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Old Friday, June 08, 2012
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Default Differentiate between psychoneurotic and psychosomatic disorders?

Differentiate between psychoneurotic and psychosomatic disorders?

List of psychoneurotic and psychosomatic disorders?
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Originally Posted by Shazi76 View Post
Differentiate between psychoneurotic and psychosomatic disorders?

List of psychoneurotic and psychosomatic disorders?
PSYCHONEUROSES
Definition
Psychoneuroses is a minor mental disorder characterized by inner struggles and disturbed social relationship.

Causes
Essentially psychoneurosis are precipitated by emotional stresses, conflicts and frustrations and that they are most effectively treated by psychological techniques. They are NOT produced by physical disorders and do not respond to routine medical attention.

The etiology <study of cause> of Psychoneuroses says its due to:

Physical factors: Since, the mind and body is in close interaction, physical factors stressing out the mind may produce a psychoneurotic effect e.g. physical exhaustion may so weaken the mental resources of the individual as to facilitate the appearance of neurotic symptoms. However, such instances are rare.

Constitution: Heredity and early environment and training are the main factors determining our constitutional make-up; Based on which development of a well-integrated sturdy personality takes place. Thus, when the individual is confronted with some disturbing or intolerable situation, our personality which is un-accusomed to such responses may result in the appearance of psychoneurotic reaction

Symptoms
The symptoms observed in psychoneurotic patients require compulsory hospitalization or segregation, if unnecessary. However, psychoneurotic symptoms are extremely varied. Some of the more frequent psychological complaints are

anxiety,
depressed spirits,
inability to concentrate, or make decisions, memory disturbances,
irritability,
morbid doubts,
obsessions,
irrational fears,
insomnia,
compulsions and inability to enjoy social relations.

Physical symptom which are generally essential bodily responses of strong emotions and conflicts, include:

loss of voluntary control over certain sensory functions,
shortness of breathe,
persistent tension,
fatigue,
headaches,
gastrointestinal disturbances and
multiple aches and pains.

Types
The four types of psychoneurosis most generally recognized are:

Anxiety reaction psychoneurosis: anxiety with apprehension out of proportion to any obvious external cause.

Conversion reaction psychoneurosis: psychoneurosis in which unacceptable unconscious impulses are converted into hysterical somatic symptoms. Although the symptoms have a specific symbolic meaning to the patient, their interpretation is different in each individual.

Depressive reaction psychoneurosis: psychoneurosis marked by depression out of proportion to any obvious cause.

Dissociated reaction psychoneurosis: psychoneurosis characterized by dissociated behavior; such as, amnesia, fugue, sleepwalking, and dream states. It is important to differentiate this from schizophrenia.

Obsessive-compulsive reaction psychoneurosis: psychoneukrosis consisting of persistent, repetitive impulses to perform certain acts or rituals; such as, handwashing, touching something, or counting.
Phobic reaction psychoneurosis: an irrational fear of any of a variety of situations, persons, or objects.


PSYCHOSOMATIC DISORDERS
Definition
Psychosomatic is a term that combines the words mind (psycho) and body (soma). It is often combined with the term illness, which refers to the mind having influence or possibly creating a bodily illness.

Categories of Psychosomatic disorders
There are three genera categories:
The first type includes people who have both a mental (psychiatric) illness and a medical illness, and these illnesses complicate the symptoms and management of each other.
The second type includes people who have a psychiatric problem that is a direct result of a medical illness or its treatment, such as having depression due to cancer and its treatment.
The third type of psychosomatic illness is 'somatoform disorders'. Somatoform disorders are psychiatric disorders that are displayed through physical problems. In other words, the physical symptoms people experience are related to psychological factors rather than a medical cause.

Causes
The first two categories may be caused by a number of problems either medical or psychological. Itis the third type which is of great concern because The exact cause of somatoform disorders is not completely understood. Somatoform disorders are thought to be familial, meaning that genetics may play a role. Somatoform disorders may also be triggered by strong emotions, such as anxiety, grief, trauma, abuse, stress, depression, anger or guilt. People who suffer from somatoform disorders will generally not recognize the role these emotions play in their physical symptoms. However, they are not intentionally producing these physical symptoms or making up their physical problems. Their physical symptoms are real, but are caused by psychological factors.

Types of Somatoform Disorders
Somatoform disorders include the following:

Body dysmorphic disorder is an obsession or preoccupation with a minor or imaginary flaw, such as wrinkles, small breasts, or the shape or size of other body parts. Body dysmorphic disorder causes severe anxiety and may impact a personís ability to function normally in daily life.

Conversion disorder is a disorder in which a person experiences neurological symptoms that affect his or her movement and senses and that do not appear to have a physical cause. Symptoms can include seizures, blindness or paralysis.

Hypochondriasis is an obsession or fixation with the fear of having a serious disease. People with hypochondriasis misconstrue normal body functions or minor symptoms as being serious or life threatening. For example, a person with hypochondriasis may become convinced that he or she has colon cancer when having temporary flatulence after eating cabbage.

Somatization disorder is a disorder in which a person experiences physical complaints, such as headaches, diarrhea, or premature ejaculation, that do not have a physical cause.

Symptoms
Common symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder
People who suffer from body dysmorphic disorder become obsessed with minor flaws in their physical appearance or may see flaws where none exist. Common concerns include hair loss; the size and shape of features, such as the eyes, nose or breasts; weight gain; and wrinkles. Symptoms and associated behaviors of body dysmorphic disorder may include:
Anxiety and depression, Avoiding being seen in public and withdrawal from social situations, Avoiding mirrors, Constantly checking yourself in a mirror, Seeking reassurance from others about your looks, Common symptoms of conversion disorder

Symptoms of conversion disorder usually look like neurological problems and can include:
Blindness or double vision, Difficulty swallowing, Impaired balance or coordination, Inability to speak (aphonia), Loss of sensation, Paralysis or weakness, , Seizures, Urinary retention,

Common symptoms of hypochondriasis

Hypochondriasis is the condition of thinking that normal body functions or minor symptoms represent a serious medical condition. A person with hypochondriasis can interpret a headache as a brain tumor or muscle soreness as a sign of impending paralysis. Typical symptoms of hypochondriasis include:

Anxiety and depression, Feeling that their doctor has made a mistake by not diagnosing the cause of their symptoms, Repeated doctor visits until a diagnosis is made, Seeking constant reassurance from friends and family about their symptoms,

Common symptoms of somatization disorder

Somatization disorder is characterized by physical symptoms without a physical cause. Symptoms of somatization disorder include:
Digestive symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, constipation, and diarrhea, Neurological symptoms, such as headache and fatigue, Pain, Sexual symptoms, such as pain during intercourse, loss of sexual desire, erectile dysfunction, and extremely painful periods in women


Treatement
Treatment of somatoform disorders, which make up the majority of psychosomatic illnesses, can be challenging. After ruling out physical causes of your symptoms, it generally focuses on establishing a trusting, supportive relationship between you and your primary care doctor. Your doctor will recommend regular checkup appointments as one of the most important parts of your treatment.

Its taken from various internet resources and articles... I hope its sufficient.
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Last edited by Shooting Star; Friday, June 08, 2012 at 04:31 PM. Reason: merged
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