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The Holy Quran
|Islam Invite to the Way of your Lord with wisdom and fair preaching, and argue with them in a way that is better. Truly, your Lord knows best who has gone astray from His Path, and He is the Best Aware of those who are guided." Holy Qur'an 16:125
Friday, September 14, 2007
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The Holy Quran
This Surah is named AL-FATIHAH because of its subject-matter. Fatihah is that which opens a subject or a book or any other thing. In other words, Al-Fatihah is a sort of preface.
Period of Revelation
It is one of the very earliest Revelations to the Holy Prophet. As a matter of fact, we learn from authentic Traditions that it was the first complete Surah which was revealed to Muhammed (Allah's peace be upon him). Before this, only a few miscellaneous verses were revealed which form parts of `ALAQ, MUZ-ZAMMIL, MUD-DATH-THIR, etc.
This Surah is in fact a prayer which Allah has taught to all those who want to make a study of His book. It has been placed at the very beginning of the book to teach this lesson to the reader: if you sincerely want to benefit from the Quran, you should offer this prayer to the Lord of the Universe.
This preface is meant to create a strong desire in the heart of the reader to seek guidance from the Lord of the Universe, Who alone can grant it. Thus AL-FATIHAH indirectly teaches that the best thing for a man is to pray for guidance to the straight path, to study the Quran with the mental attitude of a seeker- after-truth and to recognize the fact that the Lord of the Universe is the source of all knowledge. He should, therefore, begin the study of the Quran with a prayer to him for guidance.
From this theme, it becomes clear that the real relation between AL-FATIHAH and the Quran is not that of an introduction to a book but that of a prayer and its answer. AL-FATIHAH is the prayer from the servant and the Quran is the answer from the Master to his prayer. The servant prays to Allah to show him guidance and the Master places the whole of the Quran before him in answer to his prayer, as if to say, "This is the Guidance you begged from Me."
Source:Syed Abu-Ala' Maududi's Chapter Introductions to the Qur'an
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Summary of Surah Al Fatiah , verse 1-7
1-2: Reflecting upon the harmonious working of the universe, it becomes manifest that everything in it is continuously receiving means of nurture, unearned, and is, thereby, enabled to actualise its potentialities. This amazing system of Rabubiyyat begets involuntary appreciation from all discerning persons who cry out: "O Our Sustainer! You have created nothing in this universe without purpose, or for ill use" (3/189-90). These persons with knowledge and conviction are truly engaged in the Hamd of Allah Almighty (35/27-28, 9/112).
3: For the fulfilment of Allah's Plan, it is necessary to render ineffective, oppressive forces which hinder development of His creation. This would result in the ushering in of a system in which no one would be subservient to another. In this system, all matters will be decided in accordance with the Divine Laws (82/18-19, 17/111, 43/84), and it is this system which must eventually and inevitably supersede all man-made systems (9/33).
4: Such a system will be introduced by those who will declare (and also prove in practice) "We do not accept or acknowledge any authority but that of Allah, nor do we seek alliance with any system which disregards the Divine Laws."
5-7: When these Momineen begin life's journey, their aspirations and yearnings rise to their lips as the prayer, "O Allah! make that path clearly apparent to us which would lead us, without fear and danger, to our destination. Blessed nations of the past following this path achieved prosperity, happiness and eminence amongst their contemporaries (through the harnessing of the forces of nature and their utilisation in accordance with the Divine Laws) (31/20, 2/47).
As long as these nations followed the path ordained by You, they were successful and happy. But when they changed their course they lost Your blessings (8/53), suffering disgrace and ignominy (2/61, 7/152). All their efforts and actions were rendered in vain, and, since the true path had become obscured from them, they became entangled in speculations. Sometimes, they blindly followed the antiquated ways of their ancestors (37/69-71), and, sometimes, they were misled by their baser desires (45/23). Dismayed by their goal-less journey, they deceived themselves by saying: 'It was not Allah's will to show us the right path' (6/149).
O Allah! we beseech You to enable us to follow the path prescribed by You so that our end is not like those who lost their way and thus destroyed themselves. We are aware that no one can show the right path to a people who turn away from Your Guidance (61/5). At the same time, we also know that the right path is discovered only by those who strive to find it (29/69). Therefore, grant us the strength for that search."
ஜ иστнιπg ιš ιмթΘรรιвlε тσ α ωιℓℓιиg нєαят ஜ
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Why the name AL-BAQARAH
(the Cow) has been so named from the story of the Cow occurring in this Surah (vv. 67-73). It has not, however, been used as a title to indicate the subject of the Surah. It will, therefore, be as wrong to translate the name Al-Baqarah into "The Cow" or "The Heifer" as to translate any English name, say Baker, Rice, Wolf etc., into their equivalents in other languages or vice versa
, because this would imply that the Surah dealt with the subject of "The Cow". Many more Surahs of the Quran have been named in the same way because no comprehensive words exist in Arabic (in spite of its richness) to denote the wide scope of the subject discussed in them. As a matter of fact all human languages suffer from the same limitation.
Though it is a Madani
Surah, it follows naturally a Makki
Surah Al- Fatihah, which ended with the prayer :"Show us the straight way". It begins with the answer to that prayer, "This is the Book (that) . . . is guidance. . ."
The greater part of Al-Baqarah was revealed during the first two years of the Holy Prophet's life at Al-Madinah. The smaller part which was revealed at a later period has been included in this Surah because its contents are closely related to those dealt with in this Surah. For instance, the verses prohibiting interest were revealed during the last period of the Holy prophet's life but have been inserted in this Surah. For the same reason, the last verses (284-286) of this Surah which were revealed at Makkah before the migration of the Holy Prophet to AI-Madinah have also been included in it.
In order to understand the meaning of this Surah, we should know its historical background:
- At Makkah the Quran generally addressed the mushrik Quraish who were ignorant of Islam, but at Al- Madinah it was also concerned with the Jews who were acquainted with the creed of the Unity of Allah, Prophethood, Revelation, the Hereafter and angels. They also professed to believe in the law which was revealed by Allah to their Prophet Moses (Allah's peace be upon him), and in principle, their way was the same (Islam) that was being taught by Prophet Muhammad (Allah's peace be upon him). But they had strayed away from it during the centuries of degeneration and had adopted many un- Islamic creeds, rites and customs of which there was no mention and for which there was no sanction in the Torah. Not only this : they had tampered with the Torah by inserting their own explanations and interpretations into its text. They had distorted even that part of the Word of God which had remained intact in their Scriptures and taken out of it the real spirit of true religion and were now clinging to a lifeless frame of rituals. Consequently their beliefs, their morals and their conduct had gone to the lowest depths of degeneration. The pity is that they were not only satisfied with their condition but loved to cling to it. Besides this, they had no intention or inclination to accept any kind of reform. So they became bitter enemies of those who came to teach them the Right Way and did their worst to defeat every such effort. Though they were originally Muslims, they had swerved from the real Islam and made innovations and alterations in it and had fallen victims to hair splitting and sectarianism. They had forgotten and forsaken Allah and begun to serve mammon. So much so that they had even given up their original name "Muslim" and adopted the name "Jew" instead, and made religion the sole monopoly of the children of Israel.
- This was their religious condition when the Holy Prophet went to Al-Madinah and invited the Jews to the true religion. That is why more than one third of this Surah has been addressed to the children of Israel. A critical review of their history, their moral degeneration and their religious perversions has been made; side by side with this the high standard of morality and the fundamental principles of the pure religion have been put forward in order to bring out clearly the nature of the degeneration of the community of a prophet when it goes astray and to draw clear lines of demarcation between real piety and formalism, and the essentials and non-essentials of the true religion.
- At Makkah Islam was mainly concerned with the propagation of its fundamental principles and the moral training of its followers. But after the migration of the Holy Prophet to Al-Madinah, where Muslims had come to settle from all over Arabia and where a tiny Islamic State had been set up with the help of the Ansar (local supporters), naturally the Quran had to turn its attention to the social, cultural, economic, political and legal problems as well. This accounts for the difference between the themes of the surahs revealed at Makkah and those at Al- Madinah. Accordingly about half of this Surah deals with those principles and regulations which are essential for the integration and solidarity of a community and for the solution of its problems.
- After the migration to Al-Madinah, the struggle between Islam and un-Islam had also entered a new phase. Before this the Believers, who propagated Islam among their own clans and tribes, had to face its opponents at their own risk. But the conditions had changed at Al- Madinah, where Muslims from all parts of Arabia had come and settled as one community, and had established an independent city state. Here it became a struggle for the' survival of the Community itself, for the whole of non- Muslim Arabia was bent upon and united in crushing it totally. Hence the following instructions, upon which depended not only its success but its very survival, were revealed in this Surah :-
That is why Allah has revealed in this Surah such instructions as may help achieve all the above mentioned objects.
- The Community should work with the utmost zeal to propagate its ideology and win over to its side the greatest possible number of people.
- It should so expose its opponents as to leave no room for doubt in the mind of any sensible person that they were adhering to an absolutely wrong position.
- It should infuse in it's members (the majority of whom were homeless and indigent and surrounded on all sides by enemies) that courage and fortitude which is so indispensable to their very existence in the adverse circumstances in which they were struggling and to prepare them to face these boldly.
- It should also keep them ready and prepared to meet any armed menace, which might come from any side to suppress and crush their ideology, and to oppose it tooth and nail without minding the overwhelming numerical strength and the material resources of its enemies
- It should also create in them that courage which is needed for the eradication of evil ways and for the establishment of the Islamic Way instead.
- During this period, a new type of "Muslims," munafiqin (hypocrites), had begun to appear. Though signs of duplicity had been noticed during the last days at Makkah, they took a different shape at Al-Madinah. At Makkah there were some people who professed Islam to be true but were not prepared to abide by the consequences of this profession and to sacrifice their worldly interests and relations and bear the afflictions which inevitably follow the acceptance of this creed. But at Al-Madinah different kinds of munafiqin (hypocrites) began to appear. There were some who had entered the Islamic fold merely to harm it from within. There were others who were surrounded by Muslims and, therefore, had become "Muslims" to safeguard their worldly interests. They, therefore, continued to have relations with the enemies so that if the latter became successful, their interests should remain secure. There were still others who had no strong conviction of the truth of Islam but had embraced it along with their clans. Lastly, there were those who were intellectually convinced of the truth of Islam but did not have enough moral courage to give up their former traditions, superstitions and personal ambitions and live up to the Islamic moral standards and make sacrifice in its way. At the time of the revelation of Al-Baqarah, all sorts of hypocrites had begun to appear. Allah has, therefore, briefly pointed out their characteristics here. Afterwards when their evil characteristics and mischievous deeds became manifest, Allah sent detailed instructions about them.
This Surah is an invitation to the Divine Guidance and all the stories, incidents etc., revolve round this central theme. As this Surah has particularly been addressed to the Jews, many historical events have been cited from their own traditions to admonish and advise them that their own good lies in accepting the Guidance revealed to the Holy Prophet. They should, therefore, be the first to accept it because it was basically]y the same that was revealed to Prophet Moses (Allah's peace be upon him).
Topics and their Interconnection
These introductory verses declare the Quran to be the Book of Guidance : enunciate the articles of the Faith -- belief in Allah, Prophethood and Life-after-death; divide mankind into three main groups with regard to its acceptance or rejection -- Believers, disbelievers and hypocrites. 1 - 20
Allah invites mankind to accept the Guidance voluntarily and to submit to Him, the Lord and the Creator of the Universe and to believe in the Quran, His Guidance, and in the Life-after-death. 21 - 29
The story of the appointment of Adam as Allah's Vicegerent on Earth, of his life in the Garden, of his falling a prey to the temptations of Satan, of his repentance and its acceptance, has been related to show to mankind (Adam's offspring), that the only right thing for them is to accept and follow the Guidance. This story also shows that the Guidance of Islam is the same that was given to Adam and that it is the original religion of mankind. 30 - 39
In this portion invitation to the Guidance has particularly been extended to the children of Israel and their past and present attitude has been criticised to show that the cause of their degradation was their deviation from the Guidance. 40 - 120
The Jews have been exhorted to follow Prophet Muhammad (Allah's peace be upon him) who had come with the same Guidance and who was a descendant and follower of Prophet Abraham whom they highly honoured as their ancestor, and professed to follow as a prophet. The story of the building of the Ka`abah by him has been mentioned because it was going to be made the qiblah
of the Muslim Community. 121 - 141
In this portion, the declaration of the change of qiblah
from the Temple (Jerusalem) to the Ka`abah (Makkah) has been made as a symbol of the change of leadership from the children of Israel to the Muslim Community, which has also been fore-warned to guard against those transgressions against the Guidance that had led to the deposition of the Jews. 142 - 152
In this portion practical measures have been prescribed to enable the Muslims to discharge the heavy responsibilities of the leadership that had been entrusted to them for the promulgation of Guidance. Salat, Fast, Zakat, Haj and Jihad have been prescribed for the moral training of the Ummat
. The Believers have been exhorted to obey authority, to be just, to fulfill pledges, to observe treaties, to spend wealth etc., in the way of Allah. Laws, rules and regulations have been laid down for their organisation, cohesion and conduct of day-to-day life and for the solution of social, economic, political and international problems; on the other hand, drinking, gambling, lending money on interest etc., have been prohibited to keep the Ummat
safe from disintegration. In between these, the basic articles of the Faith have been reiterated at suitable places, for these alone can enable and support one to stick to the Guidance. 153 - 251
These verses serve as an introduction to the prohibition of lending money on interest. The true conception of Allah, Revelation and Life-after-death has been emphasised to keep alive the sense of accountability. The stories of Prophet Abraham (Allah's peace be upon him) and of the one who woke up after a sleep of hundred years have been related to show that Allah is All-Powerful and is able to raise the dead and call them to account. The Believers, therefore, should keep this fact in view and refrain from taking interest on money. 252 - 260
The theme of 153 - 251
has been resumed and the Believers have been exhorted to spend in the way of Allah in order to please Him alone. In contrast to this, they have been warned against the evils of lending money on interest. Instructions have also been given for the honest conduct of day-to-day business transactions. 261 - 283
The basic articles of the Faith have been recapitulated here at the end of the Surah, just as they were enunciated at its beginning. Then the Surah ends with a prayer which the Muslim Community needed very much at that time when they were encountering untold hardships in the propagation of the Guidance. 284 - 286
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This Surah takes its name from v. 33. Al-i-Imran, like the names of many other surahs, is merely a name to distinguish it from other surahs and does not imply that the family of Imran has been discussed in it.
The Period of Revelation
This Surah consists of four discourses The first discourses :-
The first discourse (vv. 1-32) was probably revealed soon after the Battle of Badr.
The second discourse (vv. 33-63) was revealed in 9 A. H. on the occasion of the visit of the deputation from the Christians of Najran.
The third discourse (vv. 64-120) appears to have been revealed immediately after the first one.
The fourth discourse (vv. 121-200) was revealed after the Battle of Uhd.
Though these discourses were revealed at different periods and on different occasions, they are so inter-linked and so inter-connected iii regard to their aim, object and central theme that they make together one continuous whole. This Surah has been especially addressed to two groups-the people of the Book (the Jews and the Christians) and the followers of Muhammad (Allah's peace be upon him).
The message has been extended to the Jews and the Christians in continuation of the invitation in Al-Baqarah, in which they have been admonished for their erroneous beliefs and evil morals and advised to accept, as a remedy, the Truth of the Quran. They have been told here that Muhammad (Allah's peace be, upon him) taught the same right way of life that had been preached by their own Prophets; that it alone was the Right Way, the way of Allah; hence any deviation from it will be wrong even according to their own Scriptures.
The second group, the Muslims, who had been declared to be the best Community in Al-Baqarah and appointed torch-bearers of the Truth and entrusted with the responsibility of reforming the world, have been given additional instructions in continuation of those given in the preceding Surah. The Muslims have been warned to learn a lesson from the religious and moral degeneration of the former communities and to refrain from treading in their footsteps. Instructions have also been given about the reformative work they had to perform. Besides this, they have been taught how to deal with the people of the Book and the hypocrites who were putting different kinds of hindrances in the way of Allah. Above all, they have been warned to guard against those weaknesses which had come to the surface in the Battle Uhd.
The following is the background of the Surah:
- The Believers had met with all sorts of trials and hardships about which they had been forewarned in Al- Baqarah. Though they had come out victorious in the Battle of Badr, they were not out of danger yet. Their victory had aroused the enmity of all those powers in Arabia which were opposed to the Islamic Movement. Signs of threatening storms had begun to appear on all sides and the Muslims were in a perpetual state of fear and anxiety. It looked as if the whole Arabian world around the tiny state of Al- Madinah -- which was no more than a village state at that time -- was bent upon blotting out its very existence. This state of war was also adversely affecting its economy, which had already been badly disturbed by the influx of the Muslim refugees from Makkah.
- Then there was the disturbing problem of the Jewish clans who lived in the suburbs of Al-Madinah. They were discarding the treaties of alliance they had made with the Holy Prophet after his migration from Makkah. So much so that on the occasion of the Battle of Badr, these people of the Book sympathized with the evil aims of the idolaters, in spite of the fact that their fundamental articles of the Faith -- Oneness of Allah, Prophethood, Life-after- death -- were the same as those of the Muslims. After the Battle of Badr, they openly began to incite the Quraish and other Arab clans to wreak their vengeance on the Muslims. Thus those Jewish clans set aside their centuries-old friendly and neighborly relations with the people of Al-Madinah. At last when their mischievous actions and breaches of treaties became unbearable, the Holy Prophet attacked the Bani- Qainu-qa'a, the most mischievous of all the other Jewish clans who had conspired with the hypocrites of Al-Madinah and the idolatrous Arab clans to encircle the Believers on all sides. The magnitude of the peril might be judged from the fact that even the life of the Holy Prophet himself was always in danger. Therefore his Companions slept in their armors during that period and kept watch at night to guard against any sudden attack, and whenever the Holy Prophet happened to be out of sight even for a short while, they would at once set out in search of him.
- This incitement by the Jews added fuel to the fire which was burning in the hearts of the Quraish and they began to make preparations to avenge the defeat they had suffered at Bad. A year after this an army of 3,000 strong marched out of Makkah to invade Al-Madinah and a battle took place at the foot of Mount Uhd. The Holy Prophet came out of Al-Madinah with one thousand men to meet the enemy. While they were marching to the battle-field, three hundred hypocrites deserted the army and returned to Al- Madinah, but there still remained a small band of hypocrites among the seven hundred who accompanied the Holy Prophet. They played their part and did their worst to create mischief and chaos in the ranks of the Believers during the Battle. This was the first clear indication of the fact that within the fold of the Muslim Community there was quite a large number of saboteurs who were always ready to conspire with the external enemies to harm their own brethren.
- Though the devices of the hypocrites had played a great part in the set-back at Uhd, the weaknesses of the Muslims themselves contributed no less to it. And it was but natural that the Muslims should show signs of moral weakness for they were a new community which had only recently been formed on a new ideology and had not as yet got a thorough moral training. Naturally in this second hard test of their physical and moral strength, some weaknesses came to the surface. That is why a detailed review of the Battle of Uhd was needed to warn the Muslims of their shortcomings and to issue instructions for their reform. It should also be noted that this review of the Battle is quite different from the reviews that are usually made by generals on similar occasions.
This Surah is the sequel to, Al-Baqarah and the invitation therein is continued to the people of the Book. In Al- Baqarah the Jews were pointedly invited to accept the Guidance and in this Surah the Christians have particularly been admonished to give up their erroneous beliefs and accept the Guidance of the Quran. At the same time, the Muslims have been instructed to nourish the virtues that may enable them to carry out their obligations and spread the Divine Guidance.
Topics and their Interconnection
In these introductory verses, the fundamental truths about Allah, Revelation and Life-after-death have been reiterated to serve as fitting preliminaries, leading to the main topics discussed in the Surah. 1 - 32
This discourse is particularly addressed to the Christians and invites them to accept Islam. It clears Jesus and his mother not only from the stigma maliciously set upon them by the Jews, but also refutes the erroneous Christian creed of the Divinity of Jesus which had been formulated because of his miraculous birth. For this purpose the instances of John the Baptist to a barren woman and an extremely aged man and that of Adam without father and mother have been cited to show that there is nothing in the birth of Jesus without a father to entitle him to Divinity. 33 - 65
In these verses the people of the Book, the Jews, have been invited to give up their sinister ways and accept the divine Guidance. At the same time the Muslims have been warned to be on their guard against their malicious intentions, erroneous ways and absurd objections. 66 - 101
The Muslims have been instructed to learn lessons from the history of the people of the Book and also to guard themselves against their machinations, and to prepare and train themselves to establish virtue and eradicate evil. 102 - 120
In this portion, a review of the Battle of Uhd has been mad to teach and reassure the Muslims that the machinations of their enemies could do them no harm, if they would practise restraint and fortitude and have fear of Allah. It has been pointed out that the set-back they had suffered was due to the lack of some moral qualities and the existence of some evils. Since the main cause of the defeat was the greed of the archers, guarding the pass, the taking of interest has been prohibited to eradicate this evil. 121 - 175
The main theme of the verses 109 - 120
has been resumed to reassure and encourage the Muslims against the dangerous plots of their enemies. 175 - 189
This is the conclusion of the Surah and is not directly connected with the verses immediately preceding it but with the theme of the Surah as a whole. 190 - 200
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Period of Revelation
This Surah comprises several discourses which were revealed on different occasions during the period ranging probably between the end of A. H. 3 and the end of A. H. 4 or the beginning of A. H. 5. Although it is difficult to determine the exact dates of their revelations, yet it is possible to assign to them a fairly correct period with the help of the Commandments and the events mentioned therein and the Traditions concerning them. A few instances are given below by way of illustration :
Topics and Their Background
- We know that the instructions about the division of inheritance of the martyrs and for the safeguard of the rights of the orphans were sent down after the Battle of Uhd in which 70 Muslims were killed. Then naturally the question of the division of the inheritance of the martyrs and the safeguard of the rights of their orphans arose in many families at Al-Madinah. From this we conclude that vv. 1 -28 were revealed on that occasion.
- We learn from the Traditions that the Commandment about salat during war time was given on the occasion of Zat-ur-Riqa'a, an expedition which took place in A. H. 4. From this we conclude that the discourse containing v. 102 was revealed on that occasion.
- The last warning (v. 47) to the Jews was given before the Banu Nadir were exiled from Al-Madinah in Rabi'-ulAwwal, A. H. 4. From this it may safely be concluded that the discourse containing v. 47 must have been revealed some time before that date.
- The permission about tayammum (the performance of ablutions with pure dust, in case no water be available) was given during the Bani-al-Mustaliq expedition, which took place in A. H. 5.. Therefore the probable period of the revelation of the discourse containing v. 43 was A. H. 5.
Let us now consider the social and historical considerations of the period in order to understand the Surah. All the discourses in this Surah deal with three main problems which confronted the Holy Prophet at the time. First of all, he was engaged in bringing about an all round development of the Islamic Community that had been formed at the time of his migration to Al-Madinah. For this purpose he was introducing new moral, cultural, social, economic and political ways in place of the old ones of the pre-Islamic period. The second thing that occupied his attention and efforts was the bitter struggle that was going on with the mushrik
Arabs, the Jewish clans and the hypocrites who were opposing tooth and nail his mission of reform. Above all he had to propagate Islam in the face of the bitter opposition of these powers of evil with a view to capturing more and more minds and hearts.
Accordingly, detailed instructions have been given for the consolidation and strengthening of the Islamic Community in continuation of those given in Al-Baqarah. Principles for the smooth running of family life have been laid down and ways of settling family disputes have been taught. Rules have been prescribed for marriage and rights of wife and husband have been apportioned fairly and equitably. The status of women in the society has been determined and the declaration of the rights of orphans has been made laws and regulations have been laid down for the division of inheritance, and instructions have been given to reform economic affairs. The foundation of the penal code has been laid down drinking has been prohibited, and instructions have been given for cleanliness and purity. The Muslims have been taught the kind of relations good men should have with their Allah and fellow men. Instructions have been given for the maintenance of discipline in the Muslim Community.
The moral and religious condition of the people of the Book has been reviewed to teach lessons to the Muslims and to forewarn them to refrain from following in their footsteps. The conduct of the hypocrites has been criticized and the distinctive features of hypocrisy and true faith have been clearly marked off to enable the Muslims to distinguish between the two.
In order to cope with the aftermath of the Battle of Uhd, Inspiring discourses were sent down to urge the Muslims to face the enemy bravely, for the defeat in the Battle had so emboldened the mushrik
Arab clans and the neighboring Jews and the hypocrites at home that they were threatening the Muslims on all sides. At this critical juncture, Allah filled the Muslims with courage and gave them such instructions as were needed during that period of war clouds. In order to counteract the fearful rumors that were being spread by the hypocrites and the Muslims of weak faith, they were asked to make a thorough enquiry into them and to inform the responsible people about them. Then they were experiencing some difficulties in offering their salat during the expeditions to some places where no water was available for performing their ablutions, etc. In such cases they were allowed to cleanse themselves with pure earth and to shorten the salat or to offer the "Salat of Fear", when they were faced with danger. Instructions were also given for the solution of the puzzling problem of those Muslims who were scattered among the unbelieving Arab clans and were often involved in war. They were asked to migrate to Al-Madinah, the abode of Islam.
This Surah also deals with the case of Bani Nadir who were showing a hostile and menacing attitude, in spite of the peace treaties they had made with the Muslims. They were openly siding with the enemies of Islam and hatching plots against the Holy Prophet and the Muslim Community even at AI-Madinah itself. They were taken to task for their inimical behavior and given a final warning to change their attitude, and were at last exiled from Al-Madinah on account of their misconduct.
The problem of the hypocrites, who had become very troublesome at that time, was involving the Believers in difficulties-- Therefore they were divided into different categories to enable the Muslims to deal with them appropriately.
Clear instructions were also given regarding the attitude they should adopt towards the non-belligerent clans. The most important thing needed at that time was to prepare the Muslims for the bitter struggle with the opponents of Islam. For this purpose greatest importance was attached to their character building, for it was obvious that the small Muslim Community could only come out successful, nay, survive, if the Muslims possessed high moral character. They were, therefore, enjoined to adopt the highest moral qualities and were severely criticized whenever any moral weakness was detected in them.
Though this Surah mainly deals with the moral and social reforms, yet due attention has been paid to propagation of Islam. On the one hand, the superiority of the Islamic morality and culture has been established over that of the Jews, Christians and mushriks; on the other hand, their wrong religious conceptions, their wrong morality and their evil acts have been criticized to prepare the ground for inviting them to the way of the Truth.
Subject: Consolidation of the Islamic Community
The main object of this Surah is to teach the Muslims the ways that unite a people and make them firm and strong. Introductions for the stability of family, which is the nucleus of community have been given. Then they have been urged to prepare themselves for defence. Side by side with these, they have been taught the importance of the propagation of Islam. Above all, the importance of the highest moral character in the scheme of consolidation of the Community has been impressed.
Topics and their Interconnection
Just, fair and equitable laws and regulations for the smooth running of family life have been laid down for the husband and wife. Detailed instructions have been given for the division of inheritance and due regard has been paid to the rights of orphans. 1 - 35
In order to inculcate the right spirit for the observance of rules and regulations, the Muslims have been enjoined to show generosity to all around them and to be free from meanness, selfishness, stinginess of mind, because this is essential for the consolidation of the Communities and helpful for the propagation of Islam. 36 - 42
The ways of the purification of mind and body for the offering of Salat have been taught because it plays the most important part in every scheme of moral and social reform. 43
After moral preparation, instructions for defence have been given. First of all, the Muslims have been warned to be on their guard against the cunning machinations and vile practices of the local Jews who were hostile to the New Movement. This caution was necessary for removing some possible misunderstanding that might have arisen on account of the pre-Islamic alliance between the people of Al-Madinah and the Jews. 44 - 57
Then they have been enjoined to place their trusts and offices of trust in the custody of honest and qualified persons, and to do what is just and right, and to obey Allah and His Messenger and those among themselves entrusted with the conduct of their affairs and to turn to Allah and His Messenger for the settlement of their disputes. As such an attitude and behaviour alone can ensure consolidation, they have been strongly warned that any deviation from this path will lead to their disintegration. 58 - 72
After this pre-requisite, they have been exhorted to make preparation for defence and to fight bravely for the cause of Islam, without showing any kind of cowardice or weakness. They have also been warned to be on their guard against hypocrites. A line of demarcation has been drawn to distinguish the intentional shirkers from the helpless devotees. 73 - 100
Here again instructions have been given for the offering of Salat during military campaigns and actual fighting. This is to impress the importance of Salat even at the time of fear and danger. 101 - 103
Before proceeding on to the next topic, the Muslims have been exhorted to persevere in their fight without showing any kind of weakness. 104
In order to make the Islamic Community firm and strong for defence, the Muslims have been enjoined to observe the highest standard of justice. The Muslims are required to deal out strict justice even in case of the enemy, with whom they might be involved in war. They should also settle disputes between husband and wife with justice. In order to ensure this, they should keep their beliefs and deeds absolutely free from every kind of impurity and should become the standard bearers of justice. 105 - 135
Resuming the theme of defence, the Muslims have been warned to be on their guard against their enemies. They have been admonished to take necessary precautions against the machinations of the hypocrites and the unbelievers and the people of the Book. As belief in Allah, and Revelation and Life-after-death is the only safeguard against every kind of enemy, they should sincerely believe in and follow His Messenger, Muhammad (Allah's peace be upon him). 136 - 175
Though this verse also deals with the family laws contained in verses 1 - 35
, it has been added as a supplement at the end of this Surah because it was revealed long after An-Nisa was being recited as a complete Surah. 176
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This Sarah takes its' name from verse 112 in which the word mai'dah
occurs. Like the names of many other surahs, this name has no special relation to the subject of the Surah but has been used merely as a symbol to distinguish it from other surahs.
Period of Revelation
The theme of this Surah indicates, and traditions support it, that it was revealed after the treaty of Hudaibiyah at the end of 6 A. H. or in the beginning of 7 A. H. That is why it deals with those problems that arose from this treaty.
The Holy Prophet with 1400 Muslims went to Makkah in Zil-Qaadah 6 A. H. to perform `Umrah
, but the Quraish spurred by their enmity, prevented him from its performance, though it was utterly against all the ancient religious traditions of Arabia. After a good deal of hard and harsh negotiations, a treaty was concluded at Hudaibiyah according to which it was agreed that he could perform `Umrah
the following year. That was a very appropriate occasion for teaching the Muslims the right way of performing a pilgrimage to Makkah with the true Islamic dignity, and enjoining that they should not prevent the disbelievers from performing pilgrimage to Makkah as a retaliation for their misbehavior. This was not difficult at all as many disbelievers had to pass through Muslim territory on their way to Makkah. This is why the introductory verses deal with the things connected with pilgrimage to Makkah and the same theme has been resumed in vv. 101-104. The other topics of this Surah also appear to belong to the same period.
The continuity of the subject shows that most probably the whole of the surah was revealed as a single discourse at one and the same time. It is also possible that some of its verses were revealed at a later period and inserted in this Surah at different places where they fitted in. But there appears to be not the least gap anywhere in the surah to show that it might have comprised two or more discourses.
Occasion of Revelation
This Surah was revealed to suit the requirements of the changed conditions which were now different from those prevailing at the time of the revelation of Al-i-'Imran and An- Nisa. Then the shock of the set-back at Uhd had made the very surroundings of Al-Madinah dangerous for the Muslims, but now Islam had become an invulnerable power and the Islamic State had extended to Najd on the east, to the Red Sea on the west, to Syria on the north and to Makkah on the south. This set-back which the Muslims had suffered at Uhd had not broken their determination. It had rather spurred them to action. As a result of their continuous struggle and unparalleled sacrifices, the power of. the surrounding clans, within a radius of 200 miles or so, had been broken. The Jewish menace which was always threatening Al-Madinah had been totally removed and the Jews in the other parts of Hijaz had-become tributaries of the State of Al-Madinah. The last effort of the Quraish to suppress Islam had been thwarted in the Battle of the Ditch. After this, it had become quite obvious to the Arabs that no power could suppress the Islamic movement. Now Islam was not merely a creed which ruled over the minds and hearts of the people but had also become a State which dominated over every aspect of the life of the people who lived within its boundaries. This had enabled the Muslims to live their lives without let or hindrance, in accordance with their beliefs.
Another development had also taken place during this period. The Muslim civilization had developed in accordance with the principles of Islam and the Islamic viewpoint. This civilization was quite distinct from all other civilizations in all its' details, and distinguished the Muslims clearly from the non Muslims in their moral, social and cultural behavior. Mosques had been built in all territories, prayer had been established and' Imam (leader) for every habitation and clan had been appointed. The Islamic civil and criminal laws had been formulated in detail and were being enforced through the Islamic courts. New and reformed ways of trade and commerce had taken the place of the old ones. The Islamic laws of marriage and divorce, of the segregation of the sexes, of the punishment for adultery and calumny and the like had cast the social life of the Muslims in a special mould. Their social behavior, their conversation, their dress, their very mode of living, their culture etc., had taken a definite shape of its own. As a result of all these changes, the non-Muslims could not expect that the Muslims would ever return to their former fold.
Before the treaty of Hudaibiyah, the Muslims were so engaged in their struggle with the non-Muslim Quraish that they got no time to propagate their message. This hindrance was removed by what was apparently a defeat but in reality a victory at Hudaibiyah. This gave the Muslims not only peace in their own territory but also respite to spread their message in the surrounding territories. Accordingly the Holy Prophet addressed letters to the rulers of Iran, Egypt and the Roman Empire and the chiefs of Arabia, inviting them to Islam. At the same time the missionaries of Islam spread among the clans and tribes and invited them to accept the Divine Way of Allah. These were the circumstances at the time when Al-Ma'idah was revealed.
It deals with the following three main topics:
Subject:Consolidation of the Islamic Community
- Commandments and instructions about the religious, cultural and political life of the Muslims. In this connection, a code of ceremonial rules concerning the journey for Haj has been prescribed; the observance of strict respect for the emblems of Allah has been enjoined; and any kind of obstruction or interference with the pilgrims to the Kaabah has been prohibited. Definite rules and regulations have been laid down for what is lawful and unlawful in the matter of food, and self-imposed foolish restrictions of the pre-Islamic age have been abolished. Permission has been given to. take food with the people of the Book and to marry their women. Rules and regulations for the performance of Wudu (ablutions) and bath and purification and tayammum (ablutions with dust) have been prescribed. Punishment for rebellion, disturbance of peace and theft have been specified. Drinking and gambling have absolutely been made unlawful. Expiation for the breaking of oath has been laid down and a few more things have been added to the law of evidence.
- Admonition to the Muslims. Now that the Muslims had become a ruling body, it was feared that power might corrupt them. At this period of great trial, Allah had admonished them over and over again to stick to justice and to guard against the wrong behavior of their predecessors, the people of the Book. They have been enjoined to remain steadfast to the Covenant of obedience to Allah and His Messenger, and to observe strictly their commands and prohibitions in order to save them- selves from the evil consequences which. befell the Jews and the Christians who had violated them. They have been instructed to observe the dictates of the Holy Quran in the conduct of all their affairs and warned against the attitude of hypocrisy.
- Admonition to the Jews and the Christians. As the power of the Jews had been totally weakened and almost all their habitations in north Arabia had come under the rule of the Muslims, they have been warned again about their wrong attitude and invited to follow the Right Way. At the same time a detailed invitation has also been extended to the Christians. The errors of their creeds have been clearly pointed out and they have been admonished to accept the guidance of the Holy Prophet. . Incidentally, it may be noted that no direct invitation has been made to the Majusis and idolaters living in the adjoining countries, because there was no need for a separate address for them as their condition. had already been covered by the addresses to the mushrik Arabs.
In continuation of the instructions about the consolidation of the Islamic Community given in Surah AN-NISA, the Muslims have been directed to observe and fulfill all their obligations: further regulations have been prescribed to train the Muslims for that purpose.
They have also been particularly warned as rulers to guard against the corruption, of power and directed to observe the Covenant of the Quran. They have also been exhorted to learn lessons from the failings of their predecessors, the Jews and the Christians, who in their turn have been admonished to give up their wrong attitudes towards the Right Way and accept the guidance taught by Prophet Muhammad (God's peace be upon him).
Topics and their Interconnection
The Believers have been exhorted to fulfill scrupulously all of their obligations and follow the regulations prescribed by the Divine Law about food, sex, Salat, justice, etc. 1 - 10
The Muslims have been warned to guard against the errors of their predecessors; they should follow the Right Path and avoid the bad example of the Jews and the Christians, who broke their Covenants and went astray into evil ways. They, in their turn, have been admonished to give up their wrong ways and accept Islam. 11 - 26
The story of the two sons of Adam has been related to reproach the Jews for their plot to kill the Holy Prophet and his Companions. (v. 11 & E.N. 30). The story has also been used to emphasize the sanctity of human life. 27 - 32
To achieve this object, punishments have been prescribed for those who create chaos in the Islamic State, and the Believers have been urged to exert their utmost to establish the Right Way; the sanctity of property has also been emphasized. 33 - 40
The Holy Prophet (and through him the Muslims) has been reassured that he should not mind the enmity, the evil designs and the machinations of the Jews, but continue exerting his utmost to establish the Right Way in accordance with the Guidance of the Quran; for nothing better could be expected from those who had forsaken their own Torah. He should deal with the Christians likewise, for they, too, had forsaken their Gospel. 41 - 50
In view of the degenerate moral condition of the Jews and the Christians, the Believers have been warned not to make them their friends and confidants. Likewise they should be on their guard against the evil designs of the hypocrites, the disbelievers and the like and should rely on the true Believers alone. The people of the Book have, in their turn been exhorted to give up their enmity and adopt the right attitude, for they cannot get salvation without this. 51 - 69
The theme of the corruptions of the Jews and Christians has been resumed. The Christians especially have been reproved for their errors in regard to the doctrine of Tauhid
. At the same time they have been preferred to the hard hearted Jews, for there are among them some who are more inclined towards the Truth. 70 - 86
In this portion of the Surah, further regulations about the lawful and the un-lawful, in addition to those contained in vv. 1 - 10, have been given. 87 - 108
At the end of the Surah, the mention of the conversation that will take place between Allah and His Prophets on the Day of Judgment, has been made for the benefit of the erring people to serve as a corrective to their creeds. The conversation with Prophet Christ has been cited as a specimen to warn particularly the Christians, who profess to believe in him, and generally all those people who put false hopes in their Prophets, etc. 109 - 119
: "O man-kind! The Sovereignty of the heavens and the earth belongs to Allah: therefore you should become His true servants and fear Him, for He has full powers over everything." 120
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This Surah takes its name from vv. 136, 138 and 139 in which some superstitious beliefs of the idolatrous Arabs concerning the lawfulness of some cattle (an`am
) and the unlawfulness of some others have been refuted.
Period of Revelation
According to a tradition of Ibn Abbas, the whole of the Surah was revealed at one sitting at Makkah. Asma, a daughter of Yazid and a first cousin of Hadrat Mu'az-bin Jabl, says,. "During the revelation of this Surah, the Holy Prophet was riding on a she-camel and I was holding her nose-string. The she-camel began to feel the weight so heavily that it seemed as if her bones would break under it."We also learn from other traditions that the Holy Prophet dictated the whole of the Surah the same night that it was revealed.
Its subject-matter clearly shows that it must have been revealed during the last year of the Holy Prophet's life at Makkah. The tradition of Asma, daughter of Yazid, also confirms this. As she belonged to the Ansar
and embraced Islam after the migration of the Holy Prophet to Yathrab, her visit to the Holy Prophet at Makkah must have taken place during the last year of his life there. For before this, his relations with those people were not so intimate that a woman from there might have come to visit him at Makkah.
Occasion of Revelation
After determining the period of its revelation, it is easier to visualize the background of the Surah. Twelve years had passed since the Holy Prophet had been inviting the people to Islam. The antagonism and persecution by the Quraish had become most savage and brutal, and the majority of the Muslims had to leave their homes and migrate to Habash (Abyssinia). Above all, the two great supporters of the Holy Prophet. Abu Talib and Hadrat Khadijah, were no more to help and give strength to him. Thus he was deprived of all the worldly support. But in spite of this, he carried on his mission in the teeth of opposition. As a result of this, on the one hand, all the good people of Makkah and the surrounding clans gradually began to accept Islam ; on the other hand, the community as a whole, was bent upon obduracy and rejection. Therefore, if anyone showed any inclination towards Islam, he was subjected to taunts and derision, physical violence and social boycott. It was in these dark circumstances that a ray of hope gleamed from Yathrab, where Islam began to spread freely by the efforts of some influential people of Aus and Khazraj, who had embraced Islam at Makkah. This was a humble beginning in the march of Islam towards success and none could foresee at that time the great potentialities that lay hidden in it. For, to a casual observer, it appeared at that time as if Islam was merely a weak movement it had no material backing except the meager support of the Prophet's own family and of the few poor adherents of the Movement. Obviously the latter could not give much help because they themselves had been cast out by their own people who had become their enemies and were persecuting them.
These were the conditions, when this discourse was revealed. The main topics dealt with in this discourse may be divided under seven headings:
The Background of Makki Surahs
- Refutation of shirk and invitation to the creed of Tauhid.
- Enunciation of the doctrine of the "Life-after- death." and refutation of the wrong notion that there was nothing beyond this worldly life.
- Refutation of the prevalent superstitions.
- Enunciation of the fundamental moral principles for the building up of the Islamic Society.
- Answers to the objections raised against the person of the Holy Prophet and his mission.
- Comfort and encouragement to the Holy Prophet and his followers who were at, that time in a state of anxiety and despondency because of the apparent failure of the mission.
- Admonition, warning and threats to the disbelievers and opponents to give up their apathy and haughtiness. It must, however, be noted that the above topics have not been dealt with one by one under separate headings, but the discourse goes on as a continuous whole and these topics come under discussion over and over again in new and different ways.
As this is the first long Makki Surah in the order of the compilation of the Quran, it will be useful to explain the historical background of Makki Surahs in general, so that the reader may easily understand the Makki Surahs and our references to its different stages in connection with our commentary on them.
First of all, it should be noted that comparatively very little material is available in regard to the background of the revelation of Makki Surahs whereas the period of the revelation of all the Madani Surahs is known or can be determined with a little effort. There are authentic traditions even in regard to the occasions of the revelation of the majority of the verses. On the other hand, we do not have such detailed information regarding the Makki Surahs. There are only a few Surahs and verses which have authentic traditions concerning the time and occasion of their revelation. This is because the history of the Makki period had not been compiled in such detail as that of the Madani period. Therefore we have to depend on the internal evidence of these Surahs for determining the period of their revelation: for example, the topics they discuss, their subject. matter, their style and the direct or indirect references to the events and the occasions of their revelation. Thus it is obvious that with the help of such evidence as this, we cannot say with precision that such and such Surah or verse was revealed on such and such an occasion. The most we can do is to compare the internal evidence of a Surah with the events of the life of the Holy Prophet at Makkah, and then come to a more or less correct conclusion as to what particular stage a certain Surah belongs.
If we keep the above things in view, the history of the mission of the Holy Prophet at Makkah can be divided into four stages.
The first stage began with his appointment as a Messenger and ended with the proclamation of Prophethood three years later. During this period the Message was given secretly to some selected persons only, but the common people of Makkah were not aware of it.
The second stage lasted for two years after the proclamation of his Prophethood. It began with opposition by individuals: then by and by, it took the shape of antagonism, ridicule, derision,, accusation, abuse, and false propaganda then gangs were formed to persecute those Muslims who were comparatively poor, weak' and helpless.
The third stage lasted for about six years from the beginning of the persecution to the death of Abu Talib and Hadrat Khadijah in the tenth year of Prophethood. During this period, the persecution of the Muslims became' so savage and brutal that many of them were forced to migrate to Habash. Social and economic boycott was applied against the Holy Prophet and the members of his family, and those Muslims who continued to stay in Makkah were forced to take refuge in Shi'b-i-A'bi Talib which was besieged.
The fourth stage lasted for about three years from the tenth to the thirteenth year of Prophethood. This was a period of hard trials and grievous sufferings for the Holy Prophet and his followers. Life had become unendurable at Makkah and there appeared to be no place of refuge even outside it. So much so that when the Holy Prophet went to Ta'if, it offered no shelter or protection. Besides this, on the occasion of Haj, he would appeal to each and every Arab clan to accept his invitation to Islam but met with blank refusal from every quarter. At the same time, the people of Makkah were holding counsels' to get rid of him by killing or imprisoning or banishing him from their city. It was at that most critical time that Allah opened for Islam the hearts of the Ansar
of Yathrab where he migrated at their invitation.
Now that we have divided the life of the Holy Prophet at Makkah into four stages, it has become easier for us to tell, as far as possible, the particular stage in which a certain Makki Sarah was revealed. This is because the Surahs belonging to a particular stage can be distinguished from those of the other stages with the help of their subject matter and style. Besides this, they also contain such references as throw light on the circumstances and events that form the background of their revelation. In the succeeding Makki Surahs, we will determine on the basis of the distinctive features of each stage, and point out in the Preface, the particular stage in which a certain Makki Surah was revealed.
Subject :Islamic Creed.
This Surah mainly discusses the different aspects of the major articles of the Islamic Creed: Tauhid
, Life-after- death, Prophethood an' their practical application to human life. Side by side with this, it refutes the erroneous beliefs of the "opponents and answers their objections, warns and admonishes them and comforts the Holy Prophet and his followers, who were then suffering from persecution.
Of course, these themes have not been dealt with under separate heads but have been blended in an excellent manner.
Topics and their Interconnection
These verses are of introductory and admonitory nature. The disbelievers have been warned that if they do not accept the Islamic Creed and follow the `Light' shown by the Revelation from the All-Knowing and All-Powerful Allah, they would go to the same doom as the former disbelievers did. Their arguments for rejecting the Prophet and the Revelation sent down to him have been refuted and a warning has been given to them that they should not be deluded by the respite that is being granted to them. 1 - 12
These verses inculcate Tauhid
, and refute shirk
which is the greatest obstacle in the way of its acceptance. 13 - 24
In these verses, a graphic scene of the life in the Hereafter has been depicted in order to warn the disbelievers of the consequences of the rejection of the Articles of Faith. 25 - 32
Prophethood is the main theme which has been discussed from the point of view of the Holy Prophet, his Mission, the limitations of his powers, the attitude towards his followers and also from the point of view of the disbelievers. 33 - 73
In continuation of the same theme, the story of Prophet Abraham has been related to bring home to the pagan Arabs that the Mission of Prophet Muhammad, which they were opposing, was the same as that of Prophet Abraham (Allah's peace be upon them). This line of argument was adopted because they considered themselves to be his followers, especially the Quraish who were proud of being his descendants as well. 74 - 90
Another proof of his Prophethood is the Book, which has been sent down to him by Allah, for its teachings show the right guidance in regard to creed and practice. 91 - 108
Divine restrictions have been contrasted with the superstitious restrictions of the pagan Arabs in order to show the striking differences between the two and thus prove the Quran to be a Revealed Book. 109 - 154
The Jews, who were criticized in vv. 144 - 147 along with the pagan Arabs, have been urged to compare the teachings of the Quran with those of the Torah so that they might recognize their similarity and give up their lame excuses against it, and adopt its Guidance to escape the retribution on the Day of Resurrection. 155 - 160
This is the conclusion of the discourse: the Holy Prophet has been instructed in a beautiful and forceful manner to proclaim fearlessly the articles of the Islamic Creed and their implications. 161 - 165
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Summary of Surah Al Anam : verse 1-165
1: Absolute Hamd is for Allah Almighty alone (1/1) who created the universe and devised darkness and light. Those who reject the Divine laws set up peers to Allah.
2: It is He who initiated your creation from inanimate matter and prescribed laws to determine the term of your physical life, and the life hereafter which He alone knows of. Yet you doubt His existence.
3: Allah's sovereignty is not confined to the physical universe, it also encompasses the world of human beings. Allah Almighty knows what is apparent as well as hidden. He is aware of all your activities.
4: Allah Almighty gives such clear guidance; despite it, those who reject His laws turn away from it.
5: Similarly, O Rasool, the people to whom you deliver this guidance are rejecting and ridiculing it but soon they will face the consequences of their mockery.
6: Have they not seen how many generations before them were destroyed? These people were established more firmly in the land than they, and Allah Almighty sent down copious rains upon them causing rivers to flow. Notwithstanding all this, they were destroyed for their offences and then other people were raised in their place.
7: Time and again they demand miracles from you and we tell them that Ei'man comes from reflection upon Allah's teachings and not from witnessing miracles. Hypothetically speaking, if he had sent down a ready-made book which they could touch with their hands, they - who had decided not to believe - would still not have believed, and would have said: "This is nothing but obvious fraud".
8: These people also ask: "Why was an angel (Malak) whom we could see not sent down to this Rasool?" If Allah Almighty had sent such a malak their doom would have been sealed and they would have had no respite.
9: If a Malik had been sent down as a Rasool, he would have obviously come in human form. This would have aroused doubts similar to those which they now have.
10: O Rasool! the fact is that they are not taking the matter seriously. Rusul before you, were, similarly laughed at but what had been laughed at backfired against them.
11: O Rasool! say to them: "Travel through the earth and see what has been the end of those who said that Allah's Rusul were telling a lie".
12: O Rasool! ask them: "Who wields power in the universe?" and tell them "It is Allah".
They ask "If Allah Almighty is so powerful why does He not seize us immediately for our offences". Tell them: "He had provided respite in the law of Mukaf'at and this is His Rahmat towards mankind which He has made incumbent upon Himself (6/54). The results of the actions of wrongdoers will become manifest on the Day of Reckoning which will certainly come. Only those people will not profess Ei'man, who are out to ruin themselves".
13: Whether it is day or night, it is all the same to Allah Almighty who hears and knows all.
14-15: Ask them: "Do you want that I should take as protector and helper anyone other than Allah Almighty - Allah Almighty who has brought the entire universe into being from nothingness; who provides nourishment to all but Himself needs none". Say: "I have been commanded to be the first of those who surrender before Allah's laws and not to be one of the Mushrikeen. Tell them: "If I revolted against Allah's laws, I too would be fearful of chastisement on the Day of Reckoning" (10/15, 39/13).
16-18: On that day whosoever is saved from chastisement has invited Allah's Rahmat upon himself, and this is a manifest achievement. This is so because if any affliction or any good comes to anyone according to Allah's law of Mukaf'at, it can not be averted. For all this, Allah Almighty has appointed measures. He has supreme authority over human beings and He exercises it with wisdom and full knowledge of their condition.
19: Ask them: "Whose testimony is the strongest to validate what I say?" Tell them: "Allah's testimony is the best to decide between you and me. This testimony has been revealed to me and is now included in the Quran so that through it I should forewarn you as well as those whom it may reach after you". Ask them: "Do you still affirm that there are deities other than Allah? If you affirm this I certainly cannot endorse this. I affirm that Allah Almighty alone is the sovereign and I abhor what you associate with Him".
20: Those to whom We had given the Book before you recognize the truth as they recognise their own children. But they still do not believe and thereby bring about their own ruin.
21: Just reflect: Who can be more Z'alim than one who foists a lie on Allah Almighty and one who considers as a lie the truth which has been revealed by Him. Certainly they both are Z'alim and will not prosper.
22: They will be assembled together on the Day of Reckoning and the Mushrikeen will be asked "Where are those whom you assumed to be the associates of Allah"?
23-24: At that time, they will be able to employ no subterfuge and perforce will have to say "We swear by Allah Almighty that He is our Rabb and we never associated any authority with Him". Behold! how these people will lie against themselves, and those whom they have associated with Allah Almighty will desert them.
25: Some amongst them come into your assembly and pretend to listen to you but they have closed their hearts completely and made them hard of hearing lest they should understand what you say. They have become so hardened in their obstinacy that despite so many proofs, they do not believe the truth. They come to simply quarrel and have an argument with you. They say that what you say is nothing but ancient tales which have been repeated numerous times before.
26:These people turn away from your teachings themselves and also keep others away from them. They harm none except themselves but they do not realize how much loss they thus sustain.
27: If you were to see them set before Jahannam, you will hear them say "Only if we could go back! then we would not treat Allah's laws as false and be amongst the Momineen".
28: Their regret would not be genuine because they do not want, in earnest, to change their ways. They express regret only because what they used to hide from others would be laid bare. The fact is that if they were to be sent back they would revert to what was forbidden to them. They are certainly liars.
29: They say: "There is no life other than this and for us there is no life hereafter".
30: If you were to see them being set before their Rabb, and asked by Him: "Is not this life a reality?" You could hear them say: "Yes! By our Rabb it is such". Thereupon Allah Almighty will say: "Taste then the consequences of your wrong-doings which you used to deny".
31: Those who say that the idea of confrontation with Allah's law of Mukaf'at is baseless, are indeed losers. When the event will come upon them suddenly they will say regretfully: "How neglectful were we in this matter," while they bear the burden of their wrong-doings on their backs. How unbearable and torturous is their burden!
32: This is because they thought that life was confined only to this world. This fact is that as compared to the life hereafter physical life is nothing but play and a pastime. For those mindful of Allah's laws, the life hereafter is far better and full of bounties. Can they not understand even this much?
33: We are well aware that what they say grieves you. But you should know that it is not you whom they charge with falsehood; it is Allah's laws which they treat as false.
34: This is also nothing new. Rusul before you were similarly charged with falsehood. They bore the accusation as well as the harms done to them with patience. The Rusul were, however, victorious at the end. This is the law ordained by Allah Almighty which no one can alter.
We narrate the accounts of the past Rusul to you, O Rasool, so that you should do likewise.
35: If their rejection grieves you so deeply, remember that their condition for accepting you is that you should show them some miracles. If, Hypothetically speaking, you seek out an opening into the earth or a ladder to the sky and bring them concrete evidence, they will still not believe. If Allah Almighty had wished that all human beings should compulsorily follow the right path, it would not have been difficult for Him to create them without freedom of the will. So, you should not be amongst those who do not understand the plans of Allah.
36: We have made the right and wrong paths distinct (18/29). Only those who listen to the message of Allah Almighty attentively and reflect on it, will be able to adopt the right path. Those who have lost the capacity to understand and are like dead will have to confront Allah's law of Mukaf'at.
37: Again, those who reject the truth ask: "Why Allah Almighty has not sent down a miracle to the Rasool?". Tell them: "Allah Almighty has assuredly the power to do this but, as already state, it is not His plan to do so. The difficulty is that most of them do not take the trouble to reflect upon these matters".
38: The law that all creatures should compulsorily follow the path determined for them operates in the outer universe. Allah's law of Creation applies to all living beings who live on earth, including human beings, as well as birds flying in the atmosphere. The difference between human beings and other creatures is that while the latter are compelled to follow Allah's law instinctively, the former choose their path themselves exercising freedom of choice. A natural corollary of their freedom is that they are held accountable for their actions. Nothing has been missed in Our Scheme.
39: And they who consider Our laws false are like those who are deaf and dumb and thus grope in the darkness (2/8 and 2/171). They go astray. On the other hand those who adhere to Our laws follow the straight path.
40-41: O Rasool, ask those who set up peers to Allah: "If any natural calamity befalls you or any other sudden change occurs, why do you not ask those whom you associate with Allah Almighty to help you if you believe that you are truthful. Even if you call upon them for help, they will not be able to help you. Calamities can only be averted by following Allah's laws. However when the calamities are over, you again forget Divine law and start following un-Godly forces".
42: O Rasool, We sent Rusul to other communities before you. As a result of their wrong doings, these communities were subjected to poverty and distress. They were shaken so that they might realise what could be the consequences of being neglectful of Allah's laws.
43: If only, when our suffering came to them, they had been humble! (But they were not). Their hearts are hardened, however, and they did not surrender to Allah's laws. Shait'an made their course of conduct seem attractive to them.
44: When they had thus forgotten that of which they were warned, they should have been subjected to chastisement at once. This was not done due to Our law of Respite. On the contrary, the gates of abundance were opened to them. While they were rejoicing at what they had received, Our law of Mukaf'at suddenly took hold of them. They became utterly despondent about their future.
45: Thus the communities which committed Zulm were uprooted. This was Rahmat for those whom they had oppressed and cause for Hamd of Allah Almighty who is the Sustainer of all humanity.
46: Say to them: "If your faculties of sight, hearing and understanding are paralysed as a result of going against Allah's laws, is there anyone besides Allah Almighty who can restore them?" Reflect upon how We repeat Our basic teaching to impress its truth upon them but they turn away from it.
47: Say to the Jama'at-ul-Momineen: "Do not be apprehensive of Allah's chastisement which comes about as a result of wrong doings. This chastisement whether it comes suddenly or after due warning, destroys none but the Z'alimeen".
48: Our way is that We send Our Rusul as bearers of glad tidings and warnings. So whoever believes in them and acts according to their teachings will face no fear nor grief.
49: And those who treat Our laws as false will receive chastisement for their transgression.
50: O Rasool, say to them: "I do not assert before you that I possess the treasures of Allah Almighty or have knowledge of the unseen. Neither do I assert that I am a malak. I only say that I receive Allah's revelation which I follow myself". Ask them "Is one who is blind at par with one who is seeing? Do you not reflect upon this?"
51: Leaving aside those who are incorrigible, O Rasool warn those who believe in the law of Mukaf'at. Tell them that there will be no protectors or intercessors to shield them from Allah's law. They should, therefore, be mindful of His laws.
52: At the time of the advent of Islam, Arabian society was divided amongst various tribes, some of whom considered themselves to be superiors to the others and treated them with contempt. The central theme of the teachings of the Quran was the equality of all human beings and the Rasool was building a community comprising persons belonging to various tribes and even slaves in which equal respect was given to everyone regardless of origin or status. The tribes which considered themselves to be superiors to the others could not tolerate this. One of their conditions for making compromise with the Rasool was that persons whom they considered to be inferior should be expelled from the community. The Quran, however, rejected this condition since it violated its fundamental teachings (10/15, 11/113, 17/74, 68/9).
Allah Almighty said to the Rasool: "Do not drive away those who are poor or of low origin but who strive continuously for the cause of Allah. Their origin or previous status or poverty should have no bearing on their present position. If you still drive them away you will be from amongst the Z'alimeen". (11/27-30, 26/111-114, 18/28, 80/1-11).
53: Those who make such a demand betray a sense of their own inferiority. They say tauntingly "Look! these are the people from amongst us whom Allah Almighty has chosen for His blessings". Tell them O Rasool "Allah Almighty knows better than you who is worthy of respect and dignity".
54: When members of the Jama'at-ul-Momineen come to you O Rasool, greet them by saying "May peace be upon you and also Allah's Rahmat which He has made incumbent on Himself. If any one of you commits any wrong unknowingly and later repents and makes amends for it, you will surely find that Allah Almighty is the Protector and Sustainer".
55: We set forth Our laws so clearly so that the path of the wrongdoers becomes distinguishable from that of the righteous ones (18/29).
56: Say to those who deny the truth "I am forbidden to obey those whom you call upon besides Allah. I shall not yield to your base desires for if I do, I shall have gone astray and will not be counted amongst those who are rightly guided". Say: "I take my stand upon the clear evidence furnished by my Allah Almighty which you treat as false".
57: Say O Rasool! "I take my stand upon the clear evidence furnished by my Rabb which you treat as false". Time and again they ask you to bring about urgently the chastisement about which you warned them. Tell them: "It is not in my power to hasten what you ask for. These matters are decided by Allah's law of Mukaf'at. He declares the truth and is the best judge".
58: Tell them O Rasool: "Had it been in my power to hasten what you ask for, the matter would have been decided a long time ago. As already stated this is decided by Allah's law of Mukaf'at which knows who the wrong-doers are".
59: With Allah Almighty are the keys of the unseen and none knows the unseen but He. He knows whatever is in land and in the sea. Not a leaf falls but He knows it. There is not a grain below the soil, nor anything fresh or dry, which has not been taken note of in the lucid Book containing the laws of nature.
60: He knows whatever you do during the day time. Then He lays you to rest at night; and wakes you again in the day. The cycle of the day and night gradually completes the term of your life. Thereafter there will be the Day of Reckoning when, whatever you have done will be made manifest to you.
61-62: Allah's law of Mukaf'at prevails over all human beings. He has appointed guardians over them to see that none of their actions goes undetected. When death approaches anyone, Malaika - Our messengers - cause him to die. They have no power to make any change in the term of life. Thereafter everyone will confront the Allah's law of Mukaf'at who has complete control over them, whose word is final, and Who is swift in reckoning.
63-64: When any calamity befalls those who reject Allah's laws, they invoke Allah Almighty in their hearts and say that if they are saved from the calamity they will be ever-grateful to Him. Say to them: "One is protected or rescued from calamities in accordance with Allah's laws. But you associate other authorities with Him".
65: Calamities occur in societies which are not based upon Allah's laws. Sometimes they take the form of higher classes oppressing the lower classes; sometimes of the lower classes rising against the higher classes leading to anarchy; and sometimes of the two uniting and then splitting into different parties which fight each other.
Reflect on how in different ways and in diverse forms We explain Our teachings so that they may understand.
66-67: Despite this, your people O Rasool, treat the revelation as false even though it is certain truth. Tell them: "I have not been appointed as a guardian over you. Manifestation of the consequences of your wrongdoing takes place at a time prescribed by Allah's laws and by and by, you will know it" (7/182-83).
68: When you see those who are making a jest of Our revelation, stay away from them until they change the topic of conversation. If you are so absorbed that you forget that you should leave such company, do so the moment you become aware of it. You should not stay thereafter with these people who are Z'alimeen (4/140, 5/57).
69: Those who adhere to Allah's laws are not responsible for the way in which these people treat the revelation. They need only admonish them so that they may abstain from what they do.
70: Stay away not only from those who make a jest of your Deen but also from those who treat their own religion as play and pastime (7/51). Such people are deluded by worldly attractions. Leave them alone but continue to convey to them the teachings of the Quran so that none is destroyed through not receiving Allah's guidance. They cannot be protected from ruin by any friend or intercessor even if every ransom is offered because it comes through their own wrong-doings. They shall have a draught of burning despair and a painful chastisement because of their persistent refusal to acknowledge the truth.
71-72: Ask these people O Rasool: "Do you wish that we should deify aught besides Allah Almighty - which can neither help nor hurt us - and turn on our heels after Allah Almighty has shown us the right path? If we do this, we will be like the one who is lost in the wilderness and cannot hear his companions calling out to him". Tell them: "The way prescribed by Allah Almighty is the only right way and We have been commanded to submit to the laws of Allah Almighty who is the Sustainer of all the worlds. He has also asked us to establish the system of Sal'at and adhere to all His laws. We will be accountable for all our actions".
73-74: It is Allah Almighty who has created the universe most appropriately. He initiates creation according to His Amr (as explained in 2/117) every word of His is the truth. He has complete control over His creation. He infuses life into inanimate forms. He has knowledge of both the seen and the unseen and He is the Wise, the Cognisant.
75: The struggle between right and wrong is not a new phenomenon. All Anbia have been confronted with it for instance, in the case of Abraham it originated within his own family. Abraham said to his father Azar "You carve an idol out of stone and then make it into a god. I see that you and your people are in manifest error".
76-80: Abraham's people used to worship heavenly bodies and invited him to associate with them. This induced him to reflect upon the working of these bodies to become certain of his own beliefs which differed from those of his people. When night spread its darkness over him, he beheld a star. He asked his people "Is this the one you want me to accept as my Rabb". When the star set, he said to them: "I cannot accept as god anything which changes". When he beheld the moon shining, he asked the same question, and when it set he said "I cannot accept the one which changes, as my Rabb. If my Rabb had not guided me I would have been one of those who had gone astray". Then when he beheld the sun shining he asked his people "Do you ask me to worship the sun because it is the greatest?". But when the sun also set, he said: "O my people I dissociate myself from you in taking such objects as my god. With single-mindedness, I turn my face towards Allah Almighty who brought the universe into existence out of nothingness, and I am not from amongst the Mushrikeen".
81-83: His people still disputed with him. Abraham asked them "Do you dispute with me in respect of Allah Almighty who has guided me to the right path? "His people asked him to be fearful of their gods whom he repudiated lest they harm him. He answered: "I am not afraid of your gods whose power to hurt me has not been warranted by Allah. Allah's knowledge encompasses all things. Will you then not reflect? You are the ones who should be fearful because without any authority you set up peers to Allah. Which of our ways, then, leads to peace? If you only knew! those who believe in Allah Almighty do not mix their Ei'man with Zulm. For them is peace and they are on the right path".
84: These were the arguments which We had given to Abraham to use against his people. This is how We raised the ranks of people according to Our measures. Surely your Rabb is both Wise and Knowing.
85-87: We gave to Abraham, Isaac, Jacob. Each of them We had guided as We had guided Noah and his descendants. Similarly, We had guided David, Solomon, Job, Joseph, Moses and Aaron. Nabuwwat was bestowed upon them by Allah Almighty and they were compensated for the good lives they led. Also Nabuwwat was bestowed upon Zacharias, John, Jesus, Elias. They were all S'aliheen. Ishm'ael, Elisha, Jonah and Lot We favoured above the rest of mankind.
88: And We also guided a right some of their fathers, offspring and brethren. We favoured them and guided them to the straight path.
89: This is the right path prescribed by Allah Almighty which any human being may follow. But if they join other paths with this one, then all their actions will be rendered waste.
90: The Anbia mentioned earlier are those to whom Allah Almighty had given the code of laws, the authority to enforce these laws and Nabuwwat (3/78). The Quran contains all the original teachings of the previous scriptures. If the Ahl-ul-Kit'ab reject the Quran, it will not harm the Quran in any way. We have entrusted it to a people who do not reject it (35/32).
91: The Anbia mentioned earlier are those whom Allah Almighty had guided. The same guidance has now been bestowed on you O Rasool which you should follow yourself and also invite others to do so. Tell those whom you invite to follow this path that you ask no recompense for it. This guidance is open to all mankind and is not anyone's preserve.
92: Those who reject revelation on the ground that it has been sent down to a human being like themselves do not form an accurate or fair estimation of Allah Almighty - as is His due (39/67). Ask them: "Who revealed the Book which Moses presented to them and Moses was also a human being. That Book contained Light and Guidance for humanity. You transferred it upon various parchments revealing some parts of it but concealing the rest although the entire Book contained those truths which neither you nor your fathers knew".
O Rasool tell them that this Book has been revealed by Allah Almighty as the Book given to Moses was revealed by Him. Tell them this and then leave them to their vain quibbling or word-play.
93: This is the most blessed Book which We have now sent to you which validates those truths that were contained in previous scriptures. To start with, through this Book, you may warn those who dwell in or around Makkah. Those who believe in the life hereafter will believe in it truly. They will safe-guard the Niz'am-us-Sal'at.
94: Who can be more Z'alim than the one who invents a lie against Allah, or one who claims that he has received revelation from Allah Almighty whereas he has received none; or one who says that he can produce the like of what Allah Almighty has revealed?
Just imagine what the situation would be when the Z'alimeen are in the throes of death and the Malaika stretch forth their hands saying: "Yield up your life ("Nafs"). This day you will be recompensed with a humiliating chastisement for imputing to Allah Almighty what was false and for rejecting Allah's laws arrogantly".
95: And Allah Almighty will say: "You have left behind all that was yours e.g. all that you possessed and your intercessors whom you assumed would help you in your affairs. Indeed, all your ties have been severed and you have come to us all alone with your individuality with which you were created and all your fancies would have forsaken you".
96: As regards life after death, it may be explained through an example. A seed - grain or a date-stone appears to be lifeless but it contains a life-germ which, given appropriate conditions, bursts forth into a living plant. The plant, in turn, bears ears of corn. Each grain of corn is again a source of life. This is how Allah Almighty brings forth the living from the dead and the dead from the living.
This is your Allah. Whither do you then render seeking other deities?
97: He causes the dawn to burst forth to enter in the day and has devised the night for rest and the sun and moon for computing time. These are the measures ordained by Allah Almighty who is Mighty and Knowing.
98: It is He who has designed the stars in such a way that you may be guided by them in the darkness of the land and the sea. Thus We have made Our laws clear to those who understand.
99: It is He who has created you out of a single life-cell (4/1). In the process of evolution, life pauses for a while until it acquires the capacity to reach a higher plane to which it is entrusted for further development. Thus We have made Our plans clear to those who are thoughtful.
100: It is He who sends down rain through which He brings forth buds of all plants, green foliage, packed ears of corn, palm-trees with branches overhanging with dates and gardens of grapes, olives, pomegranates - alike and unlike. Reflect on how these fruits grow and ripen. In this plan of Ours are signs for those who believe in Divine laws.
101: Yet these people believe that Allah Almighty alone is incapable of administering the order of the universe and associate other unseen forces which He has created, with Him. Out of ignorance they also falsely ascribe sons and daughters to Him. He is far above all that they attribute to Him.
102: There are those who believe that Allah Almighty has a son. Reflect deeply over this. Allah Almighty brought all universe into existence from nothingness. This was obviously not subject to the law of causation. Once the universe had been created, however, this law came into operation. The law relating to procreation requires the cohabitation of male and female. How could Allah Almighty have a son when He has no wife? This is being said by Allah Almighty who has created everything and knows everything.
103: This is Allah Almighty - your Rabb - other than whom there is no authority, Creator of all things. Therefore, you should obey His - and only His - laws and remember that He is the Protector of all.
104: He cannot be comprehended by vision but He comprehends everything. He is the All-Subtle and the All-Aware.
105: Your Rabb has revealed the truth clearly. Whoever reflects on it, will do so to his own advantage. On the other hand, those who choose to remain blind to it, will do so to their own disadvantage. Remember I am not your keeper to force you to reflect.
106: We have made the truth so clear in diverse ways that those who reflect on it, exclaim: "You have (O Rasool) indeed separated the grain from the chaff". In this way we have made it manifest to a people who are disposed to understand.
107: O Rasool you should follow that which has been revealed to you from Allah, other than whom there is no authority, and remain aloof from the Mushrikeen.
108: If it had been a part of Allah's plan that none should be a Mushrik, He would not have endowed human beings with free will. This is why we have not appointed you a guardian over them or responsible for their conduct.
109: The deities whom these people associate with Allah Almighty are no doubt false ones. This does not mean, however, that you may revile Allah Almighty in retaliation. They adhere to their beliefs because they seem fair to them. The nature of their deeds will become clear to them on the Day of Reckoning.
110: The Mushrikeen swear by Allah Almighty as solemnly as they can that if a miracle is shown to them they would certainly believe in its import. Tell them "It is not beyond Allah's power to show miracles but it is not His plan to do so". The fact is that they will not believe even if a miracle is shown to them.
111: When this truth was revealed to them earlier, instead of reflecting upon it, they had rejected it outright due to their prejudice, so this time too, they will not believe it and Our law is that We keep their hearts and their eyes turned (away from the truth) and let them loose in their overweening arrogance, blindly stumbling to-and-fro (2/15).
112: (Hypothetically speaking) even it We were to send down angels to them or if the dead were to speak to them or if We were to bring together everything face to face with them, they would not believe. Reflection upon Allah's laws is a prerequisite to belief and these people will not do this as most of them are uncouth.
113: O Rasool this is nothing new. Whenever a Rasool came to them, enemies from amongst the Jinn and the Ins stood up against them and conferred with each other to frame gilded lies so as to delude people from the right path. As already stated (6/108) it was not a part of Allah's plan to compel people to follow the right path. So you should leave them to their own devices.
114: Their purpose in fabricating lies is not to reform the people but to incline the hearts of those who do not believe in the hereafter, towards them so that the latter would agree with what the former say and do. They also let them earn in whatever manner they like, so that they do not question or check the ways of the former.
115: O Rasool ask them: "Do you want that I should seek an authority other than Allah Almighty when He has sent down for you the Book which states everything clearly. Those who have accepted this Book have understood clearly that it has been revealed by Allah Almighty and is based upon the truth. There is no need to dispute with them".
116: Allah's laws based on truth and justice have been set forth in this Book in a complete form. None has the authority to make any change in these laws (18/27). This is because this Book has been sent down by Allah Almighty who hears and knows everything.
117: O Rasool, if you were to follow the majority in the land, they would lead you astray from the path of Allah. They simply follow their own surmises and indulge in conjectures.
118: Your Rabb certainly knows best who has strayed from the right path and those who are rightly - guided.
119-120: Reverting to the subject of Har'am and Hal'al, you should eat only that meat on which Allah's name has been pronounced at the time of the animal's slaughter, if you are true believers in His laws. When Allah Almighty has made the Hal'al and Har'am clear to you (5/3) except when you are driven by starvation (5/3, 6/146), who can declare to be Har'am that which Allah Almighty has made Hal'al and over which His name has been pronounced? Many a people who follow their own baser desires will try to mislead you through lack of knowledge. Allah Almighty knows well who wilfully transgresses His laws.
121: Allah's laws which relate to concrete matters must be obeyed in accordance with the formal requirements prescribed by the Quran. But that is not all. The purpose underlying those laws must not be overlooked. Thus the outward and the inward aspects of obedience to Allah's laws must be harmonised. Those who do not do so will reap the consequences of their doings.
122: Do not eat the meat of those animals who have been slaughtered without the name of Allah Almighty being pronounced over them. This is against Allah's laws. The leaders of the opposition are ever - instigating their companions to wrangle with you. If you yield to them you will be reckoned amongst the Mushrikeen.
123: O Jama'at-ul-Momineen, compare your position with that of your opponents by means of an example. On the one have there is a dead person whom Allah Almighty has brought back to life and given a light so that he can follow the right path himself and also to show this light to others to enable them to follow the right path. On the other hand, there is a person steeped in darkness who does not care to come out of it. Can the two persons be alike? But thus it is! The deeds of those who deny the truth seem attractive to them.
124: Thus, amongst every people there are ring - leaders who scheme against those who ask them to follow the right path but their schemes invariably recoil upon them. They are, however, not aware of this.
125: Whenever, revelation is presented to them, they say "We will not believe until the revelation is sent to us directly as it is sent to the Rasool". Allah Almighty knows best to whom the revelation is to be sent. At first they will be confronted with calamities of lesser magnitude as a result of their wrong doings. If they do not change their course of action, they will then face greater chastisement for the schemes they were planning.
126: (Such type of parties exist since olden times, i.e. those who accept the truth and those who oppose it - and all this happens according to the Divine Law). The law is that who-ever, leaving aside bias and prejudice, becomes broad-minded, his heart opens to understand the truth of Islam and the straight path becomes clear to him. And he, who keeps his mind closed, his bosom becomes tight and constricted. To him accepting the truth becomes as difficult as if he was climbing up the skies gasping.
Those who do not reflect upon the truth remain confused and thus cannot believe.
127-128: O Rasool this is the straight path ordained by your Rabb. Surely, We have made Our revelation clear for people who are heedful. For them there shall be an abode of peace with their Rabb, who shall be near to them as a result of what they had been doing.
129: On the Day of Reckoning Allah Almighty shall gather Jinn and Ins together. He will say to the Jinn: "You have exploited the Ins a good deal". And those among the Ins who were their votaries will say "O our Rabb we had indeed used each other in our opposition to the truth until We reached the end of our term which you had devised according to your laws". Allah Almighty will reply, "Your abode is Jahannam in which you will have to dwell, unless Allah Almighty wills it otherwise. And He does not change His laws* All this is accordance within Allah's law of Mukaf'at who is the Wise the Knowing".
130: This is how different parties of Z'alimeen co-operate with each other in their opposition to the truth and eventually face the same dire consequences.
131: (On that day Allah Almighty will also ask them) "O group of Jinn and Ins did the Rusul not arise from amongst you announcing My laws and warning you of the consequences of violating them?" They will answer: "We bear witness against our own - selves". Indeed, the false attraction of worldly gains deluded them. So they will bear witness against themselves that they had been denying the truth.
132: O Rasool, We have narrated all this to you to show you that it is not Allah's way to destroy people arbitrarily before they are duly warned.
133: Allah's law is that everyone is assigned a position according to his deeds of which Allah Almighty is not unaware.
134-135: Allah Almighty is not dependent upon any particular people for the establishment of His Niz'am. It is His Rahmat to provide opportunities of development to all people. In this way He has given you an opportunity for development. If you do not avail of it, He will put you away and cause another people to take your place as He raised you from the progeny of others.
This is Allah's law of succession and substitution of nations (9/38-39, 5/54, 21/11-15, 47/38 and 70/40-41). What We say is not an idle threat. It will certainly come to pass and you cannot thwart Him.
136: O Rasool tell your people "You may do whatever you choose; I will not interfere. On the other hand, do not interfere in My programme. The results will soon show to whom success will eventually belong. Allah's law is that Z'alimeen can never prosper".
137: How can those people succeed against you who are grossly superstitious? They assign to Allah Almighty from the tilth and cattle that He has produce a portion and say: "This is for Allah Almighty - so deem they - and the other portion is for those whom we associate with Him". That which they assign to Allah's associates is taken away by them so it does not reach Him. And that which is assigned to Allah Almighty is also taken away by them on the assurance that they will have it sent to Allah. In this way the portion assigned to Allah Almighty as well as the other, are both taken away by the priest (and nothing reaches the deserving people). Look! how clever is their settlement.
138: Their settlement is not confined to tilth and cattle. They believe that if they sacrifice their children it will please those whom they associate with Allah. Obviously this is a most barbarous act. Still it seems fair to them.
As already stated, if it had been Allah's plan not to bestow upon mankind the freedom of will and choice, these people would not have indulged in such superstitions. Allah Almighty will not compel them to adopt the right course. Therefore leave them alone to their own devices. They will not listen to your advice.
139: The matter does not end here. They set aside a part from amongst their cattle and tilth and say "None shall partake of it except those to whom we may offer it according to our belief". They also say "Such and such are the cattle which are not to be used for load - bearing and such and such are the cattle on which the name of Allah Almighty is not to be pronounced at the time of their slaughter".
These are mere fabrications against Allah. Soon, they will be confronted with the consequences of such fabrications.
140: And they further say "Whatever is in the womb of our cattle, if born alive will be reserved for our men and forbidden to our women. But if it is stillborn then all may partake of it".
Allah Almighty will recompense them for their fabrications.
Certainly, He is Wise and Knowing.
141: Those who kill their children foolishly in ignorance and declare to be Har'am what Allah Almighty has made Hal'al and thus invent a lie against Him, will be the losers. Certainly, they have gone astray and are not following the right path.
142: Allah Almighty has produced means of subsistence for His creation. He has produced gardens with and without trellises, palm - trees, corn of different kinds, olives and pomegranates - fruits which are similar yet different. O mankind partake of them when they ripen. On the day that the harvest is gathered meet your requirements and give the rest to the Niz'am-e-Rabubiyyat for meeting the needs of others (2/129). Do not keep more than that for yourselves. Allah Almighty does not like those who do so.
143: Allah Almighty has created cattle for your use. Some of them are meant for carrying a burden while some are for food. Eat of what Allah Almighty has provided for you for food and do not follow in the footsteps of Shait'an as he is your declared enemy.
144: (For food you usually have eight animals; two pairs of sheep and two pairs of goats). Ask the Mushrikeen "Has Allah Almighty forbidden to you the two males or the two females of the two pairs? Or has He forbidden to you that which the two females carry in their wombs?". Ask them as to what is the authority for their belief if they speak the truth.
145: Then there are two pairs of camels and oxen. Ask these Mushrikeen: "Has Allah Almighty forbidden to you the two males or the two females of the two pairs? Or has He forbidden to you that which the two females carry in their wombs. Were you present when Allah Almighty gave this commandment?" Who is a greater Z'alim than one who invents such a lie about Allah Almighty to lead people astray without knowledge. Remember Allah's law is that Z'alimeen cannot follow the right path.
146: Tell them: "I do not find in that what has been revealed to me anything forbidden to be eaten by one who wants to eat it - except (1) carrion, (2) flowing blood, (3) the flesh of swine and (4) that which has been dedicated to someone other than Allah. Eating of such things stops the growth of Self and leads one to wrongful ways".
"However, if one is faced with a situation when he can find nothing else to eat except the above and his life is threatened then he can partake of what has been declared to be Har'am provided he is driven to it by starvation and not out of greed or the desire to violate Divine laws (5/3, 2/173)". One who adheres to Allah's laws will find Him to be both Protector and Nourisher.
147: We had forbidden to the Jews every beast with claws and the fat of the ox and the sheep except the fat which is on their backs or their entrails or that which sticks to their bones. This was a punishment for their rebellion against the Divine Laws (although these things in themselves were not unlawful as a food). What Allah Almighty says is certainly the truth (4/160).
148: Allah's Book (Quran) has declared these forbidden things to be lawful. If the Jews do not accept this it means that they do not want that their punishment should cease and deny themselves Allah's Rahmat. Who can help those who wish to remain guilt - ridden?
149: The Mushrikeen say: "If Allah Almighty had so desired, neither we nor our ancestors would have committed Shirk or regarded anything as Har'am of our own accord". This is nothing new. The people before them also declared Allah's revelation to be false until they tasted the fruits of their deeds. O Rasool, say: "Have you any authority against us? If you have, produce it. You follow your own conjectures and do nothing but only indulge in speculations".
150: Say: "To Allah Almighty belongs the argument which is self-evident and, therefore, conclusive. Had it been Allah's plan that all mankind should follow the right path, He would have created them without freedom of the will and choice".
151: Say to them: "Bring those witnesses from amongst you who can testify to your assertion that Allah Almighty had forbidden these things to you". If the witnesses come-forth ask them to produce Allah's authority for what they say. If they do not produce such authority you should not accept their evidence. You should not follow the base desire of those people who declare Our laws to be false, and do not believe in the hereafter. They, in fact, set up peers to Allah.
152-153: Say: Come, I will tell you what your Rabb has made binding on you:
1. You should not adulterate Him with anyone;
2. You should not deny your children the opportunity for development out of fear of want. Our Niz'am-e-Rabubiyyat is responsible for providing for you as well as for your children;
3. You should not get anywhere close to indecency - either in thought or in action, be it open or secret;
4. Do not take any human being's life - the life which Allah Almighty has sanctified - otherwise than in pursuit of justice. Allah Almighty has enjoined this upon you so that you may learn to use your reason. Allah Almighty further says:
5. You should not touch the property of those left unprotected e.g. the orphans, except when you are required to expend something for their betterment, until they are of age;
6. You should, when required to say something in a disputed manner, speak justly even if your own relatives are involved in the matter;
7. You should fulfil your commitments and promises, since they are not made with one another but are in fact, made with Allah.
Allah Almighty has enjoined all these upon you so that you may always keep them in mind.
You should not regard these laws as undue restrictions imposed on you. In fact by obeying these laws the human personality is broadened (2/286 with footnote).
154: This is the straight path devised by Allah. You should follow it and never think of following other paths. If you do the latter it will divert you from Allah's path. These laws He has enjoined upon you so that you may become Muttaqi.
155: Before this We had also given Moses a Book in fulfilment of Our promise to those who wanted to lead a righteous life; it contained clear instructions. This Book was a Guidance and Rahmat so that they may become certain of the law of Mukaf'at.
156: And now We have sent down this blessed Book. So follow it and be heedful of Allah's laws so that you may become worthy of Allah's Rahmat.
157-158: O People of Arabia, this Book has been sent down to you so that you may not say "Earlier Book had been sent down to the Jews and Christians which we were unable to understand". Or say "Had a Book been sent down to us we would have followed its guidance better than them".
Now, a clear exposition (which is guidance and Rahmat) has come down to you from your Rabb. Who can be more Z'alim than he who treats such a Book as a lie and turns away from it? Remember, those who turn away from Allah's laws will soon face severe chastisement for their turning away.
159: Ask them as to what they are waiting for. They are perhaps waiting for Malaika to come down to them or for Allah Almighty Himself or for miracles. Professing Ei'man after witnessing the above will be of no avail to those who have not believed in Allah Almighty before that, nor have done any good deeds in pursuance of their beliefs.
O Rasool, tell them: "You wait and along with you we will also wait to see what happens to you".
160: Deen is one way to be followed by a united Ummah. Those who create differences in the Deen and divide themselves into sects, O Rasool, you should have nothing to do with them. Their affairs will be decided according to the laws of Allah Almighty Who will make them realise what they had been doing.
161: Whoever does any good deed will be recompensed for it ten-fold; on the other hand, whoever does anything wrong will be requited exactly according to the nature of the wrong committed by him and thus no Zulm is done to him (16/126, 42/40).
162: Say: "Allah Almighty has guided me to the straight and balanced path through an ever true Deen which was lso followed by Abraham who turned away from all that was false and was certainly not of the Mushrikeen".
163-164: Say: "My Sal'at and the means which I adopt to establish its system; in short - my living and dying - are all for the cause of Allah, the Rabb of the entire Universe, who has no partner. Thus have I been commanded and I am the first to submit to the commandment".
165: Say: "Do you wish that I should seek a Rabb other than Allah Almighty who is the Rabb of all and everything? His law of Mukaf'at is that no one else shall be responsible for what he does except his own self and no one shall be made to bear another's burden. Everyone will have to fulfil his own responsibility and all affairs will be judged according to the law of Allah Almighty who will make clear to them wherein they differed".
166: You have attained power in the land according to the law of succession of nations. Now it will be seen as to how you exercise this power (10/14). This will determine your place in the history of nations. Allah Almighty is swift in reckoning but is also Protector and Nourisher.
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This Surah takes its name from vv. 46-47 in which mention of A'araf occurs.
Period of Revelation
A study of its contents clearly shows that the period of its revelation is about the same as that of AL-AN'AM, i. e., the last year of the Holy Prophet's life at Makkah, but it cannot be asserted with certainty which of these two was sent down earlier. Anyhow the manner of its admonition clearly indicates that it belongs to the same period. As both have the same historical background the reader should keep in view the preface to AL-AN'AM.
Topics of Discussion
The principal subject of this surah is "invitation to the Divine Message sent down to Muhammad" (Allah's peace be upon him), which is couched in a warning. This is because the Messenger had spent a long time in admonishing the people of Makkah without any tangible effect on them. Nay, they had turned a deaf ear to his message and become so obdurate and antagonistic that, in accordance with the Divine Design, the Messenger was going to be commanded to leave them and turn to other people,. That is why they are being admonished to accept the Message but, at the same time, they are being warned in strong terms of the consequences that followed the wrong attitude of the former people towards their Messengers. (Now that the Holy Prophet was going to" migrate from Makkah the concluding portion of the address has been directed towards the people of the Book with whom he was going to come into contact. This meant that the time of migration was coming near and the "invitation" was going to be extended to mankind in general, and was not to be confined to his own people in particular as before.
During the course of the address to the Jews, the consequences of their hypocritical conduct towards Prophethood have also been pointed out clearly, for they professed to believe in Prophet Moses but in practice opposed his teachings, disobeyed him and worshiped falsehood and consequently were afflicted with ignominy and disgrace.
At the end of the Surah, some instructions have been given to the Holy Prophet and his followers for carrying out the work of the propagation of Islam with wisdom. The most important of these is that they should show patience and exercise restraint in answer to the provocations of their opponents. Above all, they have been advised that under stress of the excitement of feeling, they should not take any wrung step that might harm their cause.
Subject: Invitation to the Divine Message
Topics and their Interconnection
In this passage, the people have been invited to follow the Message sent down to them through Muhammad (Allah's peace be upon him) and warned of the consequences of its rejection. 1 - 10
The story of Adam has been related with a view to warning his descendants against the evil devices of Satan who is ever ready to mislead them as he did in the case of Adam and Eve. 11 - 25
This passage contains some Divine instructions, and contrasts these with Satan's instructions, and depicts a graphic picture of the results and the consequences of the two. 26 - 53
As the Message has been sent down by Allah (Who is the Creator of the heavens and the earth and everything in them), it should be followed, for it is like the rain He sends down to give life to the dead earth. 54 - 58
Events from the lives of some well-known Prophets -- Noah, Hud, Salih, Lot, Shu`aib, Moses (Allah's peace be upon them all) -- have been related to show the consequences of the rejection of the Message, and the addressees of Prophet Muhammad (Allah's peace be upon him) have been admonished to accept and follow the Message in order to escape perdition. 59 - 171
As the Covenant with the Israelites was mentioned at the end of the preceding passage, the whole mankind has been reminded very appropriately of the Covenant that was made at the time of the appointment of Adam as the Vicegerent of Allah so that all of his descendants should remember it and accept and follow the Message that was delivered by the Holy Prophet. 172 - 174
The example of the one who had the knowledge of the Message but discarded it, has been cited as a warning to those who were treating the Message as false; they have been exhorted to use their faculties to recognize the Message; otherwise Hell would be there abode. 175 - 179
In this concluding portion of the Surah, some deviations of those who do not use their faculties properly to understand the Message have been dealt with and they have been admonished, reproved and warned of the serious consequences of their antagonistic attitude towards the Message of the Holy Prophet. 180 - 198
In conclusion, instructions have been given to the Holy Prophet, and through him to his followers, about the attitude they should adopt towards those who reject the Message and deviate from it. 199 - 206
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Summary of Surah Al Araf : verse 1-206
1: Thus says Allah, the Knowing, the Wise and the Insightful:-.
2: This Book has been sent down to you so that you may warn the erring and remind the Momineen of their responsibilities. You will have to confront strong opposition; do not be disconcerted by it.
3: O Jama'at-ul-Momineen follow only that which has been revealed to you by your Rabb and do not follow another ally. This course of life is clear but people generally do not follow it absolutely.
4-5: Those who rejected Divine Laws were ultimately destroyed. Destruction overtook them by night or when they were in their mid-day slumber. Then they cried out "Without doubt we were Z'alimeen and so deserve this". (21/11-15).
6-7: Their destruction will not be arbitrary. We will ask Our Rusul whether they had communicated Our message to them and also ask them if they had received the message. Allah Almighty knows the truth but these questions will be asked to meet the requirements of the process of Law.
8-9: The life and death of nations is determined by their own deeds. If its good deeds outweigh its ill-deeds, a nation continues to prosper but if the opposite is the case, this will lead to its decline and fall. On the Day of Reckoning, the actions of all nations will be weighed and those whose good deeds outweigh the ill in the scale, will be deemed successful but those whose ill-deeds outweigh the good will be the losers since they had disregarded Our messages. (101/7-8).
10: O mankind! We have established you on earth and provided for you means of sustenance. How little gratitude you show!
11: Ingratitude produces disorder in the land. This is illustrated by the story of Adam which has been narrated earlier (2/30-38). We created you and fashioned you and then We asked Malaika to bow before Adam, the representative of humanity. They all bowed, but Iblees did not: he was not amongst those who submitted themselves.
12: Allah Almighty said to Iblees: "What prevented you from bowing to Adam when We had asked you to do so?". He replied: "I am superior to him. You have created me of fire and him of mere clay".
13: Allah Almighty said: "This cannot be a valid proof of your superiority. You should not have been arrogant [*1]. By doing so, you have degraded yourself. You can therefore no more remain with those who submit to My laws and obey my commandments".
14-15: He said: "Grant me respite as long as there are human beings on earth". Allah Almighty said: "your request is granted [*2] (15/35-39 and 38/77-79)".
16-17: Iblees said: "You have led me astray. You did this on account of Adam. I will sit in ambush for them (human beings) on Your straight path. I shall come upon them from the front, from behind them, from their right and from their left. Then you will find very few of them, truly faithful to you".
18: Allah Almighty said: "Begone from here, despised and banished! As for such of them who follow you, I will most certainly fill Jahannam with all of you".
19: Allah Almighty said to Adam: "You and your companion should dwell in Jannat and eat from wherever you please. But do not create dissension and differences. If you do so you will be from amongst the Z'alimeen (2/35)".
20-21: Shait'an whispered suggestions to both of them, after which their private parts got revealed to them which had hitherto remained unnoticed by them. He told them: "Allah Almighty has imposed this restriction on you lest you attain unlimited power or become immortal," and he swore to them both, saying " I am your sincere adviser".
22: So by deceit he brought about their fall and the significance of their private parts dawned on them. They began to cover themselves with the leaves of the garden. And their Rabb called to them: "Did I not warn you against such a pattern of life and also told you that Shait'an was certainly your avowed enemy [*3]".
23: They both cried out "O Our Rabb! We have indeed wronged ourselves and unless you provide protection and Rahmat for us, we will be ruined [*4]".
24-25: Allah Almighty said to them: "since you have accepted responsibility for your fault, your repentance is accepted. But you and all other human beings will have to start your life from a lower level. The dissension which you have caused will make all of you each other's enemies. You will stay on the earth for a while and provided means of nourishment so that you may be able to develop yourselves and attain a higher level of lie. You will live on earth, and die thereon, and have life thereafter".
26: O mankind! you will start your life on earth from a lower level. This does not mean that earthly things are forbidden (7/32). They have their utility and also their aesthetic value (3/13). However, the most valuable of all is adherence to the Divine Laws. But only those who reflect on it will take note of it.
27: O mankind! beware that Shait'an does not lead you astray as he did your ancestors exposing their "private parts" to them. Shait'an and his companions watch you from where you cannot see them. They become the friends of those who do not believe in Allah's laws.
28: Whenever such people commit any indecency they say that their ancestors had done the same and surely Allah Almighty commanded us (through our ancestors) to do so.
O Rasool! tell them that Allah Almighty never commands indecency. Would you attribute to Allah, something of which you have no knowledge?
29: Tell them: "My Rabb commands only what is right. You should concentrate upon exclusive and sincere obedience to Allah's laws. This way you will once again attain that paradisal life from which your ancestors were expelled".
30: This is how Allah Almighty manifests the straight path. One group follows this path, but the other goes astray. The latter are those who consider Shia'teen their friends and delude themselves into thinking that they are following the right path.
31: O mankind! be mindful that the attractive things of the world are not forbidden. They do not stand in the way of obedience to Allah. You may eat, drink and utilize these things but do not exceed the limits prescribed by Allah.
32: Say to them: "Who can declare to be Har'am the good things and wholesome (Tayyab) articles of food made available to human beings by Allah? In this world these things are available to both believers and non-believers but in the hereafter they will only be for those who believe. Thus, We make Our guidance clear to a people who understand".
33: Say: "My Rabb has declared to be Har'am (1) indecencies - in action or in thought; (2) all those things which debilitate human capabilities; (3) Unjust rebellion (4) associating other authorities with Allah; Allah Almighty has in no way sanctioned it, and (5) attributing to Allah Almighty that of which you have no knowledge".
34: Our law is that as long as a people follow the right path, they achieve prosperity, but if they deviate from it, they gradually decline until they are overtaken by death. This is called the term of that people which they can neither retard nor advance.
35-36: O mankind! Our messengers will come to you and announce Our directives to you. Who-so-ever adheres to them and lives righteously by doing noble deeds which are healthy and constructive for one's own self as well as for the society - will be free of fear, grief and anxiety. But those who discredit them and treat them with arrogance, will be the inmates of Jahannam wherein they shall abide.
37: Who can be more Z'alim than one who foists a lie on Allah Almighty and discredits His Laws?. During the period of their respite provisions for physical life according to Allah's laws, will be available. When their term of life ends, Our Malaika will come to them and ask them: " Where are they on whom you used to call besides Allah?" They will say: "They have all forsaken us," and will testify that they are K'afireen.
38: Allah Almighty will say to them "You should join the batches of Jinn and Ins who have preceded you in hell".
Different batches will enter hell one after the other. When a new batch enters, it curses the one immediately preceding it. When they are all gathered, the last one pointing to the one preceding it, will say "O Our Rabb, these are the people who had misled us; give them double chastisement". Allah Almighty will say: "All of you will have double chastisement - one for following the wrong path and the other for misleading others (16/25). You do not realise all this".
39: Those who have entered hell earlier will say to the ones entering later: "You are no better than us so you should taste the chastisement you have earned".
40-41: Those who discredit Our laws and treat them with arrogance will never receive those blessings which accrue as a result of obeying Allah's laws. A twisted rope can pass through a needle's eye, but it will not be possible for them to enter Jannat. This is how wrong doers are recompensed. For them there is fire of Jahannam - as a couch below and folds of covering above. This is how the Z'alimeen are requited.
42: On the contrary, those who believe and do good things and do not transgress the limits imposed on them: We only impose restrictions on a person in order to broaden his Nafs, they are the inmates of Jannat (2/286, 6/153), where-in they shall abide.
43: In earthly life human beings conceal many negative feelings which they have towards others even though they may have cordial relations with them. There will be no such feelings amongst the inmates of Jannat wherein streams will flow. (The blessings of such a Social Order would be ever-lasting!) They will say: "Sincerest Hamd is due to Allah Almighty who has guided us to such a destination. Without Divine guidance we would have never reached this place. This truth was brought to us by Allah's Rusul. It will be proclaimed: "This is the Jannat which you have inherited; and since you have inherited this Jannat as a result of your good deeds, you will not be expelled from it".
44-45: The inmates of Jannat will call out to the inmates of Jahannam "We have got what Allah Almighty promised us. Have you got what Allah Almighty promised you?". They will answer: "Yes! Z'alimeen have been deprived of all these blessings. They are those who turned others away from the path of Allah. They made twisted and crooked the straight and clear Deen of Allah Almighty and did not believe in the law of Mukaf'at and the life hereafter".
46: Between the people of Jannat and Jahannam there will be a veil [*5] (57/13). On the higher planks there will be people with insight who will recognise others by their visage. They will greet those who, in their estimate, are worthy of entering Jannat with "Sal'am". (2/143, 4/41, 56/10-11).
47: When they will turn their eyes towards the inmates of hell they will cry out: "O Our Rabb, do not make us companions of the Z'alimeen".
48-49: The people on the higher planks will recognise another group and say to them: "What you amassed and on account of which you were arrogant has turned out to be of no avail to you" and pointing to the dwellers of Jannat, they will say: "are not these the people about whom you used to swear that Allah Almighty will never bestow His Rahmat upon them? They are entering Jannat where there will be no fear, grief or anxiety".
50-52: The dwellers of Jahannam will say to the dwellers of Jannat "Give us something of the life-giving resources or the provisions bestowed on you by Allah". They will reply: "Allah Almighty has made these things Har'am for the K'afireen - who made their Deen into a play and a pastime and who were deluded by the attractions of physical life. They rejected Allah's laws and did not reflect seriously on the fact that one day they would have to confront the consequences of their deeds. That is why they have been deprived of Allah's blessings. We had given them a Book clearly explaining Our Laws which was a blessing and Rahmat for those who believed in it. But they rejected it".
53: The fact that they do not believe means that they are waiting for the consequences of their deeds to come before them in visible form. When the concrete results of their deeds come before them they will cry out in despair: "Allah's Rusul did come to us and warn us. But we did not take them seriously. Are there any intercessors who will intercede on our behalf? Or is it possible that we may be sent back to act differently from the way we acted in our earlier life?" This will not be possible. They had earned this ruin for themselves. They have been forsaken by whatever they had fabricated.
54: O Rasool! tell them that your Rabb is the One who has created the universe in six aeons and kept His control over it (10/3). In accordance with His laws, the planets revolve in such a way that day and night succeed each other in quick succession. The sun, moon and other stars also obey His orders. Take note! The domains of Khalq and Amr both belong to Allah, Who is the source of all blessings and Rabb of all the worlds.
55: Invoke your Rabb in humbleness from within (6/63). He does not like those who do not observe proprieties.
56: After the Quranic system has restored order in the country, nothing should be done to disturb it. If you are fearful of losing something or have the desire to gain something - in both cases act according to Allah's laws. Allah's Rahmat is close to those who lead a balanced life in accordance with His laws.
57: Allah's Rahmat includes means of subsistence which Allah Almighty provides for His creatures without their effort. This is illustrated by one example taken from the world of natural phenomena. Winds, come with tidings of the Rahmat to follow. They bring moisture-laden clouds, moving them towards dead land to pour water over it. The rain produces fruits of all kinds. This is how Allah Almighty revives that which is dead. You should reflect upon this.
58: It is the same rain which fall on all land but, receiving it, the soil which is rich produces abundantly, whereas the soil which is not so rich produces scantling. (Likewise the same guidance through revelation, Wahi, is received by all, but different people react to it differently with different results).
In this way We repeat Our Directives in different ways so that people who want that their efforts should bear rich fruit, should get guidance from them.
59: Stories of previous Anbia and their people are narrated to illustrate what has been stated above.
To begin with, We sent Noah to his people who said to them: "Obey only the laws of Allah Almighty excepting whom there is no authority. If you disobey His laws I am fearful that a severe chastisement of a dreadful day will come to you".
60: Thereupon the chiefs and elders of the people said: "We see that you have fallen into palpable error".
61-62: Noah said: "I have not fallen into any error. I am a Rasool from Rabb-il-Al'ameen to communicate His messages to you. I give you my sincere advice based upon knowledge from Allah Almighty which you do not have".
63: Do you wonder why Allah Almighty has chosen a person from amongst you as His Rasool to warn you about the consequences of your wrong doings and to ask you to adhere to His laws so that you may receive His Rahmat?
64: But they treated him as a liar. When the Deluge came, he, and those who were in the Ark with him, were rescued and those who rejected his message were drowned since they behaved like blind people.
65: Likewise, to the tribe of Aad, we send Hud, who was one of their kin-folk. He said to them: "O my people obey only the laws of Allah Almighty excepting whom there is no authority. Will you not be heedful of the consequences of disobeying Him?"
66-69: The unbelieving chiefs and elders of his people said "We think that you are of unsound mind and we surely deem you a liar. "He said: "O my people, I am certainly not of unsound mind. I am a Rasool from Rabb-il-Al'ameen to communicate His message to you. I give you my sincere and well-intentioned advice. Do you wonder why Allah Almighty has chosen a person from amongst you as His Rasool to warn you about the consequences of your wrong doings. Remember, Allah's blessing in making you successors of the people of Noah and endowed you abundantly with power. Be grateful for the favours of Allah Almighty so that you may prosper".
70: They said: "Do you come to us so that we may give up the gods that our fathers worshipped and obey Allah. We reject what you say. Bring upon us the chastisement with which you threaten us if you are a truthful person".
71: He said: "Your chastisement has already begun in that you have lost your reason. You wrangle with me over mere names which you and your fathers have devised and for which you have no authority from Allah. Wait and see what follows. I too, will wait".
72: And by Our Rahmat We protected him and those who were on his side from chastisement and uprooted those who rejected Our Laws. They were those who would have never believed.
73-74: To the tribe of Thamud, We sent S'aleh, who was one of their kinsfolk. He said to them "O my people, obey only the laws of Allah Almighty excepting Whom there is no authority. A case to determine whether you believe in Allah's laws or not has come before you. Here is a she-camel "belonging to Allah" [*6] . Leave her to pasture freely on Allah's earth and cause her no harm. If you do so, a grievous chastisement will seize you. Remember Allah's blessing in making you successors to the people of Aad. He has settled you so well in the land that you have built castles in the plains and hewn out houses in the mountains. Bear in mind the favours that you have received from Allah Almighty and do not spread disorder in the land.
75-76: The proud chiefs and elders did not answer S'aleh but turning towards those who were lowly amongst the believers, said: "Are you sure that S'aleh is a Rasool of Allah"?. They said: "We do believe in the truth of his message," and those who were puffed up with pride said: "You may believe if you like but we do not".
77: They (broke their agreement with S'aleh and thus) revolted against the commandment of their Rabb. They ham-strung the she-camel and said to S'aleh: "Bring upon us what you threatened us with if you are from amongst the messengers of Allah".
78: Thereupon, an earthquake seized them unawares and the following morning they were found lying faces downward, in their dwellings.
79: S'aleh had already turned away from them saying: "O my people I have delivered to you the message of my Rabb and given you my sincere advice. But you do not like your well-wishers".
80-81: Similarly, Lot was sent to his people to whom he said: "you commit indecencies such as were never committed before by any people. You go after men lustfully rather than after women. You are a people given to abnormal behaviour".
83: We saved Lot and his followers but not his wife because she was one of those who lagged behind.
84: And We rained on them a torrent of brim stone (11/82, 54/34). Then see what was the end of such criminals.
85-87: And We sent Shu'aib to the people of Madina who was one of their kin-man. He said to them "O my people, obey only the laws of Allah Almighty excepting Whom there is no authority. There has come to you a clear directive from your Rabb. Give full in measure and in weight. Do not diminish fraudulently from what is due to other. Do not cause disorder in the land after order has been restored therein. This will be in your own interest if only you believe in it (83/1-3)".
Do not sit in ambush upon the paths leading to truth hindering those who believe in it, and do not seek to make the path of Allah Almighty crooked. Remember when you were few He multiplied you and see what was the end of those who created disorder.
Some amongst you have believed in the message with which I have been sent, and some others have rejected it. So wait to see how Allah Almighty judges between us for He is the best of all the judges.
88-89: The Chiefs among his people (who were intoxicated with power and wealth) said arrogantly: "O Shu'aib! it is better for you if you return to our course of life, otherwise we will expel you and your followers". He said: "Shall we return to your course of life even though we abhor it? If we return to your course after Allah Almighty has delivered us from it, this would indeed be foisting a lie upon Allah. We will never do it. We follow the course devised by Allah Almighty who has knowledge of everything. We put trust in Him". Shu'aib then addressed his Rabb and said: "Decide justly between us and our opponents. You are the best of all to decide".
90: The Chiefs among his people who were bent upon denying the truth said to their people: "If you follow Shu'aib you will surely be the losers".
91: Thereupon an earthquake seized them unawares and the following morning they were found lying faces downward, in their dwellings.
92: Those who had belied Shu'aib (were destroyed) as if they had never dwelt in those homes! they who had belied Shu'aib were those who were the losers.
93 Shu'aib had already turned away from them, saying: "O my people I have communicated to you the Directives from my Rabb and given you sincere advice. You did not listen to me (and were ruined). How, then, could I mourn for people who had denied the truth"!
94-95: Given above are examples related to a few of the Anbia. However, the fact is that whenever Allah Almighty send a Rasool to any people, they treated him in same manner. Those who rejected the Rusul were initially warned by means of lesser tribulations so that they might submit to Allah's laws. Some of them heeded the warning and became prosperous. After a while they began to say that the history of their ancestors revealed that such changes in future occur as a matter of course, and reverted to their former ways. Thereupon, they were seized unawares.
96: If those people had believed and adhered to Allah's laws the blessings of this world as well as the hereafter would have been opened to them. They rejected those laws and Allah Almighty meted out to them what they had worked for (5/66, 7/4).
97-99: How can those people feel assured that they will not be seized by chastisement whilst they are asleep or playing during the day? How can anyone disregard Allah's Plan and feel secure that he would escape the consequences of his actions? Only those who are bent upon self-ruin can feel this way.
100: Have those who are successors to previous nations not learnt from them as to what the outcome of disobeying Allah's laws is? The initial consequence of disregarding these laws is that people lose their capacity to understand.
101-102: These are some of the people whose stories We have related to you O Rasool. Our Rusul came to them with clear proofs regarding truth of their mission. Those whose immediate reaction was to reject them without reflecting upon their message, stuck to their position out of stubbornness. This is how the capacity to understand is lost.
Most of them did made a covenant with Allah Almighty but could not keep it for long.
103: After the earlier Messengers We sent Moses with clear instructions to the Pharaoh and his nobles but they did not afford him proper treatment. Behold! what was the end of such Mufsideen.
104-105: Moses said: "O Pharaoh 'I am a Rasool from Rabb-il-Al'ameen. It does not behove me to say anything but the truth about Allah. I have brought from Allah Almighty a clear verdict (that no person can keep another in his bondage). Therefore let the Bani-Isr'ael depart with me". (So that they could lead a life of freedom according to Allah's laws. 44/18))
106: The Pharaoh said: "If you are truthful and have brought a verdict from Allah, show it to us".
107-108 Moses explained to them the ruinous consequences of disregarding Allah's Laws and the blessings which accrue to those who adhere to these Laws [*7] (20/17-21, 26/32-33, 28/32).
109-110: The nobles of the Pharaoh's Court counselled amongst themselves: "Assuredly, Moses is a very cunning and deceitful man [*8] . His plan appears to be to drive you out of the land (and become its ruler)".
111-112: Then they turned towards the Pharaoh and said: "Put Moses and his brother off for a while and, in the meantime, send your men to various cities to bring all priests [*9] with expertise".
113: The priests came and said to the Pharaoh: "What will be our reward if we over-master Moses?"
114: The Pharaoh replied: "Certainly you will receive a reward and, in addition, you will be raised to the ranks of those nearest to me".
115: They said to Moses: "would you initiate the debate or should we?"
116: Moses said to them: "you may initiate it". They presented their case in such a way that people were mesmerised and also struck them with awe by explaining the consequences of opposition to the Pharaoh. And thus they threw a network of great deceit.
117: We asked Moses not to be fearful but to present his case as forcefully as he could. The result was that the bewitching arguments of the priests were totally demolished.
118-119: In this way, the truth prevailed over that which was false. The priests were vanquished on the spot and withdrew humiliated.
120-122: The priests recognised the truth and submitted simultaneously, saying "We believe in Rabb-il-Al'ameen who is the Rabb of Moses and Aaron".
123-124: Enraged the Pharaoh said: "you have believed in Moses without my permission. It appears that you are in league with him and the plan of both of you is to drive us out of the city, taking power in your own hands. You will soon know the consequences of your conspiracy. I shall cut off your hands and the feet opposite to it and then crucify all of you".
125-126: They said: "You can do whatever you like. Your power extends only to our physical life (20/72). Your case as well as ours will ultimately be decided according to Allah's law of Mukaf'at. You are taking vengeance upon us simply because we have believed in the clear message given by our Rabb as soon as it came to us".
Then they prayed to Allah: "O Our Rabb, give us patience and consistency in such abundance that until our last breath we remain obedient to Your laws".
127: The Chiefs said to the Pharaoh: "Will you allow Moses and his people to spread disorder in the land and to flout you and your gods?" The Pharaoh replied: "I have decided what to do with them. I shall degrade those respected members of their community who have courage and vitality and pose a danger to us, while elevating those who are devoid of such qualities. They are our subject people and We have total power over them" (2/49, 40/25).
128: Moses said to his people: "Do not be fearful of the Pharaoh's threats; adhering to the laws of Allah, persevere steadfastly. Allah Almighty who is the sole authority has made Laws for the good of humanity. Whosoever obeys these Laws attains honour and authority and whosoever violates them deprives himself of authority and power (3/25). This is how these matters are decided ultimately (21/105)".
129: The people said to Moses: "We were oppressed before you came here (with your arrival, the hope was kindled that our tribulations would end soon). But by taking a stand against the Pharaoh you have created new problems for us".
Moses said to them: "Your earlier troubles were due to your being in bondage. But the difficulties you face now are for the purpose of being free. If you remain steadfast you will see how your enemy will be destroyed shortly and you will have an opportunity to rule in the land in his place. Then Allah Almighty shall see how you acquit yourself in your own role".
130: In the beginning the Pharaoh's people were warned by means of lesser calamities like years of famine and scarcity of food, so that they might make amends for their wrong-doings.
131: When good times came, the Pharaoh and his people ascribed it to themselves. But when seized by calamity they attributed it to the ill-omened presence of Moses and his followers. What they took to be ill-omened was the result of their own actions according to the law of Mukaf'at (3/164, 4/62-79, 42/30). But most of them do not understand!
132: The Pharaoh and his people said to Moses: "Whatever you may do to intimidate us by your wizardry, we will never believe in you".
133: They were visited by calamities of various kinds like floods, locusts, insects, frogs and blood-diseases. All these were clear signs to show what happens when the administration of a country becomes steeped in wrong-doings - when the rulers become arrogant and crime becomes rampant.
134-135: When any of these calamities befell them, the people said to Moses: "O Moses pray for us to your Rabb with whom you say you have a covenant. If He removes this distress from us we will accept what you say and let the Bani-Isr'ael depart with you". But whenever Allah Almighty gave them respite so that they may be able to avoid the inevitable doom towards which they were going, they broke their promises.
136: So We inflicted Our law of retribution on them and caused them to drown in the sea, because they had repeatedly belied Our messages; in fact paid no heed to them.
137: Power was taken away from their hands and the opportunity to govern the eastern and western portions of the country, so rich in natural resources, was given to those whom they had enfeebled and made powerless. Thus Allah Almighty fulfilled His word given to Bani-Isr'ael because they had faced every confrontation steadfastly. And We completely destroyed whatever the Pharaoh and his people had wrought and the structures they had raised.
138-141: The Bani-Isr'ael were brought across the sea to a place whose inhabitants were devoted to the worship of some of their idols. They said to Moses: "O Moses, make for us a god such as they have [*10] . Moses replied: You are a very ignorant people. The way which these idolaters follow will surely ruin them since they are clearly in the wrong. Should I seek for you a god other than Allah Almighty who has exalted you over other people? He rescued you from the people of Pharaoh who had subjected you to severe hardships, degrading the respectable members amongst you and elevating those devoid of courage and vitality (7/127). Thus Allah Almighty bestowed a great favour upon you". (2/49, 40/25).
142: Then it so happened that Moses as per Our command left his people for thirty nights and We added to them ten, whereby the term of forty nights set by his Rabb was fulfilled. While returning, Moses said to his brother Aaron: "Take my place amongst the people and keep them on the straight path. Beware of those who might create mischief" (20/85).
143: Moses prepared for receiving Directives which Allah Almighty revealed to him and said, "O my Rabb, show Yourself to me so that I may behold you". Allah Almighty replied: "You shall not see Me, but look towards the mountain - if it remains firm in its place then you shall see Me. "When Allah Almighty disclosed His glory on the mountain and caused it to crumble into pieces Moses fell into a swoon. When he came to himself, he exclaimed:" You are much above our imagining. I turn to You in repentance and am the first of those who believe".[*11].
144: Allah Almighty said to Moses: "I have already preferred you to others by giving you My revelation and entrusting to you the accomplishment of My plan. Therefore, hold fast to what I have revealed to you and be amongst those who are thankful".
145: According to Our instructions, Moses wrote upon the tablets what We had revealed to him in order that he may grasp their significance. Allah Almighty asked him: "Hold fast to them and ask your people to follow what is most suitable according to the situation out of these excellent commandments given for the guidance and I shall soon show you where those who disregard them stand".
146: According to His law of Mukaf'at, Allah Almighty will put away those who turning away from His message exercise power unjustly. No matter how clear the Directives are, they will not believe. They are so obsessed with their arrogance that even if they see the right path clearly they will not follow it. But they will follow the wrong path readily. They do this because they belie Our message and do not reflect upon the truth,
147: All the actions of those who discredit Our laws and belittle the idea of the life hereafter, will go waste. Will they earn anything except what they have worked for?
148: While Moses was away from his people, they made an image of a calf out of their ornaments. The calf was so contrived that it seemed to low. Did they not have the sense to realise that it could neither speak to them nor offer them any guidance or show them the right path? Yet they took it to be an object of worship. So they came in the category of Z'alimeen.
149: When they realized their error, they repented and cried out: "If our Rabb will not show Rahmat to us and protect us (from the evil consequences of our folly) we shall surely be doomed".
150: When Moses returned to his people, he was angry and aggrieved and said "How wrongfully you acted after I left you. You courted a speedy doom from your Rabb (20/86)". He set aside the tablets and seized his brother by the hair and pulled him towards himself. The brother said: "O son of my mother, your people considered me of no consequence and had conspired even to slay me. Do not make my enemies rejoice over my disgrace and do not count me amongst the Z'alimeen (20/94)".
151: Moses prayed to Allah: "O my Rabb! I seek your protection for myself and my brother. Admit us both to Your Rahmat. Who other than You will show us Rahmat?"
152: As for those who had worshipped the calf they will soon confront the consequences of their wrong-doings. They will lead a most humiliating life in this world. This is how Allah Almighty recompenses those who invent falsehoods (2/54, 20/97).
153 But those who having done wrong repent earnestly and believe in Allah, will receive protection from their Rabb.
154: When Moses anger subsided he took up the tablets on which it was inscribed that there will be Rahmat and guidance for those who are fearful of the consequences of their wrong-doings.
155: Moses chose seventy men from amongst his people to meet together at a time fixed by Allah. When the thundering noise of the earthquake seized them, he said "O my Rabb! had it been according to Your laws, they would have perished besides me long before but You gave them the respite. Will you destroy us for what some foolish people amongst us have done? I think that the earthquake was not for our destruction. It was just to see if we had the capacity to withstand natural calamities. Such occasions are very critical. Those who do not reflect upon them go astray and those who ponder over them go aright. You are our Guardian, protect us and bestow Your Rahmat upon us as You are the best of all Protectors".
156: And ordaining us what is good for us in this world as well as what is good for us in the world to come for we have turned towards You (92/55). Allah Almighty replied: "My chastisement falls on those who reject these laws, on the other hand My Rahmat embrace all things but it is bestowed upon those who adhere to My laws, provide Zak'at, and in short believe in the truth of My revelation".
157: This was said to Moses, but now Allah's Rahmat will be bestowed Upon those who follow the "Ummi Nabi" (29/48) whom they find mentioned in the Torah and the Bible that is with them; who will enjoin what is wrong according to the Quran and declare Hal'al all good things and Har'am all other things (6/146, 5/3-4): who will lift the burdens under which the humanity groans and free them from the shackles which bind them [*12].
Those who will believe in this Rasool, support him against his opponents, help him in his mission and follow the light of the Quran which has been revealed to him - these are the ones who will be successful and prosperous.
158: (O Muhammad) Say: "O mankind, I am Allah's Rasool sent to all of you - the Rasool of that Allah Almighty whose dominion encompasses the whole universe which is under His sole authority. Allah Almighty gives life and causes death according to His law of Mukaf'at. Therefore, believe in Him and in His Rasool - the Ummi Nabi who also believes in Allah Almighty and His revelation. You should follow him so that you may be guided aright".
159: As already stated, a similar code of laws was given to Moses and there was a group in his people who guided others along the path of truth and dispensed justice according to those laws (4/55, 48, 7/181, 38/26).
160: The Bani-Isr'ael were divided into twelve tribes to form distinct communities. When they were confronted with shortage of water, We directed Moses to the place where water springs lay concealed. He reached that spot with his people, removed the earth from the rocks and thence, not one or two but twelve springs gushed forth. He allocated one spring to each tribe (2/60). They were shaded by heavy clouds and ate delicious food - the meat of fowl and manna (2/57). Then We said: "Partake of the good things which We have provided for you as sustenance". (Even then they did not follow Our laws,) so Allah Almighty never wronged them but they wronged themselves.
161: (O Bani-Isr'ael!) We had, as stated earlier (2/58) expected that you would live in this land (Palestine) successfully (5/21) and be able to use the means of nurture as and when you choose provided you adhere to Our laws. Thus you would not only have been protected from the ill-effects of the wrongs committed by you but your successes would also have been further enhanced.
162: But you preferred a life of ease and lethargy to one of struggle and discipline and thus deviated from the path revealed by Us. As a result you lost your strength and courage (2/59, 5/22-24).
163: O Rasool ask them about the city which stood by the sea where the fish came to the water surface openly whenever its citizens observed the law of Allah Almighty (2/65, 4/154, 5/60, 16/124). Thus We tried them by means of their own iniquitous doings.
164: A group amongst the citizens admonished them for not adhering to Allah's laws (7/159) whilst some said to this group that it was futile to exert themselves for those who are bent upon self-destruction. The former said: "We do this to absolve ourselves from any charge of neglect of duty by Allah, and in the hope that they might perchance abstain from wrong-doings". (6/70, 15/6).
165: When the wrong-doers totally disregarded the warning given to them a severe chastisement was inflicted upon them for all their iniquity, but those who admonished them were saved.
166: When they arrogantly persisted in doing that which was forbidden to them, they degraded their humanity and became objects of ridicule and scorn (2/65, 4/47).
167: O Rasool, your Rabb had declared to Moses through revelation that if the Bani-Isr'ael did not desist from their wrong-doings, He would impose on them the yoke of those who would oppress them for a long time. Your Rabb is swift in reckoning but grants respite so that wrong-doers might make amends.
168: The initial result of their persistent wrong-doing was the Diaspora. Some groups amongst them were upright and acted righteously while others did not. Adversity and prosperity came to them in turns in order that they might return to Allah's laws.
169-170: Those who came after them to inherit the Book aimed to capture the vain things of this passing world. They deluded themselves into believing that they would be forgiven and continued to barter the revelation for paltry gains. Would that someone had asked them if they had not made a covenant to speak naught but the truth about Allah? Did they not study the Book in which it was written that for those who lived righteously the abode of the next world was of greater value than anything obtained in this world? Could they not realise the simple truth that the abode of the next world was for those who hold fast to the Book and establish the Niz'am-us-Sal'at?. Their right actions would not go unrequited.
171: Recall that event in the history of Bani-Isr'ael when there was a mountain at their back (2/63) like a shaking canopy. They were terrified. We told them that they did not need to be fearful of natural phenomena. Hold fast to the Book and remember what is stated therein and you will be safe from all danger.
172: The history of mankind shows that despite various serious calamities which could have wiped them off the earth, the human race has continued. This is a clear evidence that Allah's programme of creation and Rabubiyyat is in operation continuously. We have narrated this history so that human beings may not say on the Day of Reckoning, that they were unaware of it.
173: Or they might say that they had set up peers to Allah Almighty because their ancestors had done so, and should, therefore, not be punished for the errors of their forbears.
174: Thus We make Our laws clear so that they may return to the right path.
175-177: What has been stated above about previous nations is elaborated by means of an example. There was a man who, by adhering to Allah's Laws attained prosperity. Thereafter, he discarded these Laws as a snake discards its skin which leaves no mark upon it. He was pursued by his base desires and became one of the seduced ones. We wanted that by adherence to Our Laws he should be elevated to the sky, but by following his base desires he sank to the lowest level and clung to it. He could be likened to a dog which would pant and loll out its tongue if it is attacked and also if it is not, in other words the lust of such man is insatiable regardless of circumstances. Such is the condition of those who declare Our Laws to be false.
O Rasool, narrate this story to them so that they might reflect upon it and see how miserable is the condition of the people who reject Our laws and thus destroy themselves.
178: Take note! the path shown by Allah Almighty is the path leading to life's blessings and those who go astray, ruin themselves.
179: You will see many amongst both the Jinn and Ins who are destined for Jahannam for they have been given the faculties of thinking, seeing and hearing but they do not utilize them (to grasp the truth). They are just like brutes - and indeed worse than them. They remain unheedful of the laws of Allah.
These are the people whose abode will be Jahannam (7/198, 10/42-43, 47/16, 67/10).
180: To transform the life of Jahannam into that of Jannat one must inculcate in oneself, so far as it is humanly possible to do so, those qualities which reflect Allah's attributes maintaining absolute balance therein. O Jama'at-ul-Momineen! keep aloof from those who go to extremes in emulating some of the Divine qualities. That time is not far off when such people will have to pay for what they do.
181: As stated earlier (7/159) amongst those whom We have created are some who guide others aright and dispense justice according to the laws of Allah.
182-183: Those who discard Allah's laws, chastisement does not come upon them immediately but they are led towards it gradually through ways which they do not perceive. This is the respite given to them; otherwise the grip of Our law of Mukaf'at is inescapable (21/11-14).
184: The reason for their rejecting the truth is that these people do not reflect. If only they had pondered, it would become so visibly clear to them, that there is no madness in their companion (34/36). He is but a perspicuous warner.
(185) If they reflected upon how Our Laws operate in heaven and earth and other things created by Allah, they would have come to see that those who adhere to Allah's laws, live and prosper whilst those who do not, are gradually led to their ultimate destruction. Ask them: "What remains after this whereby they come to believe?" (45/22).
186: Those who go astray will find no guide and are left to eddy in their perfidy. (2/15).
187: O Rasool, they ask you when, after all, would the destined hour come. Say: "The knowledge of this hour is only with my Rabb Who will let it happen at a time determined by the law of Mukaf'at (13/36-40). The calamity will rest heavy upon the heaven and the earth and may come upon you suddenly". They ask you this question as if you were eagerly in search of its answer. Say that the knowledge of the hour is with none save Allah Almighty but most of the people do not understand this (27/65, 6/50, 3/178, 11/49, 72/26-27).
188: O Rasool tell them: "I have not even the power to have control over what may be helpful or hurtful to me personally. All this is determined by Allah's laws. If I had knowledge of the unknown I could have accumulated much that was good for me and seen to it that no ill touched me. I am only a warner and announcer of glad tidings to those who believe in Allah".
189: Tell these people that Allah Almighty is He Who initiated your creation with a single life-cell which split into two parts - one male and the other female (4/1) in order that the spouses may live together in mutual comfort. When he covers her, the conception begins and the woman (in the beginning) goes about carrying a light burden [*13]. When the burden becomes heavy [*14] , the spouses pray to Allah: "If you give us a healthy child we will surely be thankful to You".
190: But when He gives them a healthy child they offer thanks to others along with Allah Almighty thus committing Shirk. But Allah Almighty is high above all they join with Him.
191-192: Do they associate with Allah Almighty those who cannot create anything whereas they are themselves created and they do not have the power even to help themselves, let alone others.
193: Despite these clear arguments if you call them to the right path they will not follow you. Whether or not you call them it will be the same for you. You are not under any obligation to make them follow the right path.
194: Say to them: "Those on whom you call besides Allah Almighty are human beings like your own selves. If you believe that they have any supernatural powers, call on them and see if they answer your call and fulfil your desire".
195: Not only do these people set up human beings as peers to Allah Almighty but also idols who have no feet to walk with, no hands to hold anything with, no eyes to see with and no ears to hear with. Say to them O Rasool! "Call upon the so called partners to Allah Almighty and do whatever you like. Give me no respite and see the result".
196-197: Tell them "I throw this challenge to you in the firm conviction that Allah Almighty Who has given me this Book is my protector; and He is the Protector of all righteous people. But those whom you call on besides Allah Almighty cannot help you; they do not have the power even to help themselves".
198: If you summon these people to the right path they will not harken to your call. They appear to be looking at you but their thoughts are elsewhere (10/42-43, 47/16).
199: Exercise forbearance, enjoin them to do what is right and turn away from those who do not care to understand.
200: If provocation is given to you by any of the ring-leaders amongst your opponents, seek protection in the laws of Allah Almighty Who hears and knows. (16/98).
201: Whenever an evil thought is put to them by Shait'an, the Muttaqeen immediately remember Allah's Laws and the matter at once becomes clear to them.
202: On the other hand those (who do not seek help from the Divine Laws, are firstly unaware as to the destruction they are heading to, and even if they get a slight feeling) their brothers in evil continue to drag them towards the wrong path and do not slacken in their efforts (35/51-57, 41/25, 43/36-38, 50/23-28).
203: O Rasool! they go so far as to offer to make a compromise with you if you will bring forth a verse to their liking (10/15, 11/13, 17/74, 68/9). When you say that Allah Almighty will not reveal such a verse they say to you "Why you do not make up one yourself". Tell them: "I only follow what is revealed to me by my Rabb and this revelation is an illumination from Him and a guidance and Rahmat for those who believe in it".
204-205: O Jama'at-ul-Momineen when the Quran is voiced, listen to it attentively and in silence so that you might receive Allah's Rahmat. But do not think that this is all that is required of you. Keep the laws of Allah Almighty in mind day and night and obey them in humbleness from the depth of your heart and without raising your voice (6/63, 7/55). Do not remain unheedful of them at any time.
206: Those who obey Allay act not with arrogance but try their utmost to accomplish Allah's programme with all sincerity; they only bow before Allah's Laws and none else.
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