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Old Wednesday, April 12, 2006
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Default about a great man.......

about a great man...

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Albert Einstein (March 14, 1879 - April 18, 1955) was a theoretical physicist who is widely regarded as the greatest scientist of the 20th century. He proposed the theory of relativity and also made major contributions to the development of quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics and cosmology. He was awarded the 1921 Nobel Prize for Physics for his explanation of the photoelectric effect and "for his services to Theoretical Physics".
After his general theory of relativity was formulated, Einstein became world-famous, an unusual achievement for a scientist. In his later years, his fame exceeded that of any other scientist in history, and in popular culture, Einstein has become synonymous with someone of very high intelligence or the ultimate genius. His face is also one of the most recognizable the world-over. In 1999, Einstein was named "Person of the Century" by Time Magazine. This popularity has also lead to a widespread use of Einstein in advertisement and merchandising, eventually including the registration of Albert Einstein as a trademark.
In his honor, a unit used in photochemistry, the einstein, as well as the chemical element einsteinium and the asteroid 2001 Einstein were named after him.
Bibliography | Memorabilia | Selected Quotes

Biography

Einstein was born in 1879 at Ulm in Württemberg, Germany, about 100 km east of Stuttgart. His parents were Hermann Einstein, a featherbed salesman who later ran an electrochemical works, and his wife Pauline, née Koch. The family was Jewish (and non-observant); Albert attended a Catholic elementary school and, at the insistence of his mother, was given violin lessons.
At age five, his father showed him a pocket compass, and Einstein realized that something in "empty" space acted upon the needle; he would later describe the experience as one of the most revelatory of his life. Though he built models and mechanical devices for fun, he was considered a slow learner, possibly due to dyslexia, simple shyness, or the significantly rare and unusual structure of his brain (as seen following his death). He later credited his development of the theory of relativity to this slowness, saying that by pondering space and time later than most children, he was able to apply a more developed intellect. Another, more recent, theory about his mental development is that he suffered from Asperger's syndrome, a disorder related to autism.
Einstein began to learn mathematics at about age twelve. There is a recurring rumor that he failed mathematics later in his education, but this is untrue; a change in the way grades were assigned caused confusion years later. Two of his uncles fostered his intellectual interests during his late childhood and early adolescence by suggesting and providing books on science and mathematics.
In 1894, following the failure of Hermann's electrochemical business, the Einsteins moved from Munich to Pavia, Italy (near Milan). Albert remained behind to finish school, completing a term by himself before rejoining his family in Pavia.
His failure of the liberal arts portion of the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (Federal Swiss Polytechnic University, in Zurich) entrance exam the following year was a setback; he was sent by his family to Aarau, Switzerland to finish secondary school, and received his diploma in 1896. Einstein subsequently enrolled at the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule. The same year, he renounced his German citizenship, becoming stateless.
In 1898, Einstein met and fell in love with Mileva Marić, a Serbian classmate (and friend of Nikola Tesla). In 1900, he was granted a teaching diploma by the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule and was accepted as a Swiss citizen in 1901. During this time Einstein discussed his scientific interests with a group of close friends, including Mileva. He and Mileva had an illegitimate daughter, Liserl, born in January 1902.
Work and doctorate
Upon graduation, Einstein could not find a teaching post, due mostly to the fact that his brashness as a young man had apparently irritated most of his professors. The father of a classmate helped him obtain employment as a technical assistant examiner at the Swiss Patent Office in 1902. There, Einstein judged the worth of inventors' patent applications for devices that required a knowledge of physics to understand. He also learned how to discern the essence of applications despite sometimes poor descriptions, and was taught by the director how "to express myself correctly". He occasionally rectified their design errors while evaluating the practicality of their work.
Einstein married Mileva, on January 6, 1903. Einstein's marriage to Mileva, who was a mathematician, was both a personal and intellectual partnership: Einstein referred lovingly to Mileva as "a creature who is my equal and who is as strong and independent as I am". Abram Joffe, in his biography of Einstein, argues that Einstein was assisted by Mileva. This largely contradicts Ronald W. Clark who, in his biography, claims that Einstein depended on the distance that existed in his and Mileva's marriage in order to have the solitude necessary to accomplish his work.
On May 14, 1904, Einstein's son Hans Albert Einstein was born. In 1904, Einstein's position at the Swiss Patent Office was made permanent. He obtained his doctorate after submitting his thesis On a new determination of molecular dimensions in 1905.
That same year, he wrote four articles that provided the foundation of modern physics, without much scientific literature to refer to or many scientific colleagues to discuss the theories with. Most physicists agree that three of those papers (Brownian motion, the photoelectric effect, and special relativity) deserved Nobel prizes. Only the photoelectric effect would win. This is something of an irony, in that Einstein is far better-known for relativity, but that the photoelectric effect is all quantum, and Einstein became somewhat disenchanted with the path quantum theory would take. What makes these papers remarkable is that, in each case, Einstein boldly took an idea from theoretical physics to its logical consequences and managed to explain experimental results that had baffled scientists for decades.
He submitted these papers to the Annalen der Physik. They are commonly referred to as the Annus Mirabilis Papers (from Latin: Extraordinary Year). The International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) has planned to commemorate the 100th year of the publication of Einstein's extensive work in 1905 as the World Year Of Physics 2005.



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words are nothign but it shows ones personality.........



Quotations by Albert Einstein

(During a lecture)
This has been done elegantly by Minkowski; but chalk is cheaper than grey matter, and we will do it as it comes.
[Attributed by Pólya.]
Quoted in J E Littlewood, A Mathematician's Miscellany, 1953.
Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler.
Reader's Digest. Oct. 1977.
I don't believe in mathematics.
Quoted in Carl Seelig. Albert Einstein.
Imagination is more important than knowledge.
On Science.
The most beautiful thing we can experience is the mysterious. It is the source of all true art and science.
What I Believe.
The bitter and the sweet come from the outside, the hard from within, from one's own efforts.
Out of My Later Years.
Gott würfelt nicht.
Common sense is the collection of prejudices acquired by age eighteen. ……………
Quoted in E T Bell Mathematics, Queen and Servant of the Sciences. 1952.
God does not care about our mathematical difficulties. He integrates empirically.
Quoted in L Infeld Quest, 1942.
How can it be that mathematics, being after all a product of human thought independent of experience, is so admirably adapted to the objects of reality?
(About Newton)
Nature to him was an open book, whose letters he could read without effort.
Quoted in G Simmons Calculus Gems (New York 1992).
As far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain; and as far as they are certain, they do not refer to reality.
Quoted in J R Newman, The World of Mathematics (New York 1956).
What is this frog and mouse battle among the mathematicians?
[i.e. Brouwer vs. Hilbert]
Quoted in H Eves Mathematical Circles Squared (Boston 1972).
Raffiniert ist der Herr Gott, aber boshaft ist er nicht.
God is subtle, but he is not malicious.
Inscribed in Fine Hall, Princeton University.
Nature hides her secrets because of her essential loftiness, but not by means of ruse.
The human mind has first to construct forms, independently, before we can find them in things.
Since the mathematicians have invaded the theory of relativity, I do not understand it myself anymore.
Quoted in P A Schilpp, Albert Einstein, Philosopher-Scientist (Evanston 1949).
Do not worry about your difficulties in mathematics, I assure you that mine are greater.
The truth of a theory is in your mind, not in your eyes.
Quoted in H Eves Mathematical Circles Squared (Boston 1972).
These thoughts did not come in any verbal formulation. I rarely think in words at all. A thought comes, and I may try to express it in words afterward.
Quoted in H Eves Mathematical Circles Adieu (Boston 1977).
A human being is a part of the whole, called by us "Universe," a part limited in time and space. He experiences himself, his thoughts and feelings as something separated from the resta kind of optical delusion of his consciousness. This delusion is a kind of prison for us, restricting us to our personal desires and to affection for a few persons nearest to us. Our task must be to free ourselves from this prison by widening our circle of compassion to embrace all living creatures and the whole of nature in its beauty. Nobody is able to achieve this completely, but the striving for such achievement is in itself a part of the liberation and a foundation for inner security.
Quoted in H Eves Mathematical Circles Adieu (Boston 1977).
The world needs heroes and it's better they be harmless men like me than villains like Hitler.
Quoted in H Eves Return to Mathematical Circles (Boston 1988).
It is nothing short of a miracle that modern methods of instruction have not yet entirely strangled the holy curiousity of inquiry.
Quoted in H Eves Return to Mathematical Circles (Boston 1988).
Everything that is really great and inspiring is created by the individual who can labor in freedom.
Quoted in H Eves Return to Mathematical Circles (Boston 1988).
The search for truth is more precious than its possession.
The American Mathematical Monthly 100 (3).
If my theory of relativity is proven successful, Germany will claim me as a German and France will declare that I am a citizen of the world. Should my theory prove untrue, France will say that I am a German and Germany will declare that I am a Jew.
Address at the Sorbonne, Paris.
We come now to the question: what is a priori certain or necessary, respectively in geometry (doctrine of space) or its foundations? Formerly we thought everything; nowadays we think nothing. Already the distance-concept is logically arbitrary; there need be no things that correspond to it, even approximately.
"Space-Time." Encyclopaedia Britannica, 14th ed.
Most of the fundamental ideas of science are essentially simple, and may, as a rule, be expressed in a language comprehensible to everyone.
The Evolution of Physics.
Science without religion is lame; religion without science is blind.
Reader's Digest, Nov. 1973.
(To a student)
Dear Miss --
I have read about sixteen pages of your manuscript ... I suffered exactly the same treatment at the hands of my teachers who disliked me for my independence and passed over me when they wanted assistants ... keep your manuscript for your sons and daughters, in order that they may derive consolation from it and not give a damn for what their teachers tell them or think of them. ... There is too much education altogether.
The World as I See It, (New York, 1949), 21-22.
(Written in old age)
I have never belonged wholeheartedly to a country, a state, nor to a circle of friends, nor even to my own family.
When I was still a rather precocious young man, I already realized most vividly the futility of the hopes and aspirations that most men pursue throughout their lives.
Well-being and happiness never appeared to me as an absolute aim. I am even inclined to compare such moral aims to the ambitions of a pig.
Quoted in C P Snow, Variety of Men, (Harmondsworth 1969) 77.
The relativity principle in connection with the basic Maxwellian equations demands that the mass should be a direct measure of the energy contained in a body; light transfers mass. With radium there should be a noticeable diminution of mass. The idea is amusing and enticing; but whether the Almighty is laughing at it and is leading me up the garden path -- that I cannot know.
When I am judging a theory, I ask myself whether, if I were God, I would have arranged the world in such a way.
Great spirits have always encountered violent opposition from mediocre minds.
.. common sense is nothing more than a deposit of prejudices laid down in the mind before you reach eighteen.
Quoted in E T Bell, Mathematics: Queen and Servant of Science
Thus the partial differential equation entered theoretical physics as a handmaid, but has gradually become mistress.
The World as I See It
But the creative principle resides in mathematics. In a certain sense, therefore, I hold true that pure thought can grasp reality, as the ancients dreamed.
Quoted in H R Pagels, The Cosmic Code
But there is another reason for the high repute of mathematics: it is mathematics that offers the exact natural sciences a certain measure of security which, withut mathematics, they could not attain.
Quoted in E T Bell Men of Mathematics
One reason why mathematics enjoys special esteem, above all other sciences, is that its laws are absolutely certain and indisputable, while those of other sciences are to some extent debatable and in constant danger of being overthrown by newly discovered facts.
Sidelights on Relativity
As far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain; and as far as they are certain, they do not refer to reality.
Sidelights on Relativity
How can it be that mathematics, being after all a product of human thought which is independent of experience, is so admirably appropriate to the objects of reality? Is human reason, then, without experience, merely by taking thought, able to fathom the properties of real things?
Sidelights on Relativity
Mathematics are well and good but nature keeps dragging us around by the nose.
Quoted in A P French, Einstein: a Centenary Volume
Education is that which remains when one has forgotten everything learned in school.
Ideas and opinions (New York, 1954).
A hundred times every day I remind myself that my inner and outer life depend on the labours of other men, living and dead, and that I must exert myself in order to give in the same measure as I have received………………………….nice…….
Quoted in Des MacHale, Wisdom (London, 2002).
Before God we are all equally wise - equally foolish.
Quoted in Des MacHale, Wisdom (London, 2002).
Each of us visits that Earth involuntarily and without an invitation. For me, it is enough to wonder at its secrets……………………….
Quoted in Des MacHale, Wisdom (London, 2002).
If at first the idea is not absurd, then there is no hope for it…………………..niice…
Quoted in Des MacHale, Wisdom (London, 2002).
It is my contention that killing under the cloak of war is nothing but an act of murder.
Quoted in Des MacHale, Wisdom (London, 2002). ……………..nice.humainteriann..
My religion consists of a humble admiration of the illimitable superior spirit who reveals himself in the slightest details we are able to perceive with our frail and feeble minds….
Quoted in Des MacHale, Wisdom (London, 2002).
Reading after a certain time diverts the mind too much from its creative pursuits. Any man who reads too much and uses his own brain too little falls into lazy habits of thinking. ………
Quoted in Des MacHale, Wisdom (London, 2002).
[EFR: For a modern view replace reading by watching television.] ……….absoultely write……….
Sometimes one pays most for things one gets for nothing.
Quoted in Des MacHale, Wisdom (London, 2002). ……….
The most incomprehensible fact about the universe is that it is comprehensible.
Quoted in Des MacHale, Wisdom (London, 2002). …………………absolutely write javed bhai..
The world we have made, as a result of the level of thinking we have done thus far, creates problems we cannot solve at the same level of thinking at which we created them.
Quoted in Des MacHale, Wisdom (London, 2002). ………..absoulety write javed bhai..
There are two ways to live your life. One is as though nothing is a miracle. The other is as though everything is a miracle..abvsoultely write kismat thakhai khayal or na thakyal kahayal…masalan….this world is comprehensible//////////
Quoted in Des MacHale, Wisdom (London, 2002).



.................................education is nothignh but mutual sharing of intersts..........................


with reagrds,
javed saleem.........
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Old Thursday, April 13, 2006
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Salam,

good work....especially quotes by Einstine....
keep it up...

With regards,
Muskan
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My ALLAH it is enough for my respect that I m "Your" person & it is enough for my pride that "You" are my GOD."You" are exactly the way I desire.Thus please mould me the way "You" desire.
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