence in 1857 to overthrow the British Raj.However, this war could not succeed because it lacked competent leadership, coordination troops , military and financial resources and modern weapons. After the war, the British held the muslim responsible for this catastrophe and unleashed a wave of oppression and repression on them.



REFORMATION/REVIVAL/GLORIFICATION/RENAISSANCE MOVEMENTS

01. SHEIKH AHMED SIRHINDI (1564-1624) 17th Cent
(mystic/17th/CONDITION+R=Miracles/Din-eillahi1581+Bhagti Mov:/+S=amalgation of religion/Heavy taxes/+P=Tax/RIVIVAL EFF=Wahdatul Shahud/Imprisoned by Jahangir/released/Spread the teaching of islam/C=succed spirit).

02. SHAH WALLIULLAH (1703-1762) 18th Cent
(mystic/18th/Rrahimya/CONDITION+R=Inefficient Succ of Aurangzeb/fond of luxureous life-dance/allocation of lands to marhathas/REVIVAL EFF+R=Q:Trans in P/establishment-Mad: Rahimya/Unity among Scholors-shia+suni/P=Rectification of Insufficient rulers from alloting lands(jagirs)to Marhathas/letter to Ahmed Shah Abdali/TNT/Eco Reformation/C=Socio-Eco-Rel-Pol Vision/>son Shah Ab:Aziz>Hai>Sayed Aahmed Shaheed).

03. SAYED AHMED SHAHEED BARELVE/JEHADI MOVEMENT (1786-1831) 19th Cent
(mystic/19th/struggle against foreigh & non-muslim/disciple of Shah Ab: Azeez/was a sawar of Nawab Amir fromwhere he learnt military tactics/CONDITION=anti-islamic pr:/Sikh regime in punjab{ranjit singh}+Pakhtunkhwa/adhan forbidden/?was he founder of Whabism=acc..to, was discplie of Ab:Wahab but his sufism rejects Wahabism/Jihadi Mov?4 schools of thougt was sufi founder of jihadi mov/REVIVAL=Jehadi Mov's services=Purify the Muslm society against sikhs/from arabia/followers/ranjeet singh didn't surrender/war with sikh/Peshawar captured in 1830/+Enforcement of Shariat/decleared as Khalifa+after enforced shairat 1831 left peshawar/promise to pay fixed amont the Mujahidins to Sultan M.K/Battle of Balakot=Brtish's propaganda(conspiracty) consequently was shaheed in 1931 at balakot/CAUSES OF FAILURE=no cooperation/lack of fund/sectarian propaganda/Critical Analysis="The mov: led by Brelvi is the precusor of the later Muslim National Mov: in Indo-Pak./C=lacked the leadership for the time being later on carriod his misson on by other prominent leaders.


04. HAJI SHARIATULLAH/FARAIZI MOVEMENT (1768-1840) 19th Cent
(Mystic/Bengal-farmer/Founder of Faraizi mov:1st Half of the 19th Cent Mov/CONDITION+BENGAL=Socio-Pol-Rel peaople was threateng by Hindu Zamindars/British regime/bread cases to Innocent people/FARAIZI MOV AIM=Fullfiling the Basic Faraiz of Islam/REVIVAL EFF+Against Hindu Zamindars' Unfair Taxes & British of Bengal/Forbade Tazia & Dancing in Weddings/Replacement of Peeri Muridi with Ustad Shagirdi/Declaration of Darul Harb(Non Muslims' Country/ordered non-observance of Friday & Eid Day)C=>His Son Dadhu Mian).

05. DADHU MIAN /FARAIZI MOVEMENT(1819-1860) 19th Cent
(After his Father-Haji Shariatullah in 1840 he carriod on his mission Dadhu-M.Mohsin/was not well edu but active in Pol/REVIVAL EFF+HIS POL ORG=Divide Bengal in diff: circle for administration & Appointed Khalifa to get updated/against Unfair Taxes/Land Belong to God & no 1 have auth: to get tax/asked followers to give only revenue tax/His popularity alarmed to British Govt/ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE=Punishment to who pay the tax to govt: without consulting him/conspiracy was wade & died in 1862)

06. TITU MIR (1782-1831) 19th Cent
(outstandint leader of Bengal/Masir/though did not join Haji Shariatullah but aim was same/Inspired from Sayed A.Shaheed/CONDITION=Hindu Zamindars(Kali parsana & RaiKrishna imposted unfair taxes on Muslims+British regime in Bengal/REVIVAL=War against the Hindu Zamindars & defeated the Rai Krishna/became famous/alaramed of British regime/in 1831 His War with British forces but was shaheed+bambooz was razed/CAUSES OF FAILURE=Lack of Military/British advanced tech of warfare/improper training/sudden Titu's death so follwers had become demotivated/C=His inspiration on Followers who carried on his mission)


07. SIR SYED AHMED KHAN+DEOBAND(1771-1898)
.................................................. .................................................. .................................................. ....................


MUSLIM POLITICAL STRUGGLE(1861-
LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL ACT OF 1861
(1st Constitution of British govt: was made during Queen Victory by Sir Sayed's advice)

NATIONAL CONGRESS 1885
(Formed by Allan Octavian Hume-a retired Civil Servent)

INDIAN COUNICL ACT 1892
(After forming the Congress the Hindus demanded the reformation of constitution & gave two points but were criticised By Sir Syed Ahmed Khan & rejected by British Govt: However, in 1892 British govt: introduce an other act)

HINDI-URDU CONTROVERSY 1867
Hindi- Urdu Controversy became the focus of nation attention in 1867 when some hindus of benarus tried to replace urdu with hindi as the court language. Sir syed ahmed was disappointed at the anti-Muslim attitude of Hindus.

SIR SAYED'S TWO NATION THEORY (1868)
To see the HINI-URDU CONTROVERSY Sir Sayed Ahmed had become disappointed & gave two nation theory 1st in 1868

PARTITION OF BENGAL (16 Oct: 1905)
(Bengal was a vast Big Area with 78 Million of Population was divided by British govt: into two portion East & West, Consequently it was appreciated by Muslims and againsted by Hindus owing to their self intrests in Bengal)

SWADESI MOVEMENT
(Owing to Partition of Bengal Swadesi Movement was orgnized by Hindus in which foreign goods were boycotted prectically)

SIMLA DEPUTATION (1st Oct: 1906)
(Owing to anti-activites against the Muslims till Bengal partition by Congress. The Muslim thoght for some demands in order to get some legitimate intrests from the British Govt: as to be parallal with other orgnizations, especially with the Congress. Consequently, Muslims' eminent deligation of 35 members came into contact at Simla & some benificial demands were spoked for Muslims' intrests.This deligation was leaded by Sir Agha Khan & was appreciated by Viceroy & the some demands were to be ccepted by British Government appreciately. In which the most important demands were the seperate electorate & Minto-Morely reforms of 1909 which ware accepted prectically).

FORMATION OF MUSLIM LEAGUE (31th Dec: 1906)
(Owing to anti-activites against the Muslims till Simla deputation. The Muslim felt that they must have a platform where from the political activities could be done for the protection of the Muslims' legitimate intrests & to be parallal with other orgnizations, especially with the Congress. Consequently, A meeting was orgnized by the Nawab Salimullah at his residence where a no. of prominent leader came including Simla deputation's members, this meeting was presided by Nawab Viqarul Malik on 31th Dec: 1906 & Muslim League was formed as a political orgnization).

MINTO MORLEY REFORMS (1909) act
(Govt: realized that in case they leave the country then there would be Hindus' dominancy owing to their majority in India also they realized that the present consititutin was inefficieant to safeguared the Muslims' rights. So, it was decided for re-constitutional reformation. The Viceroy Minto set a consitutional draft Bill in collaboration with Lord Morley, the secretary for State India for introduction the constitution reforms. The bill was presented in parliament for approval.The Bill, after aproved by the parliament was enforced in 1909 & came to be known as Minto Morley reforms of 1909.Consequently this reformation had some benifits & defects for muslims.


CHANGE IN MUSLIM LEAGUE'S POLITICS (1913)
Besides re-constitutional reformation till 1913, The Muslims' were having no importance owing to British crown dominancy. Legitimate benifits were not givent to the them. Consequently, Muslim league decided to change its policies in order to get self legitimate intrests. So, it was decided that they would negotiate with any orgnization. As a result, The Muslim league & Congress came closer to each other through Quaid-e-Azam.


LUCKNOW PACT (1916)
Through Quaid's efforts (Hindi-Muslim unity ambassador), Joint session held at Lucknow in 1916 & scheme of constitutional were reached by Muslim League & Congress to the govt: collectively in order to get their legitimate rights. Consequently, it was promised by the secretary Montague that he would get Indian in Commission ranks & would reform the constitinal matters.

MONTAGUE CHELMSFORD REFORMS (1919)(ACT)
As Montague promised in Lucknow pact with the Indians alsot the prevailing condition was not good to govt: So, govt: decided to give army posts to the Indian people. Mr.Montague(sec: of st)visited India from 1917-18 & discuessed the constitutional matters with Viceroy Lord Chelmsford & Indian political leaders.The out come was the govt: of India act 1919 that is known as Montague Chelmsford Reforms 1919.

KHILIAFAT MOVEMENT(1919-25)
The Khilafat movement was a religio-political movement launched by the Muslims of British India for the retention of the Ottoman Caliphate and for not handing over the control of Muslim holy places to non-Muslims.
The Khilafat system was the spritual way of Muslims from the Khulfa e Rashdeen till Usmania. A no. of states even eaurepeon came under the Khilafat e Usmania under Turkey Government. So, The jews & the British did not want to see the Muslims to be united. On the one side British had got the Trablis was attacked by Itlay and on the other Hand Turkey was attacked by jews. Now the WWI started between the British & Germoney. So the British requested the Turkey for Help against the Germony but Turkey joined the Germoney against the British. So British govt: after frustrating, unfairly got hold on Egypt, On the other hand Turkey had to withdraw from many states owing to war. So, Muslims of the South Asia wanted the safegard of Holey places & told that Muslim states those were withdrawn by Turkey should be given again to Turkey including Jazer a Arab, Iraq, Syria. In India the Muslim protested against the British govt: in order to keep away from the War. in this way British Govt: announced that they are against the Germoney but are not the Turkey. After the end of the War Germoney was surrenered.
So, after the ending of the war it was decided that.
1-Turkey should bartaraf the military
2-The aircrafs of turkey should be given to the winner.
3-The border problems of Aisa & Arabia would decided by winners.
But the British govt: did not complete their promise, event the Muslim people joined the Briths military. furthermore, several states were not givent to Turkey. even turkey's head had to gone. Morevoer, In india Gandhi also joined the Muslims against the unfairity of the British.
Causes of Failure
Chauri Chora incident
As Quaid' did not join this movment , On the other hand Gandhi's surrenders from this movement
Muslims leadership withradw etc.
Hijrat Movement
Mophla
-NON-COOPERATION MOVEMENT
-Hijrat Movement
-MOPHLA MOVEMENT
-CHAURI CHAURA TRAGEDY

PAKISTAN MOVEMENT
THE EVOLUTION OF THE TOW NATION TH(BACKGROUND)
-RELIGIOUS/HINDU/NATIONALISM/CULT&SOCIO/ECO&EDU/POL
-THE PROBLEMS OF INDEPENDENCE & MUSLIMS
-MUSLIM REACTION
-DEMAND OF SEPARATE ELECTORATE
CHANGE IN MUSLIM POLITICS
-HINDU PREJUDICE TOWARDS MUSLIMS

DEHLI PROPOSALS
During Lucknow pact Hindus had become united even they accepted the Muslims seperate elctorate demans but later on, after the Khilafat Movement in 1927 a meeting was arrenged by Congress where the said demands of muslims were not fullfiled including of seperate electorate. Consequenty, Quaid resigned from the Congress and Muslim did not accepted Delhi Proposel that was represented by Congress(Nehru).

SIMON COMMISSION (1927)
(When the Mongague-Chelmsford Refomrs were introduced in 1919, The British Govt: announced that a commission would be sent to India after 10 years to exmanice the effects of the refomrs & to suggest to more reforms.-Accordingly, in 1927, the British govt: appointed a commission under Sir John Simon to report on the constitutional progress of India for introducing more reforms as had been promised. Since the commission had no member including Congress & Muslim league as Quaid decided to bycott the commission. The commission had to face massive voilent, a slogan was exposed of Simon go back, Simon go back.In spite of non-cooperation from the Indian political leaders, the commission began its work and prepared a detailed report for constitutional reforms in Inida. The report was sent to the Govt: for approval. A scheme of Constitutional reforms on the Simon Commission, was prepared by the Govt: The Congress and Muslim League both refused to accept the recomendatioins of the Simon Commission).

NEHRU REPORT & QUAID'S 14 POINTS(20th March 1929)
Lord Brikenhead stated that Indian people could not be united to make constitution collectively Nehru report reported the constitutional reformation to ans. the British govt: as it was totaly against the Muslim. So in this Quaid rejected the nehru report & presented his 14 points.

IQBAL'S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS (1930) “I would like to see the Punjab, NWFP, Sindh and Balochistan amalgamated into a single state as a self government within the British Empire or without the British Empire, The formation of a consolidated North-West Indian Muslim state appears to me to be the final destiny of the Muslims, at least, of North-West India.”

GANDHI-IRWIN PACT(1931)
As the Congress had done boycott the 1st Round Table. On the other hand the civil disobedienty movement had bocome faild. Now Congress & Govt: wanted to cooperation. So in this way Lord Irwin invited the Gandhi for cooperation & Gandi-Irwin pac was ened with a proposal including that the Congress would join the 2nd Round table.

SECOND ROUND TABLE CONFERENCE(7th Sep:-1st Dec: 1931)
The second round table started from 7th Sep to 1st Dec: in 1931. In this conference Gandhi represented the congress & Jinnah represented the Muslim leageue where consitutional matter were circle debate but owing to Gandhi's bad attitude that Only Hindus were the nation and constitution should be done accorind to Nehru report but Jinnah did not accept & exposed the Muslim as a nation also Sir Shafi did not accept the Gandhi's demand & also he demanded that Jinnah's 14 points should be inducted in the future constiotitution of India which Gandhi refused to accpt. THe 2nd Round table conference, therefore, ended without reaching at any conclusion mainly because of the rigid attitude of Gandhi.

THIRED ROUND TABLE CONFERENCE(17th Nov: to 24th Nov: in 1931)
The second round table began from 17th Nov: to 24th Nov: in 1931. The congress once again abstaned from the Conference disobedience movement. Jinna did not take part in the conference, In his absence Sir Agha led the Muslim delegation. The 3rd Round Table Conference could not solve the long-standing Hindu Muslim problem & proved a mere formality. There was an unbridgeable gulf bt the Gandhi, Nehru & other prominent leaders of the Congress were in jail. The conference, therefore, ended after a few meetings without achienving anything.

COMMUNAL AWARD (August 1932)
As from the 1st to 3rd Round table the Congress & Muslim league did not give any result in order set up constitutional matters. So, the British govt: published its own scheme known as Communal Award in August 1932. Consequently, both congress & M.League were not happy from this scheme.

THE GOVT: OF INDIAN ACT, 1935
As round table could not achive anything till its 3rd conference. So the recommendation of the round table remaned to be white paper. In a white paper which was published in 1933 & discussed in the parliamnet. A committee was set up under the chairmanship of Lord Linlitgow, the Viceroy of India, to consider the recommendations of the white paer. THe other members of the committee were the Aha Khan, M.Zafar Ullah Khan, Shafaat Ahmed Khan, Ab: Rahim & A.H.Ghaznavi.THe report of the committee was published in 1934 which was contaned n a Bill of Law. THe report along 'll the Bill was presented in the British Parliament for apporval. The parliament passed the Bill which after the Royal assent on 24th July 1935 was enforced in the country as Govt: of Inidan Act, 1935.

1937 ELECTION
Owing to dissatification of the Hindu-Muslim from the act of 1935. It was decided by the Govt: for the elections. The elections were helded in 1937 in which Congress were elected by huge wotes as a winner. In this way the ministers of the congress governed the provinces but were not good attitute to the Muslim people.
CONGRESS ATROCITIES ON THE MUSLIMS
The Hindues did not well treat the Muslims and could not govern the provinces suffeciently. On the other hand, Muslims were threaten.
-BANDE MATRAM
Bande Matram was the Hindu Nationalist song was written by Bengal novelist Bankim Chatterjee in his novel Andamath. This anthem was recited against the Muslims.
-WARDHA SCHEME
It was an philosophy of Gandhi. In this scheme the youth encourged to respect the Hindu heros, it was a threat against the Muslim culture, civilization, relegion even according this Hindi was favoured instead of Urdu.
-HOISTING OF 3 COLOURED FLAG
The Congress, after taking over the govt: in the provinces, immediately ordered the hoisting of three-colored flag with the British Union jack to prove that there were only two powers in India which were the British & the Congress.
-WIDDIA MANDER SCHEME
In the education institutions Widdia mander scheme introduced the main work of this scheme convert the Non-Hindus into Hindusim, also in every schol it was decleared to respect the Gandhi even to bow before its picture and sing hmns in his praise, Dr.Zakir Hussain, a Congress Muslim, was the author of this scheme.
-MUSLIMS MASS CONTACTS COMPAIGN
Muslims Mass contacts was introduced by Nehru the aim of this compaign was to crush the popularity of Muslim leaders from the Muslims.

-MUSLIM LEAGUE'S ROLE DURING CONGRESS RULE
Owing to anti-islamic activities of Congress rule like Bande Matram, Wardha Scheme, Hoisting of 3 clored flag, Widdia Mander and Muslim Mass contacts compaign Muslims decleared it as against the democracy even Jinnah named it a Hinda Raj. So, Muslims protested exclusively.

END OF THE CONGRESS RULE
The World war II began in 1939. Britain declared war against the Germany & appealed to all political parties for help & assistance in this hour of need. So, Congress convened its meeting to consider Govt:'s appeal & put the following condistions for assistance in war:
1.The British Govt: should explain the objective of the war.
2.The British govt: should announce that the elected legislature would draft the constitution of INdia.
3.The memebrs of the Viceroy's Executive Council should be those only who enjoy the support of the Central Assembly.
The acceptance of these demands would have meant the transfer of power to the Congress as these demands clearly showed that the Congress was askinng for the right of constitution making. The Govt could not accede to these demands as it wanted to pacify both COngress and the Muslim League. Vicery declared that due consideration would be given to the point of view of every party & that dominion statues would be given to Indian after the war.
The congress did not believe the promises of the govt: THe Congress leaders expressed their expressed their utter disappointment on the decision of the govt. The Congress with a view of putting more pressure on the govt: refuse dto extend con-iperation to govt: in the war activities and accounced to resign from the ministry. The Congress High Command asked its ministers to tender resignations in protest against the decision of the govt. In Nov:, 1939 the Congress ministries resigned from their office. THe poor Muslim population took asign of relief as they have been relieved of the most tyrannical and oppressive rule of the Congress.

DAY OF DELIVERANCE
Jinna announced to celeberate the day of delierance On 22nd Dec:, 1939 to the Muslims (Musim League) owing to the resignation from the govt:.

CHAUDRI REHMAT ALI(PAK MOV1893-)
(well educated/like qadu/coined the name Pak/TNT/set up Pak National Movement in England in 1933/Now or Never & refused the federalism in roundtabele/gave a scheme of/supported the youth/he gave the name lahore resolution to Pak resolution)

PAKISTAN RESOLUTION (PARTITION PROPOSALS)
from the background till Chaudri Rehmat Ali's plan(All these resolutions were despatched to the Central Offices of the Muslim League which set out with the preparations to put forward the demand for Pakistan in its next annual sessions of 1940)

PAKISTAN RESOLUTION, 1940
The annual session held on 22nd March, 1940 at Minto Park(Iqbal Park) under the Jinna's address.In which he spoke regarding insufficient act of 1935 & oppression of the Congress also invisioned the domination of the Congress, therefore, he presented the Two Nation Theory & decleared the Muslim as a seperate nation that should be constituted to a seperate nation.
The Resolution:-On 23rd March, 1940, the famous resolution, which came to be known as Pak Resolution was moved & passed by the participants unanimously. The Resolution was moved by the Bengal chief Minister Maulvi Raza ul Haq, known as Sher e Bengal & seconded by Chaudri Khaliq uz Zaman & others. The Resolations stated that No constitutional plan would be accepted because they had seen each efforts by the British & seen the incapable efforts of the British govt.

CONGRESS REACTION TO THE PAK RESOLUTION
The Hindu reaction to the Pak Resolution was hostile. Gandhi called it a moral worng. Abdlula Kalam Azad did not support even the Hindu Press came out with the most aggrasive propaganda but Jinna did not surrender & emphatically rejected these objections.

CONGRESS ATTITUDE DURING THE WORLD WAR-II
In the initial stages of the WW II , the Congress exted it co-iperation to the British. The Allied countries came under heavy ressure from Germany & Japan within few years of the beginning of the war. So, Congress wanted to get profit from the time & wanted to make proposal of the unity with Muslim but the Muslim did not accpet such kind of proposlas under the consultation of Jinna.

AUGUST OFFER (8th 1940)
Germany achieved quick victories in the WWII to pose difficulties for the British who stood alone with the fall of France. The results of war in North Africa & humiliating. The Japansese forces, which were fighting by the side of Germany, had entered Singapore on 15th January, 1942, It appeared to many in India that the Japanese could overrun India with the same ease with which they had conquered South-East Asia. The security of the Sub-Continent was gravely threatened which created great concern for the British Govt. Owing to sudden revelation of British weakness On August 8, 1940 the Viceroy Lord Linthgow, made an offer on behalf of the British Govt for the help & assistance also he promised the constitutinal matter would be sorted out for the benificial to the Congress-League. But, Congress did not accept the proposal of the Govt: and wanted implemation for its intrest before the war. In this case Leauge oppesed the Congress. Consequently Prime Minister Mr. Churchill declared that a responsibile delegation would soon be sent to India for thalks with Indian leader to suggest recommendations for the constitutional reforms in India.

CRIPS MISSION PLAN
The British govt: appointed a delegation under the Chairmanship of Sir Stafford Cripps, a prominent member of the War Cabinet of Englalnd. The Cripps Mission reached New Delhi on March 23, 1942 to hold discussions with Indian leaders. The Cripps Mission could not hold talks with the Indian leaders and left after afortnight. The Cripps Mision, however, submitted its own suggestions to the govt: in April 1942 for constitutional reforms which were as follow:
1. A Constitutent Assmebly consisting of elected representatives from the provinces & nominated representatives from the provinces from the States, shall be formed immediately upon the cessation of hostilities to frame the future constituion of India.
2. The constitution framed by the Constituent Assembly shal have to be accepted on the following grounds:
a- Any province or State should be free either to adhere or not to adhere to the new constituion.
b- Meanwhile the Briths govt: would retain the control of the defence of India.
c- A fresh agreement would have to be concluded between the Constituent Assembly & the British Govt: to settle the issues pertaining to the transer of power.
d- The govt: of India Act, 1935 shall remain in force until the cessation of war.
e- The C-in-C & Finance Minister shalll be a Brithish national.
3. The suggestions are to be accepted or rejected as a whole & there shal be no amendments.
4. The recommendations would be implemented only if both Muslim League & Congress accept them unanimously.
Congress rejected the Cripps Mission proposals on the advice of Gandhi who regarded it as a post-dated cheque on a failing bank The Muslim League also rejected them because the proposals did not concede Pak unequivocally. Gandhi now began to press for an immediate withdrawl of the British from India & the transfer of power to the Congress without any prior settlement with any other party.

QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT
The Congress had decided on 8th August, 1942, get independence from the British by putting greater pressure on the Govt. The Congress wanted to capture political power in India at all cost with aview of stopping the creation of Pak.Violent agitation was launched to press the Briths to quit India with the slogan Divide Indian & go. Jinnal considered quit India Movement anti-muslim and decleared it as Black mailling. Consequently, a considerable step were takeny by govt: against this movement & some prominent Hinudu leaders were put to jail including gandhi & this movement was failed.

GANDHI-JINNAH TALKS
On 17th July, 1944 in which Gandhi expressed his desire to meeting with Jinna. So after getting permission from Muslim League Gandhi Jinah talks began from 19th sept: 1944 & lasted on 24th Sep: 1944. Gandhi told the Jinnah that India is a one nation and whole power of India should be transfereed to Congress, which thereafter would allow Muslim majority areas that voted for separation to be constituted, not as independent sovereign State, but as part of an Indian Federation, Gandhi contended that his offer gave the substance of the Lahore Resolution. The Jinna did not agree this proposal & represented his two nation theory and disagreed Gandhi's proposal.

WAVELL PLAN
Lord Wavell came to India as Viceroy in March 1943. He was a reputed commander & had succussfully commanded the British armies in the WWII. When he took over as Vicery the tide of WWII was turning in favour of the Allies. Lord Wavell declared that the British Govt: wanted to see India as independent Unit. He offered ascheme for the settlement of future political problems of India which is known as "Wavell Pla". In his scheme he offered to set up anew executive council in which the Muslims were to ge seates equalto the share of caste Hindus. The Council was to have 14 seats of ministers in which 5 seats came in Muslims' share after giving representation to caste Hindus, low caste Hindu, Skikhs & Parsis. The shceme envisaged that the new cabienet will run the administration of the country of interim period & also will seek public mandate to draft the future constitution of the country.

SIMLA CONFERENCE
When the WWII ended Lord Wavell convened aconference of Indian political leaders at Simla on 24th June, 1945 & lasted till July 1945. Muslim weague was represented by Jinna, Liaqat Ali Khan, Khawaja Nizam-ud-Din & other prominent leaders. The Congress was represented by Gandhi & Maulana Abu-al-Kalam Azad & other eminent leaders. So Viceroy gave his constitutional plan(seats of the legislature & provinces etc) but The Congress denied the Muslm's Leagues claim of being the sole representative of the Indian At the end of the conference Jinna demanded that general elections should be held in the country to prove that who is the sole representative of wich communiy. The Viceroy on 21st August, 1945, announced that general elections, to determine the representative character of both Muslim League & Congress shall be held in the winter of 1945.

ELECTIONS
The WWII finally came to an end in August, 1945. Labour Party returned to power with clear majority in the general elections in England in July, 1945. The Congress leaders, who had vultivated close relations with the leaders of Labour Party, felt elasted at this unexpected turn of events. The Congress leaders expected support from the Labour Party because the Labour Party had favoured the United pattern of India as a single administrative & political entitiy. It was the main cause of dispute between the Congress & the Muslim League. The general election to the provinicial& Central legislatures were held in India in 1945-46. Both Congress & Muslim League contested these elections, with utmost efforts b/c on these elections dedpended the future of India. The resluts showed a decisive victory for Pakistan . The Muslim League won all the Muslim seats in Central Assembly & 446 out of 495 Muslim seats in the Provincial Assembiles. The Congress won the similar victory in the Hindu constituencies & came to power in all the provinces with Hindu majority. In Bengal the Muslim League won 113 out of 119 Muslim seats & was able to form Ministry with H.S. Suharawardy as Chief Minister. In Pakhtunkhuwa the Muslim League could not get majority & won only 17 out of 36 Muslim seats. The Congress formed a Ministry in Pakhtunkhwa with Dr.Khan Sahib as the Chief Minister. -The Elections of the 1945-46 proved that the Muslim league alone represented the Muslims of India. The sweeping majority of the Muslim League increased Congress hostility towards the Muslim League.. Instead of acknowledging the undeniable majority of Muslim League & coming to term with it, Congress persisted in its policy of dividing the Muslims & denying political power to the representatives of the Muslim community even in the provinces where the Muslims were in majority. In this way Congress deepended Muslim suspicion, intensified communal discord & made an amicable settlement impossible.

THE CABIENT MISSION PLAN
Congress gave demanded the one nation demand & on the Other hand The Muslim League demanded that (6 Provinces) in Majority of the Muslim's area should be constituent. Consequently, The British govt: gave their own constitutional solution in the result Congress did not accept it, On the other hand Muslims League after weigghning the pros & cons, decided on June6, 1946 to accpet both the long term & short term plan of the Cabinent Mission. THe Muslim League Council affirmed that the Muslim League would join the constitution making body. With reagard to the proposed interim govt:, it authorized its president to negotiate with the Govt.

FORMATION OF INTERIM GOVT:
Congress did not accept the Muslim League's interim in govt: even Gandhi some time negotiated and resfusation Cabinet Mission put bad impression on govt:then The vicery gave invitation to the Muslim League to join the govt with the MuslimLeague accpeted in thelarger intrestet of the Muslims of India.

STEPS FOR TRANSFER OF POWER
Prime Minister Attlee declared in Parliament that India would be freed by 20th Feb:, 1948. He said in the House of Commons. "It is amission, it is a mission of fulfilment." -Lord Mountbatten had been appointed as the last Viceroy of India who was to arrived in India on March 22, 1947. He came charged with the mission to make a peaceful transfer of power from british to Indian hands by June 1947. Lord Mountbatten was told by the Prime Minister Attlee to hand over the power to the Indians by 1st June, 1948. The Prime Minister in a letter directed the Viceroy to do his utmost to keep the unity of Indian. The Prime Minister wrotle that it was the definite objective of His Majesty's govt to obtain aunitary govt for for British India in accordance with the Cabinet Mission Palan. -Upon his arrival in India, Lord Mountbatten had to face many problems regarding a peaceful transfer of power. Muslim League was demanding partition of anything less of Pak. On the other hand Congress was pressing hard for the transfer of power to the Hindu dominated Constituent Assemply. Another set of problems was created by the choice of June 1948, as the effective date for the transfer of Power. THe fifteen months were too short a period for the innumerable political, constitutional and administrative decisions involved. -Lord Mountbatten soon began negotioans with the political leaders of India. Having successfully completed his task. Mountbatten entered into discussions with Inidan leaders on the constitutional problems.

JUNE 3 PLAN
After prolonged talks, Mountbatten had worked out a partition plan. It was felt that if the partition came it should be the responsibility of the Indians. -The working Committee of Congress met on May 1, 1947 & gave its accepttance of the partition plan. Muslim League also gave its approval to the final draft of the partition plan. -Mountbatten went to England to seek the approval of the British govt wich was duly accorded. The plan was issued on June 3, 1947 & konwn as June 3 Plan. The main charactersitics of the plan are as follows:
1-The Legislature of the Punjab & Bengal shall decide whether the provinces should be divided or not.
2-The Indian people shall make the Constitution of India. This Constitution shall not be applicable to those areas whose people reject it.
3-Referendum shall be held in Pakhtunkhuwa.
4-Province of Balochistan shall adopt appropriate way to decide its future.
5-States shall be free & independent to join one or the other country.
6-A Boundary COmmission shall be set up after partition which will demarcate the boundaries of the two countries.
7-Both countries shall have their own Governor-General who will be the Executive Heads of their respective countries.
8-Military assets shall be divided amoungst two countries after partition.

REDCLIFFE AWARD
After the 3rd June Plan the legislatures of Punjab & Bengal decided in favour of partion. Each Boundary Commsiion was to consist of an equal no. of representatives of Indo-Pak . The claims of Indo-Pak were bound to conflict & there was little chance that the representatives of Commission would reach any agreement among themselves. There was a proposal to put the problems of boundary demarcation into the hands of UNO which Nehru refused to accept. So, Muslim League & Congres's members joined the boundry Commission. The Commission were set up by the end of June, 1947. Radcliffe arrived in India on July 8, 1947. The Two Commissions were assigned the responsibility of demarcating the boundaries of the two parts of the Punjab & Bengal on the basis of the contiguous majority areas of Muslims & non-Muslims. -Indo-Pak agreed to accept the award of the Boundary Commission and to take proper measures to enforce it. Radcliffe did not take part in the public sitting of the Commission in which arguments were presented by the Muslim League, the Congress, the Sikhs & other interested parties. He studied the record & proceedings of the meetings & held discussions with other members of the Comission. As expected the members of the Boundary Commission were unable to reach agreement on the boundaries. Lord Radcliffe, as a Chairman, gave his award.

DIVISION OF BENGAL & CALCUTTA PROBLEM
The Radcliffe award was unfair to Pak because it awarded many Muslim majority areas in the Punjab & Bengal to India. In Bengal, the great city of Calcutta occupied immense importance. It was the capital of the province, its only major port & educational centre. Being the centre of all activities Calcutta was the most developed area of the province. The entire development of Calcutta was mostly based on the toil of Muslim peasantry of Bengal. East Bengal produced most of the raw material which had to be sent to Calcutta b/c all the factories & mills were in or around Calcutta. Without Calcutta Eastern Bengal would prove to be a rural slum. For Pak, separated by one thousand miles of Indian territory, the importance of sea communications & hence of Calcutta could not be ignored. For that very reasons the Congress leaders were determined to deny Calcutta to Pakistan & insisted on retaining it in India. Mountbatten was in favour of giving Calcutta to India Radcliffe, in accordance with the desires of Mountbatten, awarded Calcutta to India despite the Muslim claim to it. -Although the Muslims formed only aquarter of the population of Cacutta, but the hinterland on which the life of Calcutta depended was a Muslim majority area. Calcutta had been built mainly on the resources of East Bengal. Pakistan, therefore, had a strong claim upon Calcutta & its environs. Mountbatten had entered into a secret agreeement with the Congress declared in a speech in Calcutta on Jan: 5, 1950: "We made a condition that we could only agree to partition if we did not lose Calcutta. If Calcutta is gone then India is gone".

DIVISION OF PUNJAB
In case of Punjab the award was again partial & against Pakistan. The award that Radcliffe gave in the Punjab chopped off a no. of contiguous Muslim majority areas from Pakistan. In case of India not a single non-Muslim area was taken away from her. In Gurdaspur district two contiguous Muslim majority Tehsils of Gurdaspur & Batala were given to India along with Pathankot thesil to provide a link between India & the state of Jammu & Kashmir. The Muslim majority tehisil Ajnala, in the Amristar dist: was also handed over to India. In jullundur dist: the Muslim majority areas of Zira & Ferozepur in the Ferozepur distt, were also given to Inida. All of these areas were contiguous to the Western Punjab.

INDEPENDENCE ACT OF 1947
On july 4,1947, the Viceroy announced the Partition Plan on Radio. According to this Plan, India was divided into two sovereign States of Pakistan & India & the British control over India would come to an end on 15th August, 1947. The Princely States were given the option to join one or the other country. They were also authorized to have their independent legislatures, constitutions and other adminsistrative dept:. The Act of 1935 was to remain in force until both countries draft their own Constitutioins. Both countries would have right to remain in the British Commonwealth if they so desire. The agreements between the princely States & the British govt: would come to an end with the end of British control over India. The British parliament approved the indepnedence Act on 14th July, 1947 by which Pakistan came into existence as the biggest Islamic State of the world.

TRANSFER OF POWER
Two sovereign States came into existence on 14th August & 15 August, 1947 according to the June 3 Plan of Lord Mountbatten. Lord Mountbatten keenly desired to become the joint Governor General of India & Pakistan. Congress had agreed to this proposal knowing Mountbatten's soft corner for the Congress and Hindus. The Congres approval to Mountbatten's appointment as the Governor General was based on the Congress's designs to extract maximum benefits with Mountbatten's assistance in the division of assets & the demarcation of boundaries. -Jinna was fully aware of Mountbatten relashonship with Congress leaders & particularly with the Nehru family. He was also aware of pro-Hindu & pro-Congress sentiments of Lord Mountbatten. Apart from that Jinna believed that the partition of India & the emergence of Pakistan should commence in an unambiguous manner & that no pre-conditions be laid down with this prime objective for which the Muslims had struggled so hard, He, therefore, rejected the proposal of having a joint Governor-General for Pakistan & India. Muslim League also rejected this proposal & decided to appont the Jinna as a 1st Governor General of Pakistan. -Jinna reached Karachi on 7th August, 1947 where he was given a tremendous welcome. Lord Mountbatten announced the establishment of the Government of Pakistan on 15th August, 1947 in Assembly Building at Karachi. The Jinnah took oath as the 1st Governor General of Pakistan on 15th August, 1947 the last Friday of the holy month of Ramazan. The National Flag with the Crescent & the Star was unfurled. Cabinet was sworn in & Pakistan was born.


ESTABLISHMENT OF PAKISTAN (1947-










CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES
CONSTITUTION MAKING (1947-56)
THE 1956 CONSTITUTION
THE 1962 CONSTITUTION
CAUSES OF THE SEPARATION OF EAST PAKISTAN
THE 1973 CONSTITUTION
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Well a suggestion was given to you to start Pakistan Affairs with a book named "Track to Pakistan" which is also a very good book.

In order to remember dates and events try to relate them with important personalities of that era, this will help you a lot.

You can make a separate list of important dates of events and birth/death dates of important personalities for quick review and a tool for MCQ portion as I have prepared such list.
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alimallah you have suggested me good way. But, at the moment i dont want to lose my other time on pak aff may you can imagine that how much big is the rabani's pak aff book that i have completed now almost .. But, as you have texted that i should go with another book. So, to be honest i dont want to go for other book. besides, would plz send your mcqs, events or notes or tell me how to make mcqs list what is the perfect way to grip the mcqs and i have two books of mcqs for pak affair. 1st of Advance series and 2nd is jahangirs... can you please tell me how to select mcqs from these books mean to say how i will be able to overcome this problem ........ or mcqs book par aap kese kaam karte ho yad karne ke lie pen se select karte ho pointer ya pencil se...........plz tell me how????????? and if you have mcqs list kindly give me. thanks.
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Well plz keep in mind that no one book is perfect for CSS as it does not contain all the detail which is being asked by FPSC. Nowadays very deep questions are being asked. Whenever you have time you must give to compulsory subjects as people mostly lag behind in those subjects.

I usually read Rabani's book alongwith INDOPAK History book of Ehsan-ullah Saqib (Dogar Publishers) which is comprehensive one.

When you read any topic, highlight important points that you think can be asked in MCQs. Then write them on simple pages topic wise and try to solve them after finishing topic. When you separate MCQs of each topic it will save your time for finding MCQs from here n there. and in last night of exam u can revise it quickly.
Sure, I'll send you MCQs which I have.
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Thanks for your really nice suggestions and plz send me your mcqs.........thanks........ and how to create my own list of MCQS on hard copy or soft copy.......and your optional subjects are?
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