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Old Wednesday, November 14, 2007
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Post Indo-Pak: Administrative and Agrarian Terms.


Ain: State laws as distinguished from the laws of the Shariah.

Akhurbek: Master of the horse.

Alai tanka: The tanka (silver or gold coin) of Ala-ud-Din Khilji.

Alamatha-e-Sultani: Insignia of royality.

Amil: Revenue Officre.

Amir: Commander, the third highest official grade of the Delhi sultanate.

Amir-e-Dad: Officer incharge of Justice, the public prosecutor.

Amir-e-Akhur: Amir or officer commanding the horse.

Amir-e-Hajib: Officer incharge of the royal court, also called Barbek in Turkish.

Amir-e-Koh: Officer incharge of agriculture.

Amir-e-Shikar: Officer incharge of the royal hunt.

Ariz: Officer incharge of the muster, equipment of the soldiers and their horses.

Arz-e-Mamalik: Minister incharge of the army of the whole country.

Barek: Officer incharge of the royal court also called Amir-e-Hajib in Persian.

Bari: Intelligence officer appointed by the state to collect information.

Barid-e-Mamalik: Head of the state Intelligence Service.

Dabir: Secretary.

Dabir-e-Mamalik: Chief secretary for the whole kingdom.

Dagh: Mark of branding.

Diwan: Officer, the central secretariat.

Diwan-e-Arz: Officer of the ministry of war.

Diwan-e-Insha: Officer of the chief secretary.

Diwan-e-Riyasat: Officer of the minister of trade and commerce.

Diwan-e-Wizarat: Officer of collecting taxes.

Doab: Land between the Jamuna and the Ganga.

Fatwa: A legal decision, a decision according to the Shariah or religious law.

Faujdar: Commander of an army unit.

Haqq-e-Shurb: Water right, profits from canal irrigation.

Hukm-e-Hasith: Assessment of land revenue according to produce.

Hukm-e-Masahat: Assessment of land revenue according to measurement.

Hukm-e-Mushahida: Assessment of land revenue by inspection only.

Iqtadar: Governor, a person in whose charge an iqta has been place.

Jagir: A piece of land assigned to a government officer by the state.

Jitals: Copper coins of the Delhi Sultanate.

Jeziah: Has two meanings (1). In the literature of Delhi Sultanate, any tax which is not Hiraj or Land Tax. (2). In the Shariah, a personal and yearly tax on non-Muslims.

Karkhana: Royal factory or enterprise, they were of two kinds (1). Rabti, for looking after animals (2). Ghair-Rabti, for producing commodities required by the state.

Khalisa: Land controlled directly by the king and not assigned to any landlord or officer.

Khan: (1). In the Delhi Sultanate, the highest group of officers of state. (2). Amond the Mongols and Turks, the highest independent ruler.

Khidmat: Service due.

Khiraj: Land revenue, also tribute paid by a subordinate ruler.

Khuts: Class of village headmen.

Madad-e-Mash: Grant of land on pension to religious or deserving persons.

Majlis-e-Khas: A meeting of a King and his high officer.

Majlis-e-khalwat: A confidential and secret meeting of the King and his high officres.

Mal: Money, revenue, land revenue.

Malik: Honor, proprietor, in the Delhi Sultanate it meant the second highest grade of officer below khan and above Amir.

Malik Naib: Regent of the king, an officer authorized to act on behalf of the king.

Muhtasib: An officer appointed to maintain law and order in a municipality.

Muqaddam: Village headman, literally the first or senior man.

Muqta: Governor, person incharge of an iqta or a medieval province.

Mushrif-e-Mamalik: Accountant for all provinces.

Mushrif-e-Mamlikat: Accountant for the whole kingdom.

Mustaufi-e-Mamalik: Auditor for the whole kingdom.

Naib-e-Arz: Minister of war, of deputy of minister of war.

Naib-e-Barbek: Deputy Barbek, (officer incharge of the royal court).

Naib-e-Mamlakat: Regent or the King’s representative for the whole kingdom, authorized to act on behalf of the king.

Naib-e-Mulk: Regent of the kingdom.

Naib-e-Wazir: Deputy of the Wazir.

Qazi-e-Mamalik: The Qazi or the Judge for the whole country.

Qazi-ul-Qazza: The Qazi of Qazis, the Chief Justice.

Sadr-e-Jahan: Title for the central officer of the Delhi Sultanate, who was incharge of religious and charitable endowments.

Sera-e-Adl: Name given to Ala-ud-Din Khilji’s Market in Delhi for the sale of cloth and other specified commodities.

Shashgani: A small silver coin equal to six jitals or copper coins.

Shamshi: Pertaining to Sultan Shams-ud-Din Iltumish.

Shiqdar: Officer incharge of land measuring a shiq.

Shunha-e-Mandi: Officer incharge of the grain market.

Sipahsalar: Commander of the troops.

Tanka: Silver coin of the Delhi Sultanate.

Zabita: A secular rule or law made by the state.

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