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Old Sunday, May 09, 2010
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FACTS ABOUT HUMAN BODY
• Normal temperature of body is 98.4 deg: F = 37 deg: C
• Corrine is used as paralyzing agent
• A nerve cell is called neuron. Each neuron has several inputs called dendrites and a single output called axon
• Weakest bone is clavicle bone
• Hardest bone is collar bone
• The part of small intestine that joins large intestine is colon
• Hardest part of body is tooth
• Most abundant element in human body is carbon (chk Oxygen or calcium)
• Systole is heart contraction
• Diastole is heart relaxation
• Dendrites are connected with neurons
• Epidermis = outer skin is called the True skin, it is free from blood vessels and its cells are nourished by lymph
• Muscles are held to the bones by Tendons.
• The largest part of the human brain is the Cerebrum
• Blood fails to clot in the absence of Calcium
• the two most abundant elements by mass found in Earth's crust are Oxygen and Silicon
• Eardrum helps in keeping balance of the body
• In general, the probability of flooding decreases when there is an increase in the amount of infiltration
• Where is the 'Atlas' bone in the human body located? Neck
• What does intelligent people have more in their hair? zinc and copper
• Which base differentiates DNA and RNA? Uracil
• Eye is filled with ________ liquids: two
• What is the name of bones of human finger? Phalanges
• Pons varolii is found in brain
• Human brain contains 4/5th of water
• % of water in body is 70%
• Carbon in human body is 18%
• Heart is conical in shape
• Weight of heart is 9 ounces with 4 cavities
• Weight of kidney is 41/2 ounces
• Weight of brain is 1.4 kg and it consists of 14 billion nerve cells
• Right kidney is shorter and little lower than left
• Kidneys are supplied blood though renal arteries
• Liver receives blood from the alimentary canal through Heptic Portal vein
• Coronary artery supplies blood to heart
• Each kidney contains about one million nephrons
• Eye ball is moved by six muscles
• Most active muscle of human body is eye muscle
• Digestion of food takes 3 to 4 hours in stomach
• Capacity of stomach is one and a half kilo of food
• Clavicle is the collar bone
• Scapula is the shoulder bone
• Sternum is the chest bone
• There are 24 ribs
• Spinal cord has 33 disks
• Bones in hand are 27
• Ulna is the bone of forearm
• Radius is the second bone of forearm
• Carpal are 8 small bones of wrist
• Tarsal is the ankle bone
• Femur and patella (knee cap), tibia and fibula are bones of lower limbs
• Femur is the longest bone
• Head or skull has 29 bones
• Total bones are 206
• Total muscles are 600 (chk 650)
• 60 thousand miles of capillaries of blood
• Chemically finger nails are made of protein
• Nails are made of a tough material called keratin
• Average body has 2 square yards of skin
• Weight of skin is 6 pounds
• Smallest bone is stirrup in the ear about 1/10th of an inch
• A newborn baby has 300 bones
• In 22 weeks baby is formed completely
• Ovum is a female germ cell
• The sensation of skin is perceived by epidermis
• Number of systems in body are of 7 types
• Man breathes 20,000 times in a day
• Root of hair is called follicle
• More than 2/3rd of body weight is made of fluids/water
• Messages sent in brain at 240 miles/hour
• Weight of eyes is 1 ½ ounces each
• There are 100,000 hairs
• Muscle of jaw exerts 219 kg weight
• Circadian rhythm is a medical term of heart beat
• Atmosphere exerts a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch on human body
• Iris of eye regulates the quantity of light admitted into the eye ball
• Outer layer of eyeball is called sclerotic
• The front portion of sclerotic is called cornea
• In eye a convex lens is placed
• Cornea is the only part of body without blood supply
• In front of eye is Cornea which bends light as it passes into the eyeball. It is covered by a thing membrane called Conjunctiva.
• Image made on ratina is upside down, but our brain turns it right.
• Behind the Cornea is a sheet of muscles called the Iris with the small hole in the middle called the pupil.
• Iris manages the amount of light entry into eye. In dark it relaxes to let pupil enter light as much as possible and in bright light it contracts.
• The muscles attached to the lens are Ciliary muscles. These muscles can contract the lens thin to see distant objects and for close objects these muscles relax.
• Retina contains cone shaped cells that can detect colors.
• Retina contains rod shaped cells that can see dim light.
• In the centre of retina is a small yellow area called the fovea where each cell has its own connection to the brain.
• Skeleton word comes from a Greek word meaning dried up.
• The defect of vision because of which a person cannot see distant objects clearly : Myopia or Short sightedness
• Where on your body are the most sweat glands-Feet
• Your eyeballs are 3.5% what-Salt
• The human bodies got 45 miles of them – what-Nerves
• Where is your zygomatic bone-Cheek
• Pancreas lies partly on the left side and partly on the right side of the body.
• Development of calf muscles in ladies who wear high heels is a common example of: Use and disuse of organ
• Cerumen is the technical name for what body part-Earwax
• Skin does not excrete oil.
• Male child is born if xy chromosomes are united.
• Liver receives blood from the alimentary canal through hepatic portal vein.
• For short-sightedness (man cannot see distant objects) a concave lens is used
• For long-sightedness (man cannot see near objects) a convex lens is used
• Concave mirrors are used as shaving mirrors, doctors use concave mirrors for the examination of ear, nose or eyes of a patient
• Concave mirrors are used to focus light in case of search lights and headlights of automobiles.
• Cerebellum co-ordinates movements, conscious control and balance, allowing you to move smoothly.
• The largest and most complicated part of brain is cerebrum. It controls conscious actions, speech and all your senses. It also does all your thinking and is the centre of memory and learning. It has two halves linked by bundles of nerve fibres. Its right side does artistic, creative tasks while the left is responsible for understanding, reading and thinking
• A reflex action is controlled by the nerves of the spinal cord without involving brain.
• Skeleton word comes from a Greek word meaning dried up
• Most abundant mineral in human body is calcium
• Strongest muscle is Thigh muscle (chk Heart muscle and cheek muscle)
• Iris in the eye contracts on the entry of light.
• Retina acts as a lens in the entry of light.
• Weight of heart is 300 gram.
• Water in human body is 85%
• A human being drinks 27 tons of water in a year
• Peritoneum is a membrane
• Unused fat in body is converted into animal fat and stored in different parts of body
• Substances which bring down body temperature are Antipyretics
• Antibodies are proteins
• Most easily breakable bone of body is Collar bone
• There is 21/2 pounds of calcium in human body
• A human body has 236 joints
• Dental enamel is the hardest thing present in human body
• A man breathes 18 times in a minute
• A 9 inch nail can be made from the iron available in a body
• Average weight of man’s brain is 4.8 ounces and femal’s 4.4 ounces
• About 900 pencils can be made from the carbon preserved in human body
• Skin does not excrete oil.
• New varieties of organisms can be brought about by hybridization.
• Male child is born if xy chromosomes are united.
• Total teeth = 32, eight flat incisors at the front, fount pointed canine and 20 flat-topped pre-molars and molars at the back of the mouth.
• Tooth is covered by tough white enamel
• Enamel is the hardest substance in the body and resists almost everything except the acid produced by certain bacteria
• Liver is the body’s chemical factory.
• Liver is the largest organ in the body.
• Liver carries out more than 500 different tasks.
• Liver recycles old red blood cells.
• Liver takes up and stores glucose from blood.
• Liver also absorbs and stores fat and some vitamins.
• Liver uses vitamin B12 for making new red blood cells.
• Nearly two third of our body is water.
• We loose about a liter and a half of water each day in sweating, breathing and urination.
• Each kidney is made up of millions of tiny filtering units called Nephrons.
• The nephrons can filter about 4 liters of blood every 5 minutes.
• Each day about 200 liters of water leaves the blood and passes into the filters most of it is then reclaimed and return to the blood.
• Only about a liter of water per day stays in the nephrons to leave the kidney and flow into the bladder as urine.
• Urea is poisonous so the kidneys remove all of it from the blood.
• The liquid which leaves the kidney as urine is about 96% water and just 4% salts and urea.
• The urinary bladder can hold about half a liter of urine before we must empty it.
• Amniotic sac is a protective bag of fluid in which the baby floats.
• A baby is attached to the side of the womb by placenta.
• Homo erectus means upright man
• Homo sapiens mean wise man
• Cells in intestine are easily worn away and live for only a few days.
• Bone cells can last for 30 years.
• The left ventricle pumps blood all round the body.
• Capillaries are so small that they can fit between cells.
• A living bone has layers of hard calcium phosphate on the outside and a heycomb of hard bone of living cells inside
• Bone marrow supply blood cells over 2 millin every second
• In the inner chamber of ear called cochlea, the vibrations send waves of movement through a fluid.
• The cochlea is liked with thousands of sensitive hairs.
• Thumping of heart or break out of sweat are caused by adrenaline.
• From the age of about 5 years a child’s body grows steadily
• Protein is a natural polymer
• Muscles along the digestive system contract in a sequence called peristalsis to squeeze food along
• Nutrients of food are absorbed in blood in a long section of intestine called ileum. If uncoiled, ileum is 5-6 meters long
• Eye contains only three types of color-sensitive cells. These cells (called cones) are on retina. The cones respond to red, green and blue light. Brain makes out other colors by combining the signals from these cells.
• Ophthalmology deals with Eyes
• ORBIS is mobile eye hospital
• Synovial fluid is the “joint oil” between bones
• The smallest bone in human body is stapes or stirrup bone. It is one of the three auditory ossicles in the middle ear. Its length is 0.10 to 0.13 inch.
• Your tongue is the only muscle in your body that is attached at only one end
• You use 14 muscles to smile and 43 to frown.
• A living bone has layers of hard calcium, phosphate on the outside and a honeycomb of hard bone are living cells within.
• Every second, hundreds of tiny pulses of electricity shoot through your body along living wires called nerves.
• There is a place in the retina where the light sensitive cells are interrupted by the presence of the optic nerve head. It is known as The Retinal Neural Transmission Layer_
• The cavity of Ascaris is known as Coelom.
• The membranous labyrinth of the ear is filled with Endolymph.
• Crura-cerebri is found in Mid-brain.
• The strongest muscle of the body is the masseter muscle, which is located in the jaw. (Chk)
• Muscles account for 40 percent of one's body weight.
• There are 230 joints in the body.
• Kids have 20 first teeth. Adults have 32 teeth.
• The small intestines are about 25 feet long.
• The large intestines are five feet long and are three times wider than the small intestines.
• Most people shed 40 pounds of skin in a lifetime.
• Your body is 70 percent water.
• Normal body temperature is 98.6° Fahrenheit.
• When you sneeze, air rushes through your nose at a rate of 100 mph.
• An eyelash lives about 150 days before it falls out.
• Your brain sends messages at the rate of 240 mph.
• About 400 gallons of blood flow through your kidneys in one day.
• You blink your eyes about 20,000 times a day.
• Your heart beats about 100,000 times a day.
• Humans breathe 20 times per minute, more than 10 million times per year and about 700 million times in a lifetime.
• You have about 100,000 hairs on your head.
• There are 10 million nerve cells in your brain.
• Each of your eyes has 120 million rods, which help you see in black and white.
• Each eye has six million cones, which help you see in color.
• One in 12 men is color blind.
• Brain of a normal human adult weighs about 3lb
• For an adult blood pressure of 120/80 is regarded as ideal and pressure of up to 140/90 is normal.
• Iris in the eye contracts on the entry of light.
• Retina acts as a lens in the entry of light.
• In your body where is the macula- Eye centre of the Retina
• Weight of heart is 300 gram.
• Heart pumps five liters of blood in 1 minute.
• Colon is mainly responsible for water absorption from the undigested residue.
• Right kidney in man is slightly lower in position than the left kidney
• The movement of food through esophagus is by the muscular action known as : peristaltic
• In the human body what is replaced every three months Eyelashes
• Our eyes are always the same size from birth, but our nose and ears never stop growing
• The thickness of your skin varies from 1/2 to 6 millimeters, depending on the area of your body
• the temperature of the dead human body on Celsius scale is __25 c_ normally room temperature
• Where in your body is the labyrinth- Ear
• What does a hypodermic literally mean-Under skin
• In the body where would you find your villus Small Intestine
• Where is the dirtiest skin on your body- The face
• the number of the spinal nerves in the man is ____ pairs (31)
• Part of the human body can expand 20 times its normal size: Stomach 0.5 litres to 5 litres
• In the human body where is your occiput: Back of head
• Central nervous system controls the reflex action in the body.
• The terminal part of vertebral column in man is called Coceyx
• The "Urinary system" of the body consists of 3 organs.
• Haryersion canals are present in Bone.
• The heart bear is initiated and regulated by nodal tissue made of specialized cardiac muscles called Purkinje tusse.
• The gestation period of human being is Nine months.
• The first heart sound is produced when Diastole begins.
• Where would you find Lunate Triquetral and Hamate-Bones in Wrist
• Which part of the human body contains the most gold: Toenails
• In the body luteinizing hormone is produced by what gland Pituitary
• Due to buffer system, human blood has a ph of 7.4.
• The normal temperature of human body is 98.6 F.
• chemical elements most % human body O 65% C 18% and Hydrogen 10%
• Cell membrane is made up of protein and lipid molecules forming a semi permeable membrane.
• Carbohydrates in the cell are in from of glycogen.
• An epithelium is a collection of cells.
• Exoskeleton lies external to the muscles.
• Exoskeleton is commonly found in anthropoids and mollusk.
• Exoskeleton is composed of dead substances secreted by the cells.
• Endoskeleton lies internal to muscles of the body. It is found in all vertebrates. It is formed of bones and cartilages.
• Endoskeleton is composed of living cells.
• Ear has 6 bones- Malleus bone (2), Incus bone (2) & stapes (2).
• Human skull has 22 bones.
• There are 26 vertebrae in the human body.
• Total number of ribs are 24- True Ribs (14), False Ribs (6) and floating ribs (4)
• Sternum is that bone where the ribs meet medially.
• Collar bone are 2, Shoulder bone are 2.
• Carpal bones are those bones which form the wrist numbering 8.
• Small forearm bone is radius and main forearm bone is Ulna. Humerus is upper arm bone.
• Metacarpal bones are found in hand numbering 5.
• Phalanges are small bones present in fingers also called digits. These are 14 in number.
• Each leg is composed of 29 bones.
• Tarsal bone is also known as the ankle bone. These are seven in number.
• Phalanges are toe bones numbering 14.
• Vertebrae are 33 in number. Vertebral column covers spinal cord and protects it from injury.
• Clavicle bones are also known as collar bones. These are two bones.
• Scapula are called shoulder bones.
• Sternum is called chest bone.
• Patella acts like a knee-cap and protects the knee joint.
• Tibia is the main large bone of the lower leg also known as calf-bone.
• Fibula is the smaller part of lower leg.
• Femur bears the weight of the body. It is in upper leg.
• Muscles are composed of threadlike protein structure called myofibril.
• The cardiac muscle continues to contract rhythmically even when it is disconnected from the nervous system.
• Trapizius muscle is responsible for movement of shoulder.
• Sternocleidomastoid muscle is the longest muscle of the body. It bends head and neck.
• Brachialis anticus muscle is responsible for bending forearm to the upper arm.
• Heart is enclosed in a tough membrane called Pericardium.
• There are four chambers of heart.
• Heart is surrounded by a fluid called as pericardial fluid.
• The weight of the heart in females is 25% lesser than in males.
• Excitability and contractility of the heart id due to the presence of myofibrils of actin and myosin.
• Purkinjee fibres are tissues of heart.
• S.A Node and A.V Node are special conducting tissues of the heart.
• S.A. Node was discovered by Keith and Flack in 1907.
• A.V Node functions as Pace-maker.
• Right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from body collected by Superior Vena Cava from head and upper parts while from the lower parts by inferior vena cava.
• Right atrium opens into right ventricle through right atrioventricular aperture guarded by bicuspid valve allowing one way flow of blood.
• When right ventricle contracts, the blood is pushed by the way of pulmonary arteries to the lungs for oxygenation.
• The left atrium is that chamber which receives the oxygenated blood from lungs by pulmonary veins.
• Left atrium opens into left ventricle from there blood is pumped into aorta which distributes blood to body.
• Cardiac cycle consists of three events- Auricular Systole, Ventricular Systole and Diastole.
• Each cardiac cycle takes 0.8 seconds.
• Aorta is the largest vessel of the body.
• The biggest artery is aorta with a diameter of one inch.
• Arteries carry blood away from the heart except pulmonary arteries.
• Arteries carry oxygenated blood except pulmonary arteries.
• The smallest artery is called arteriole.
• The walls of veins are much thinner that the arteries.
• Coronary arteries supply blood to heart.
• Carotid arteries supply blood to head.
• Subclavian arteries supply blood to shoulder and forelimbs.
• Coelic artery supplies blood to digestive system.
• Renal artery supplies blood to kidneys.
• Iliac artery supplies blood to legs.
• The most important function of perspiration is to regulate the body temperature.
• The number of chromosomes in the human body is 46.
• First tissue culture was grown in space on Dec: 17, 1997.
• The tiny air sacs in the lung tissues are called alveoli.
• Farmer's lung is a type of hypersensitivity pneumonitis
• Otalgia is what condition-Earache
• Scurvy is a disease resulting from a deficiency of vitamin C, which is required for the synthesis of collagen in humans.
• Scorbutic gums, a symptom of scurvy
• Scurvy leads to the formation of spots on the skin, spongy gums, and bleeding from the mucous membranes. The spots are most abundant on the thighs and legs, and a person with the ailment looks pale, feels depressed, and is partially immobilized. In advanced scurvy there are open, suppurating wounds and loss of teeth. It was described by Hippocrates
• Shortsightedness can be corrected with the use of Concave.
• Pancreas lies partly on the left side and partly on the right side of the body.
• In total 25 elements are present in human body.
•
HUMAN BLOOD
• Universal donor group is O group
• Total volume of blood in human body is 5.5 liters (chk 6 liters)
• Life span of red blood cells is 120 days
• Life of RBC is 115 days.
• The total quantity of blood in a human body is 7-8 liter.
• 80 % water is found in pure blood
• The pH of normal human body is Arteries 7.4
• 60% of blood plasma consists of protein.
• Which one of the following substances is obtained by the fractionation of human blood? Gamma globulin
• In the human circulatory system blood returns to the heart from the lungs through Pulmonary Veins.
• First blood transfusion carried out in London
• pH value of water is 7, blood is 7.4 and urine is 5.5-6.5
• when iron is less in body the quantity of RBC decreases
• Leococytosis is the increase in number of white blood cells.
• it takes 30 seconds to blood for a complete circulation in human body
• Blood travels 1000 times through the whole body
• Hemoglobin is chromo-protein
• In lymph main cells are lymphocytes
• Blood has 83% of water
• Blood has 60% plasma, 40% corpuscles
• During sleep a man’s blood pressure fluctuates.
• Fat is a Lipid
• Human blood is 6 times thicker than water
• Heart pumps five liters of blood in 1 minute.
• Antigen is a substance that destroys harmful bacteria
• Blood typing is the way of determine the blood group.
• Platelets help to seal cuts in the skin.
• Almost half of the blood in a body is made up of red blood cells.
• White cells are about one for every 500 red cells.
• A blood donor gives about 500 ml of blood.
• RBC and WBC is bloods are counted by Hemocytometer.
• Of the blood groups A, B, AB and O, which one is transfused into a person whose blood group is A? Group A and O
• Your body contains eight pints of blood.
• Kari Landsteiner discovered the blood groups of man.
• Prothrombin which helps in clotting of blood is released by Blood platelets.
• The main function of white blood cells in the body is to protect the body against diseases.
• In which liquid component do the blood cells move about? Plasma
• Blood can be classified into how many main types of groups? Four
• The fluid portion of blood is known as the plasma.
• Blood contains 91 to 92% waster.
• Blood contains proteins like Serum Albumin, Serum Globulin, Prothrombin and Fibrinogen.
• RBCs in venous blood have bigger size than in arterial blood.
• RBCs due to their Hb content act as O2 carrier.
• RBCs are also known as Erythrocytes.
• WBCs are known as Leucocytes and act as police force of the body.
• WBCs are larger in size as compared to RBCs.
• Life span of WBCs is a few days to a few weeks.
• Platelets have no nucleus.
• Platelets are formed in red bone marrow.
• Life span of platelets varies from 4 to 10 days.
• Platelets are very rich in catecholamine.
• Blood grouping is based on the presence of blood group antigen (agglutinates) on RBCs which are inherited.
• O group comprises of 47% of population while A with 41% is second.
• Hemoglobin is a conjugated protein composed of heme and globulin.
• Quantity of hemoglobin is 16 gms/100 ml of blood in Males and 14 gms/100 ml of blood in females.
• Hemoglobin is basically from acetic acid and glycine.
• Platelets are essential for blood clotting.
•
GLANDS AND SECETIONS IN HUMAN BODY
• Blood clotting factor is produced by Liver
• Chemical factory of human body is liver
• Urea is produces in liver
• Maximum quantity of water is in eyes
• Largest secretary gland is Liver
• Insulin is produced by pancreas, Insulin is a protein which acts as a hormone
• Amino acids are a product of the digestion of proteins.
• Ptyalin is starch digesting enzyme.
• Bile secretion does not contain enzymes.
• Pepsin, a digestive enzyme is produced in stomach.
• The hormone secreted by adrenal cortex : aldosterone
• The organ in (the human body which is responsible for the digestion of protein only -Stomach
• Ptyalin is present in the saliva.
• Glycogen is mainly stored in Liver and muscles.
• Pepsin converts protein into peptides in acid media.
• Trypsin is an enzyme produced by pancreas
• Starch is digested by Ptylin
• Gall bladder stores bile from liver and releases it into small intestine after food is consumed
• Pancreas is both endo- and exocrine gland
• Harmones secreted by kidneys are Renin and Erythroprotein
• Lachrymal glands give out tears
• Sweat glands give out sweat
• Salivary glands give out saliva, Saliva contains Amylases
• Ptyalin is the enzyme of Saliva
• Liver converts excessive protein into urea.
• Amino acids are a product of the digestion of proteins.
• Ptyalin is starch digesting enzyme.
• Bile secretion does not contain enzymes.
• Enzymes found in saliva are ptyalin.
• Lachrymal gland is a ductless gland.
• Insulin : Pancreas
• Thyroxin : Thyroid
• Adrenaline ; Adrenal medulla
• Estrogen : Ovaries
• Testosterone : Testes
• Cortisol; Adrenal cortex
• In the body luteinizing hormone is produced by what gland Pituitary
• Mammary gland give out milk
• Liver gives out bile
• Sebaceous gland give out sebum
• Exocrine glands transmit secretions through ducts
• Enzymes are protein in nature
• Hydrolysis of starch gives glucose and fructose
• Fat digested by Lipase
• Starch is a polymer of glucose
• Endocrine glands: Pituitary is in brain and it controls general body growth.
• Thyroid gland produces Thyroxin and it increases rate of cellular metabolism,
• Pancreas produce insulin which metabolizes sugar and fats
• Adrenal gland produce cartosol, Testosterone is produced by Tests and ovaries produce Progesterone
• Pituitary: Controls activity of thyroid, adrenal and reproductive glands. Other hormones stimulate the womb to contract during birth, and stimulate milk production after a baby is born.
• Thyroid: Thyroxin controls the rate at which we grow, and how fast food is converted to energy in our cells.
• Adrenal Glands: Adrenaline speeds up the heart and breathing, causes sweating and diverts blood to the muscles, in response to an emergency.
• Cortisone helps fight stress and shock.
• Aldosterone helps regulate water and salt in the body.
• Pancreas: Insulin controls the body’s use of glucose.
• Ovaries: Estrogens and progesterone control female appearance and the release of eggs, and prepare the body for pregnancy.
• Testes: Testosterone controls the development of male appearance and the production of sperm cells.
• Protein which acts as hormone is Oxatocin
• Hormones are made in glands known as endocrine glands which pour them straight into the blood. Hormones are not released all the time they are produced in short bursts.
• Pituitary gland attached to the underside of brain releases hormones that control the activity of other endocrine glands. It produces hormone that controls the amount of water filtered in the kidneys. Pituitary is attached to the brain by the hypothalamus which links together the nervous system and the hormonal system
• Excessive secretion from the pituitary gland in children results in increased height
GENE/CELL
• The genetic material of chromatin is DNA
• Hereditary material is DNA
• Gender of a person is determined by 23rd chromosome
• Autosome are sex chromosome = 23
• Nucleus of human body cell contains about 20,000 genes, half of which being contributed by each parent
• Term gene was coined by Johannsen in 1909
• DNA = Deoxy ribose nucleic acid
• RNA = Ribose nucleic acid
• Histones are on chromosomes
• Chromosomes word was coined by Waldeyer in 1888
• Number of chromosomes in human being is 46
• Chromosomes in spermatozoa are 23
• Smallest part of a gene is Mutton
• Mitochondria are power house of cells
• Golgi bodies are involved in cell secretions
• Ribosome are rich in DNA and prepare protein
• Plastids are found in Plant cells only and contain chlorophyll
• Centrosomes help in cell division
• Proteins are synthesized by Golgi bodies.
• Cellulose respiration is done by Mitochondrion
• Light energy is stored in the form of chemical energy due to the activity of Chloroplast.
• Protoplasm is a colloidal solution.
• Most cells are microscopic but the egg cell of an ostrich is 15-20 cm long and some giraffe nerve cells reach more then 4 m long
• Mitochondria do work of cell respiration.
• The nucleus, mitocondria and chloroplast have double membranes
• Bacteria have no nucleus and no mitochondria they have just a single loop of DNA cell nucleoid as well as food granules and ribosome which produce proteins
• Each cell has the same set of about 30,000 genes.
• Genes are arranged along a long and thin thread-like structure called chromosomes.
• Snakes have 36 chromosomes, horse has 63 while some ferns have 500 or more
• Humans have a total of 46 chromosomes- 23 pairs in every cell. The only exception are sperm and egg cells which have 23 unpaired chromosomes.
• Genes are made of a chemical called deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA
• DNA tells a cell how to make the proteins
• Every cell in a body contains at least 10,000 different kinds of proteins.
• The machinery for making these proteins is on structures called ribosome which are outside the nucleus.
• RNA carries the instructions for making a particular protein to the ribosome.
• A permanent change to a piece of DNA is called a mutation.
• Nearly a third of a human being’s genes are the same as the genes of a lettuce.
• DNA is shaped like a twisted ladder called double helix. The rungs of the ladder are made up of four chemical building blocks Adenine, Guanine, Thymine, and Cytosine
• Amoeba is a unicellular organism
• A structure present in all cells is called cell membrane
• The normal temperature of human body on the Kelvin scale is 310.
• ELISA is Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay- for HIV/AIDS.
• Rh- blood is very rare compared to Rh+.
• The pancreatic duct releases its contents into duodenum.
• Right hepatic artery supplies nutrient rich blood from stomach and small intestine to the liver.
• Human cranium contains 6 bones.
• In the human body, spleen stores extra blood for release when shortage occurs.
• Mitochondria contain enzymes for cellular respirations.
• In the human body, rotator cuff muscle is to be found in the shoulder.
• Reproductive cells in normal human beings are produced in greater numbers for a longer period of time in the male
• Which vessels bring blood back to heart? Inferior venacava and Superior venacava bring blood back to heart from lower parts and upper parts of body respectively.
• Where in your body is your patella: Knee ( it's the kneecap
• 80% of household dust is actually what material-Dead skin
• Babies are born without what-Knee Caps - form at 2-6 years
• In Nuclear DNA is concentrated in chromatin.
• Proteins are synthesized by golgi bodies.
• Cellulose respiration is done by Mitochondrion.
• Protoplasm is a colloidal solution.
• Man is Homoeothermic.
• Hydrosis is the medical term for what -Sweating
• An IVP is used to detect what medical condition- Kidney Stones- Intravenuspylorigram
• What part of the body ages the fastest-The Hands
• In medicine what is nicknamed a blue pipe-A Vein
• What is the name of the cranial bone just above your ear Temporal
• What is the name of the scale measuring depth of coma (GCS)- Glasgow Coma Scale
•
DISEASES/CURE
• TB tuberculosis is a bacterial disease
• Bacillus causes TB
• Salmonella Typhus are bacteria causing Typhoid
• Vibrio cholera cause Cholera
• Clostridium Tetni cause Tetanus
• Athlete’s foot is caused by Fungi
• Presbypia is an old age eye disease
• Mycobacterium are bacteria causing T.B
• Myxovirus cause Influenza
• Anopheles (mosquito) causes malaria, parasite is plasmodium
• Astigmation is fault of eye
• Thalasemia is an hereditary disease causing deficiency of hemoglobin
• Long-sightedness is called Hyper metrophia
• Shortsightedness is called Myopia
• Largest acquired disease is of tooth
• Low sugar in blood is called Hypoglycemia
• High sugar in blood is called Hyperglycemia
• Plague is caused by Yersina Pests
• Hemophilia is a bleeding disease
• Parasomia is sleep walking.
• In Leukemia there is an abnormal increase in number of White blood cells
• Parkinson is a disease of Brain
• An Aids patient can live for 2 years
• Aids virus has single stranded RNA
• Meaningitis disease affects Centaral Nervous System
• Diabetes is a disease in which the urine lacks insulin
• Improper function of Thyroid gland causes Myxedema
• Scurvy is the disease of swelling and bleeding of gums
• Hook worm enters human body through soles of feet
• Tuberculosis usually spreads though milk
• Malaria affects spleen and liver
• Trachoma is a disease of ees
• Mymps is caused by virus
• Lock jaw is a condion of Tetanus virus attack
• A person suffering from Beri- Beri should use citrus fruit , mangoes, grapes
• Pneumonia is caused by Cocci.
• Common Cold is caused by Virus.
• Chief food of mosquito larva is micro organism found in water.
• Chief food of butterfly larva is leaves of plants.
• Pneumonia affects respiratory system.
• Rabies affects Nervous system.
• Beri beri affects bones.
• Biopsy is done on tissues taken from a living body
• Oldest known disease in the world is Leprosy
• Lack of oxygen at high altitudes produce bleeding
• Pathogenic is the Disease producing micro organism.
• Antibiotic for inhibit the growth of bacteria.
• Sulfa drugs are used for bacteria.
• An disinfectant is used for destroying micro-organism and rendering the material sterile.
• Encephalitis is a viral disease.
• Trypanosome a parasite causing sleeping sickness.
• Immunization is the method in which the cure of disease is done by Vaccine.
• Sleep sickness is transmitted by tse-tse-fly.
• typical bacterial cell is about 1000 times smaller than an animal cell
• Viruses are not made up of cells
• Viruses cause common cold, measles, Aids
• Bacteria move with Flagella
• Bacteria cause cholera, tetanus, typhoid
• Bacteria can produce two in every 30 minutes and 8 million bacteria a day (?)
• Viruses called Bacteriophages invade the cell of bacteria and hijack its chemical process so instead of working normally the cell makes copies of the virus
• SARS = Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome is a pneumonia like disease
• Mad cow disease = BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy)
• Louis Pasteur, a French chemist, was the first to realize that diseases are caused by germs
• In 1881, Louis Pasteur founded a vaccine for anthrax, a fatal disease of animals.
• The Pasteur Institute in Paris was founded in 1888 to investigate rabies.
• Morphine used in drugs is extracted from opium poppy, it is a powerful painkiller.
• Antibiotics are substances produced naturally by certain moulds and bacteria.
• A vaccine is made of dead or weakened micro-organisms to fight the invading virus. The body produces antibodies to fight the invading virus. Later, if the body is exposed to real virus the antibodies are already there to attack it before it multiplies.
• English doctor Edward Jener made vaccine of smallpox.
• Analgesic drugs prevent or reduce pain
• Jaundice is a yellowness of skin which is caused by disease of the liver or gall blader.
• Head louse transmits the typhoid.
• Cancer cells divide rapidly and form growth called Tumors.
• Radiotherapy is used for killing cancer cells
• Ultra-violet rays from sun can cause cancer
• Strong drugs(Chemotherapy) are used to remove cancer in early stages
• Magic bullets are special antibodies used as a drug to kill cancer cells.
• Oil from the skin contains substances that kill bacteria.
• Inside the nose sticky mucus traps and destroys invaders we inhale.
• We have several different types of infection fighting white cells in the blood. Two of the most important are lymphocytes and macrophages.
• Lymphocytes produce special chemical called antibodies to fight bacteria and viruses.
• By what name is the disease, Varicella, more commonly known? Chicken Pox
• A typical bacterial cell is about 1000 times smaller than an animal cell.
• Viruses are not made up of cells.
• Viruses cause, common cold, measles, aidz.
• Bacteria moves with Flagella.
• Bacteria causes Cholera, Tetanus, Typhoid.
• Bacteria can produce (Two) in every 30 minutes and 8 million bacteria a day.
• Viruses called Bacteriophages invade the cell of bacteria. They ‘hijack’ the cell’s chemical process, so that, instead of working normally, the cell makes copies of the virus.
• Immunization is the method in which the cure of disease is done by Vaccine.
• Small pox is totally eliminated from the world.
• Cancer is a disease which cannot be spread by those who have it
• The drug quinine is used in the treatment of malaria.
• Pollen grains can cause hey fever which is a typical allergic reaction.
• After drinking contaminated water you would be most apt to develop symptoms of ‘typhoid fever’.
• Food poisoning can result from the eating of too much Vitamins. (chk)
• The most infectious disease is Penumonic form of Plague. it has a mortality rate og about 99.99 %
• robert koch worked on TB
• Rust is caused by Fungi.
• Pathogenic is the Disease producing micro organism.
• Antibiotic for inhi the growth of bacteria.
• Sulfa drugs are used for bacteria.
• An disinfectant is used for destroying micro-organism and rendering the materialsterile.
• Pneumonia is caused by Cocci.
• Common Cold is caused by Virus.
• Bacillus causes Cholera.
• Pneumonia affects respiratory system.
• Rabies affects Nervous system.
• Beri beri affects bones.
• Head louse transmits the typhoid.
• Sleep sickness is transmitted by tse-tse-fly.
• Trachoma is a disease of eye.
• Typhoid is caused by bacteria.
• Cancer Cells divide rapidly and form growth called Tumors.
• If cells break away from the tumors they can travel to other part of the body and start new tumors.
• Radiotherapy is used for killing cancer cells.
• Ultra-Violet rays from the sun can damage skin cells and cause cancer.
• Strong drugs (Chemotherapy) is used to remove cancer in early stages.
• Magic bullets are special antibodies used as a drug to kill cancer, they directly attach themselves to cancer cells.
• Anasthetic = prevent patient feeling pain; local anesthetic acts locally; generally anesthetic creates unconsciousness.
• Analgesic = prevents or reduces pain.
• Antibiotic = kills the bacteria that cause disease.
• Antihistamine = relieves symptoms of asthma, hay fever and other allergies.
• Hormone = used to overcome a hormone deficiency in the body.
• Narcotic = helps prevents pain by deadening the whole system.
• Sedative = helps induce sleep.
• Tranquillizer = helps claim a person.
• Vaccine = helps the body fight a virus disease by triggering its natural defenses in advance.
• Encephalitis is a viral disease.
• Muscle stiffness is caused by a disease called ___ (Parkinsons) (chk)
• Wool sorters disease is actually what-Anthrax
• Which disease was once known as white plague Tuberculosis
• Beingn tertain malaria is caused by plasmodium vivax.
• The life history of human malarial parasite in Anopheles was first described by Sir Ronald Ross.
• The mouth parts of anopheles are adapted to piercing and sucking type feeding.
• Amoebic dysentery in man is caused by Entamoeba histolytica.
• Jaundice is the disease of Liver
• AIDS is caused by HIV virus (human immune deficiency virus ).
• Addison’s disease is caused by the excessive secretion of: Adrenocorticotrophic Harmone
• Consumption was the former name of which disease: Tuberculosis
• If you suffered from pruritus - what would be wrong-Itching
• The word amnesia (forgetfulness) derives from- Greek
• Encephalitis is a viral disease.
• What disease is spread in minute water droplets-Legionnaires Disease
• Which of the following diseases is generally spread by fleas? Yellow fever
• The much dreaded H1N1 virus flu, also known as swine flu, is a respiratory illness in pigs caused by a virus
• Water contaminated by sewage spreads disease such as cholera, typhoid, dysentery and river blindness
• Meningococcal Meningitis is transmitted from person to person by mosquito bites.
• Vomiting and neck pair are two of the symptoms of Meningococcal Meningitis.
• Deficiency of vitamin A causes Xerophthalmia, a disease characterized by dryness of conjunctiva layer of eye.
• Cholera is caused by bacteria vibrio cholerae.
• Colour blindness, Down’s syndrome & Hemophilia are genetic disorders.
• Xerophthalmia is disease of tear glands.
• Leukemia is a type of cancer in which there is an abnormal increase in the number of White Blood Cells.
• Biopsy is a medical diagnostic technique using cells and tissues.
• In which country were antibiotics first used: Egypt - used mouldy bread
• If you suffer from epistaxis what is wrong: Nosebleed
• Deficiency of Vitamin C causes a disease of... Teeth
• Louis Pasteur is called “Father of the Modern Medicine”.
• If you has caries who would you consult Dentist - its tooth decay
• Which of the following is not an attribute of bacterium? Ability to arise from non-living matter
• The comma bacillus causes what disease: Cholera
• If you have Chlorosis what colour does the skin go: Green
• What is the oldest most widely used drug on earth: Alcohol
• What medication discovered in 1928 but introduced 1940: Penicillin
• Flies and humans can both get which condition-Athletes Foot
• Agraphia means inability to write.
• St. Vitus’s dance is a disease.
• Kleptomania is an irrational urge to steal.
• After drinking contaminated water you would be most apt to develop symptoms of ‘typhoid fever’.
• Otalgia is what condition-Earache
• If a doctor gave you an Ishihara test what is he testing-for Colour blindness
• If you suffered from pyrexia what have you got-Fever
•
ANIMALS, PLANTS & INSECTS
• Earth worm is bi-sexual
• Euspongia is known as natural bath sponge.
• Live Fluke, biologically called Fasciola, is found in liver of sheep.
• Eyes of insects are compound.
• Plants growing in extremely dry condition are called Xerophytes.
• Roots absorb water from soil which is Hygroscopic.
• Legumes increase the fertility of the soil by adding nitrogen to the soil.
• New varieties of organisms can be brought about by hybridization.
• Seeds are developed from Ovule.
• Parthenocarpic fruits are seedless fruits.
• Grains swell in water due to imbibitions.
• Chlorophyll contains magnesium.
• Star fish is not a star fish but a spiny-skin (Echinodermata) marine animal.
• Plants store their food in the form of starch.
• Unlike most other fish, sharks have no:
• It is now believed that dinosaurs became extinct because of:
• The platypus and the echidna are the only mammals that Lay eggs
• Lady bird is an insect
• Rust of wheat is a disease caused by Fungi
• Silk is obtained from cocoon of silk worm
• Python Plankton are poisonous plants
• Insects have lived on earth about 4,000,000 years
• Slowest creature on earth is Conch-Shell (shellfish snail)
• Star fish is not a star fish but a spiny-skin (Echinodermata) marine animal.
• Koala bear is the only animal who doesn’t drink water
• A rat can last longer without water than a camel
• Loudest animal is Blue whales
• Peocock is found in 3 colors
• Cockroach is considered ancient insect of world
• Daffodils flower resembles a human eye
• Giant squid is the largest invertiberate
• Angora wool is got from a special variety of rabbit
• Sailfish is the largest fisht
• Distance covered by tortoiose is 4.6 meter in a minute
• Aristotle was the first to classify animals into groups
• Eucalyptus is now considered as environmental hazard
• Light energy is stored in the form of chemical energy due to the activity of Chloroplast.
• Wood is used in manufacturing paper
• In cryptograms, the sex organs are primitive and hidden.
• Thallophytia include algae, fungi, and lichens.
• Carl Linneus is famous for binomial system of nomenclature.
• Angiosperm includes the plants which have covered flowers and covered flowers and covered seed.
• Plant cells resembles animal cell because having a cell membrane made up of protoplasm.
• The king cobra is the only snake who build nest.
• The black Mamba is the fastest snake.
• Snake have been evolved from lizard.
• Fertilization is fusion of two game tics of different strains.
• Fruit developed from single ovary is called simple fruit.
• Seeds are developed from Ovule.
• Parthenocarpic fruits are seedless fruits.
• Commercial cork is obtained from Quercus.
• Grains swell in water due to imbibitions.
• Chlorophyll contains magnesium.
• The rate of transpiration depends upon frequency of Stomata.
• Light is necessary for photosynthesis because it produce ATP and reducing substance.
• Oxygen liberated from photosynthesis comes from water.
• Red light is most suitable for photosynthesis.
• Respiration means food oxidation and evolution of energy.
• Chemical presentation of dead organism in liquid is called Cryo-Bilogy.
• The organisms which are the only living membrane of their group and link two major groups are called Living Fossil
• Red color of tomatos is imparted by Darotionoid
• Amphibians were the first vertrbrata
• There are three stages of frog = egg, tadpole, and adult frog
• There are three groups of amhibians = salamanders(slow moving animals), frogs and toads, caecilians(who look more worm than amphibians)
• Lonrad Lorenz (1903-1989) was the first to study animal behaviour
• Animals survive very cold weather or very dry weather by going into a deep sleep it is called hibernation and sleeping trough hot day condition is called aestivation
• Blue signed octopus very lethal and can kill 10 people it feeds on crabs
• Cheetah is the fastest land animal. It can accelerate from 0-90 km/h in 3 seconds and can run at 100 km/h but has to rest after 20 seconds
• Sponge, beetle, snail, Jelly fish, insects and starfish are cold-blooded animals
• Shark is a cold blooded animal
• Newts (wall lizard) and frog are cold blooded animals
• Lizards, crocodiles, snakes, turtles and tortoises are cold blooded animals
• Invertegrates have 33 groups, fish have 2 goups, amphibians have 3 groups, reptiles havd 3 groups, birds have 28-30 groups and mammals have 21 groups
• Over 90% of animals are invertebrates
• Hard shell of animals is called exoskeleton
• 105 million different species of animals have been identified
• Plants growing in extremely dry condition are called Xerophytes.
• Roots absorb water from soil which is Hygroscopic.
• Legumes increase the fertility of the soil by adding nitrogen to the soil.
• Hominoids are Humans + chimpanzees + orungutans + Gorillas
• Felidae means from cat family
• Panthera means big cats
• There are 5 kingdoms in animal kingdom
• Birds are warm blooded
• Birds’ bones are hollow
• Oven birds build strong nests
• Weaver birds are those who build their nests
• Male birds are more colorful than female birds
• Birds that cannot fly are penguins, emus, kiwis and ostriches
• In cryptograms, the sex organs are primitive and hidden.
• Thallophytia include algae, fungi, and lichens.
• Carl Linneus is famous for binomial system of nomenclature.
• Angiosperm includes the plants which have covered flowers and covered flowers and covered seed.
• Plant cells resembles animal cell because having a cell membrane made up of protoplasm.
• Smell is the weakest sense in Birds.
• Owl can rotate his head to 180 degrees on either sides.
• Ostrich eat pebbles for helping digestion by grinding up the ingested food.
• The cuckoo sneaks its eggs into other birds’ nest to hatch.
• Earthworm is a bi-sexual.
• Eyes of insects are compound.
• Dolphins have 700 times more rods in their eyes than humans which help them to see in dim light under water.
• A fly’s compound eye has 400 individual tubes.
• Plants in which seed are outside the fruit are called Gymnosperms.
• Pollen is produced in a part of the flower called the Calyx.
•
• Squids are the fastest swimming invertebrates or animals without backbone.
• 99% of all animals are invertebrates.
• The sailfish can swim at 110 km/hour. It the fastest fish.
• Fishes have a bag of gas called a swim bladder inside their bodies that helps them float and sink.
• Fishes like sharks and rays have skeletons make of tough cartilage and they don’t have a swim bladder.
• Fungi are neither plants nor animals they are classified in their own separate kingdom.
• The cell wall of fungi is made of chitin, the material from which insects make their hard outer skeletons.
• Unlike other green plants fungi cannot use the sun’s energy to make food; instead they absorb their food from other living or dead remains of living things.
• Fungi break down dead and decaying materials so that they can be recycled.
• Fungal infections destroy crops and cause diseases like athlete’s foot and ringworm.
• Plants make carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water and we get carbohydrates from plants
• Silk is one of two main fibres we get from animals. The wool from sheep is the other.
• Cotton is the most important plant fibre. It produces fibres in the seed pod or boll.
• Linen is another plant fiber make from flax plant.
• Dinosaurs lived in Mesozoic era.
• Eagle’s eyes have five times more light sensitive cells than ours.
• Eucalyptus trees grow faster than any other trees.
• Three groups of Amphibians
o Salamanders – slow moving animals. Frog and toads.
o Caecilians - look more worms than amphibians.
• Blue signed octopus is very lethal, can kill 10 people, it feeds on crabs.
• Cheetah is the fastest land animal, can accelerate from 0-90 km/h in just three seconds and can run at 100 km/h. But he has to rest after about 20 seconds.
• Sponge, beetle, snails, jelly fish, insects and starfish are cold blooded animals.
• Shark is a cold blooded animal.
• Newts, and frog are cold blooded animals.
• Lizard, crocodiles, snakes, turtiles and tortoises are cold blooded animals.
• Invertebrates have 33 groups.
• Fish 3
• Amphibians 3
• Reptile 3
• Birds 28-30
• Mammals 21
• Over 90% of animals are invertebrates.
• Hard Shell of animals is called -> Exoskeleton.
• 105 million different species of animals have been identified.
• Hominoids – Human + Champanzees + Orangutans + Gorillas.
• Felidae ----: from cat family.
• Panthera ----- big cat
• Kestrel is a kind of Eagle.
• Vole is a kind of mouse
• Orca (Killer Whale)
• Word dinosaur means “terrible” Lizard.
• Euspongia is known as natural bath sponge.
• Live Fluke, biologically called Fasciola, is found in liver of sheep.
• Earthworm is a bi-sexual.
• Eyes of insects are compound.
• Silk is obtained from cocoon of silk worm.
• The brown colour of rust is because of : oxidation
• Granite is a form of – rock :
• Cellulose -- is the main chemical substance in the plant cell wall :
• The desert mammal which does not drink water :Knagaroo Rat
• The loudest sound produced by any animal is 188 decibels. The animal is the African Elephant
• The primary plant body consists of 3 tissue systems.
• The total weight of a cell in a leaf or a petal,water constitutes about 90%.
• A tissue is a group of cells having similar structure and function.
• The three elements needed for healthy growth of plants are: N, P, K
• What colour is Octopus blood: Blue
• What is the only bird that can smell: Emus
• The eyes of which animal have rectangular pupils-Goat
• What animals eye is larger than its brain-Ostrich
• What fish can blink its eyes -Shark
• Where are a crickets ears located- Front legs
• Which animal sleeps with one eye open-Dolphin
• Vole is a kind of mouse
• Kestrel is a kind of eagle
• Killer whale is Orca
• Corn adds more oxygen to the atmosphere than it removes.
• Euspongia is known as natural bath sponge.
• Live Fluke, biologically called Fasciola, is found in liver of sheep.
• Banana plant is shrub
• Rubber is obtained from latex
• Tobacco contains Nicotine
• Kharif crops are sown in Summer season
• Pesticides kill insects that attck crops
• Herbicides kill weeds
• Seedless Fruits are formed by pathanogenesis.
• Cotton fiber is routed from seed.
• Horticulture is the cultivation of fruit crops.
• Late blight is a disease of potato and tomato plants.
• The fertility of soil can be increased by growing legumes.
• Olive trees and Cork-oak grow in the regions having the Mediterranean type of climate.
• Coniferous forests are found in a region having low mean temperature and a long cold winter.
• In the Northern Hemisphere, the geographical belt of coniferous forest south of Tundra is called Steppe.
• Silverfish is a wingless insect.
• Guinea pig is a stocky tailless rodent used in experimental work.
• What kind of animal is a lurcher: Dog
• With which organ does a snake hear: Tongue
• What fish can hold objects in its tail: Sea Horse
• The leach has 32 what - humans only got one-Brains
• The primary producers of organic matter in nature are Green plants.
• The edible portion of mango is Mesocarp.
• The rice grain is a seed.
• Bamboo is Grass.
• Cork cells are impervious to water because of the presence of Suberin.
• The biotic relationship between insects and plants with reference to pollination is called Mutualism.
• Historically, Joseph Priestley, recognized in 1727 A.D. that sunlight and air are important for the growth of plants.
• Carbon dioxide is required during photosynthesis process in addition to sunlight and water.
• Man is Homoeothermic.
• The compound eye of insect produces Mosaic vision.
• The post embryonic stages in the life history of cockroach are known as Nymphs.
• Amphibians were the first vertebrate.
• There are three stages of frog. Egg-tadpole-adult frog.
• Smell is the weakest sense in Birds.
• Owl can rotate his head to 180 degrees on either sides.
• Ostrich eat pebbles for helping digestion by grinding up the ingested food.
• The cuckoo sneaks its eggs into other birds’ nest to hatch.
• Birds are warm blooded animals.
• Birds bones are hollow.
• Oven birds build strong nests.
• Weaver birds are called to the birds who build their nests.
• Male birds are more colorful than females.
• Birds do not fly are penguins, emus, kiwis, ostriches.
• Thallophytia include algae, fungi, and lichens.
• Angiosperm includes the plants which have covered flowers and covered seed.
• Plant cells resembles animal cell because having a cell membrane made up of protoplasm.
• Snake have been evolved from lizard.
• Plants in which seed are outside the fruit are called Gymnosperms.
• Linseed oil is used while oil painting.
• In cryptograms, the sex organs are primitive and hidden.
• The rate of transpiration depends upon frequency of Stomata.
• Light is necessary for photosynthesis because it produce ATP and reducing substance.
• Oxygen liberated from photosynthesis comes from water.
• Red light is most suitable for photosynthesis.
• Respiration means food oxidation and evolution of energy.
• The organisms which are the only living membrane of their group and link two major groups are called Living Fossil.
• Mammals cannot be cold blooded.
• Trypanosome a parasite causing sleeping sickness.
• Chief food of mosquito larva is micro organism found in water.
• Chief food of butterfly larva is leaves of plants.
• Corn adds more oxygen to the atmosphere than it removes.
• Fruit developed from single ovary is called simple fruit.
• Pollen is produced in a part of the flower called the Calyx.
• Edible part of tomato is whole fruit.
• The primary producers of organic matter in nature are Green plants.
• Historically, Joseph Priertley , recognized in 1727 A.D. that sunlight and air are important for the growth of plants.
• Carbon dioxide is required during photosynthesis process in addition to sunlight and water.
• The compound eye of insect produces Mosaic vision.
• The post embryonic stages in the life history of cockroach are known as Nymphs.
• In the animal kingdom what creatures are in the order—Chiroptera- Bats
• 90% of bird species are what Monogamous
• Kangaroos and Emus can't do what-Walk backwards
• Aleuronic layer: is that part of the grain in cereals where much of the protein lies.
•
CHEMICALS, METALS, ACIDS AND GASES
• Substance which changes readily into vapor upon heating is called volatile
• Selenium is a non metal
• Most elastic among carbon, rubber, glass and paper is glass
• Quartz is chemically silicon dioxide
• Highest electrical conductivity is of Silver
• Vinegar contains Acetic Acid.
• Lightest element found in nature is hydrogen
• Heaviest atom is uranium with atomic weight 92 amu
• Molasses is a by-product of sugar industry.
• Formic Acid is used in dying, tanning and electroplating.
• Sodium Benzoid is used for the preservation of grains.
•
• Which gas discovered in 1898 has a name meaning new Neon.
• The metal known as quick silver: Mercury
• Ethylene is a gas concerned with Ripening of fruits.
• Opium is obtained from seed capsule of opium poppy.
• Dry Ice is solid Carbon dioxide
• The most common element in the universe is Nitrogen.
• Geologists have classified nearly 3000 minerals.
• Igneous rocks are solidified form of molten magma.
• Sedimentary rocks are formed by the deposition of sediments in water.
• Metamorphic rocks are the rocks transformed by the action of intense heat or great pressure or chemical activity.
• Shale is a metamorphic rock.
• Sedimentary rocks cover about 75% of world’s land area.
• Moon rocks collected by astronauts are igneous in type.
ORES
• Ore of Aluminum is Bauxite
• Pyrolusite is an ore of manganese
• Myrolusite is an ore of Manganese.
• Ore of Gold is Native Gold
• Argentite is an ore of silver
• Magnetite and hematite are iron ores.
• The important ore of Chromium is Chromite
• Bauxite is an ore of aluminum. It contains mineral alumina, or aluminum oxide.
• Diaspore, Felspar, Alurite, Zibcite, and Bauxite are the ores of Aluminum.
• Malachite is an ore of Copper
• Radium is extracted from an ore called Pitch Blonde
• Which element is extracted from the ore Sphalerite-Zinc
• Saccharine is obtained from coal tar
• What is extracted from the ore cinnabar-Mercury
• What is extracted from the ore caserite-Tin
• Aqua Regia is the mixture of Nitric Acid and HCL in 1:3.
•
ALLOYS
• Bronze is the mixture of Copper and tin.
• Brass is an alloy of Copper and Zinc
• Bronze is an alloy of copper and Tin
• Stainless steel is an alloy of carbon +Iron with Chromium and Nickel
• German silver is an alloy of copper with nickel and zinc
• Solder is an alloy of lead and tin
• Dental amalgam = mercury +silver, Tin, Zinc, Copper
• Duralumin = aluminium + copper + magnesium
• Pewter is an ancient alloy made of tin and lead
• Aluminum is used mostly in aircrafts
• Camphor exhibits the property of sublimation.
• The alloy which consists of copper and tin.Bronze
• Excessive use of fertilizers causes death of pants due to exomosis.
• Stainless steel => Carbon + Iron + Chromium + Nickel.
• Bronze does not rust.
• Dental Amalgem => mercury + Silver, Tin, Zinc, Copper.
• Duralumin => aluminum+Copper+magnesium.
• Brass => Copper + Zinc.
• Pewter => an ancient alloy made up to tin and lead.
• Aluminum is used mostly in aircrafts.
• Australia has the largest bauxite deposits.
• Aluminum metal is obtained from aluminia by electrolysis – passing electricity through it. This process was discovered independently in 1886 by Charles Hall in the USA and Paul Heroult in France.
• Asbestos does not burn and it is a mineral fiber
• Amalgam is a mixture of metal and mercury
• Nickel is used as a catalyst while manufacturing ghee
• After persistent decay, radium would be finally changed into Lead.
• Mercury is a liquid with greatest density
• Noble metal are non-reactive metals example Gold, Silver and Platinum
• Mica is an excellent insulator
• Purest form of iron is wrought iron
• Cast iron has highest carbon content
• Sodium, potassium and magnesium are reactive metals
• Sodium burns in water not in kerosene
• Conductivity level___1)silver, 2)copper, 3)aluminum, 4)iron
• PVC = Ployvenyl Chloride
• First synthetic materials was Celluloid in 1868
• Second synthetic material by Bakelite invented by Leo Hendricks Backland
• Largely limestone is used in the production of cement
• Granite can be found in igneous rocks.
• Coal and petroleum are found in Sedimentary rocks
• Gold and copper are mostly found in old Igneous rocks
• Magnesium is abundant in sea
• Sources of uranium in Pakistan is Dera Ghazi Khan
• What type of acid is used in car batteries Sulphuric
• Copper can be converted into gold by: Artificial radioactivity
• Tungsten has the highest melting point = 3410 deg: C
• The coil used in a heater is made of Nichron
•
CHEMICAL FORMULAS
• Common Salt is NaCl = sodium chloride
• Chun is Ca(OH)2 = calcium hydroxide
• Washing soda = Na2CO3= sodium carbonate
• Baking soda = NaHCO3 = sodium bicarbonate
• Chalk = CaCO3 = calcium carbonate
• Plaster of Paris = CaSO4.1/2 H2O
• Gypsum salt is CaSo4 + 2H2O.
• Cholestrol = C27 H46O
• Carbohydrates = C+O+H
• Protein = C+Nitrogen + O+H
• C2 H5 OH is the formula of what- Alcohol
•
• H14 N2 is a poisonous alkaloid consumed daily by millions what-Nicotine
• What element was named after the Greek word for green-Chlorine
• What elements name comes from the Greek for light bearing-Phosphorous
• Alphabetically what is the first element in the periodic table-Actinium
• What elements name comes from the Greek word for violet-Iodine
• Mercury is also known as Quick Silver
• Coal is also known as Black Diamond
• The lightest known metal is Lithium
• The oil used to preserve timber is Creosote oil
• Lime stone is predominantly used raw material in the production of cement.
• An element found in all organic compounds is carbon
• Most commonly used bleaching agent is chlorine
• Lime is sometimes applied to soil in order to increase the alkalinity of the soil
• Podsols are Acidic soils
• Source of plaster of Paris is gypsum
• Chemical name of plaster of Paris is Hemihydrates
• Naturally occurring elements are 92
• Total elements are 109
• Alkaline soil is treated with gypsum
• Marble is metamorphic rock
• Limestone is sedimentary rock
• Limestone transforms into marble
• Thorium is both magnetic and radioactive
• Finest quality of pottery is procelin. It is make from the purest white clay such as kaolin also called China clay and heated at 1400 deg: C
• Bone china is an imitation porcelain made using clay mixed with bone ash
• Mud bricks are called adobe
• Materials that resist high temperatures are known as refectories
• Refectories contin tungsten, the metal with highest melting point (3410 deg: C).
• Some refectories contain tungsten carbide which is used to make cutting tools that remain sharp even when they get red hot
• Rungsten and titanium carbides are mixed with ceramics to form cerment which are used in high temperature parts of jet and rocket engines
• Cement is a ceramic product made of fiercely haeating (1500 deg: C) earthly material like limestone and clay
• Concrete is strong under compression but weak if streatched (tension). For this engineers cast steel rods into the concrete. This is called reinforced concrete.
• Ceramic is made by heating and mixing together the ceramic material boron carbide and aluminium. It is lighter than aluminum and stronger than steel
• Sodium carbonate is used in making glass and in caustic soda for making soap
• Sulphuric acid is also known as “lifeblood of industry”
• Oxidation is addition of oxygen to the substance
• Hydrogenation is adding hydrogen
• Hydrogen is the commonest element in the universe.
• Hydrogen is a powerful fuel. The main engines of the space shuttle are powered by hydrogen.
• Hydrogen is used in fertilizers, margarine and plastics.
• Serenium is non metal substance.
• ‘Ion exchange’ is the method to remove the temporary or permanent hardness of water.
• Molasses (Gur) are a by product of sugar industry.
• Polymerization is the reaction by which plastics are made. It involves linking together of small molecules (manomers) to form large ones (polymers)
• Halogens mean salt like. It is a group of highly reactive nonmetals that are poisonous in their pure forms. Other halogens are fluorine, bromine, iodine, astatine.
• Salt is one of the halogens
• Halogens light bulbs used in cars’ headlamps (ususlly iodine or bromine) surrounding the light filament. Halogen bulbs are brighter and last longer than ordinary light bulbs.
• Fluoride compounds in toothpaste and drinking water help to prevent tooth decay.
• Chlorine reacts with other elements and form PVC, a plastic for pipes and waterproof fabrics.
• Iodine sublimes at room temperature (i.e turns directly into a gas)
• Chlorine is used in swimming pools to kill germs.
• Palladium metal is used in air craft
• Liquid sodium is used a coolant in nuclear reactor
• Plutonium-239 is a good nuclear fuel
• Aviation fuel for jet aeroplanes consists of purified kerosene
• Co2 is used in fir extinguishers
• Cooking gas is oxygen+methane
• Hydrogen has the highest fuel value
• Ripening of fruits is hastened by Ethylene gas
• Iron rusts due to formation of a mixture of ferrous and ferric hydroxide
• Chemically soap is a salt
• Dalton’s atomic theory gave the concept of Valency
• When radioactive rays are passed through air or any gas , they cause it to ionize
• Formic acid is present in sour milk
• Butane gas is used in cigarette lighters
• LPG contains Butane and propane
• In soft drinks Co2 is used
• Rust stains on cloth is revoved by Oxalic Acid solution
• Acid in lemon and grape fruit is Citric Acid
• Permanent magnets are make from Ferromagnetic substances
• Melting point of Tungsten is 3000 deg: C
• Mercury is used as a solvent in refining silver
• Serenium is non metal substance.
• Aqua Regia is the mixture of Nitric Acid and HCL in 1:3.
• Sodium Benzoate is used to preserve food articles.
• Gas used for purification of water is chlorine
• Formic Acid is used in dying, tanning and electroplating.
• In galvanization iron sheet is coated with Zinc
• Mahalanobis model laid great emphasis on development of heavy industries.
• Oxidation is the process in which electron is lost.
• Camphor exhibits the property of sublimation.
• Gypsum salt is CaSo4 + 2H2O.
• Excessive use of fertilizers causes death of plants due to exomosis.
• Sodium Benzoate is used to preserve food articles.
• Bee stings contain formic acid
• BHCC Benzene Hex chloride is used for killing for insects.
• Opposite of acid is alkali
• Pure water has pH of 7
• pH scale ranges from 0-14
• Cola drinks contain phosphoric acid to give them flavor
• People used to treat bee stings by rubbing them with bicarbonate of soda
• Acid contains hydrogen and react with metals such as iron and zinc, they give off hydrogen
• Acid turns litmus paper red
• Alkali turns litmus paper blue
• Alkalis are part of a group of chemicals called bases.
• Alkalis are bases that dissolve in water, have bitter taste and feel soapy
• When an acid meets an alkali both are changed- they are neutralized.
• When acid meets alkali salt and water is produced
• Stomach produces hydrochloric acid
• Strong acids like sulphuric acid is usesd in factories to make fertilizers, explosives, plastics, synthetic fabrics, paints, dyes, medicines, detergents and other chemicals
• Example of strong alkali is Sodium Hydroxide (caustic soda)
• Sodium hydroxide solution dissolves fats and used to clean oven and drain blocked cleaners
• In industry alkalis are used in the manufacture of soap, glass, paper and textile and in the refining of crude oil
• Aluminum metal is obtained from aluminia by electrolysis. This process was discovered by Charles Hall of US in 1886 and Paul Heroult in France
• Use of Boron and Zink can improve cotton yield
• ‘Ion exchange’ is the method to remove the temporary or permanent hardness of water.
• An example of inorganic compound is carbon monoxide
• Shoot is an example of amorphous carbon
• Different forms of same elements are called allotropes
• Diamond is allotropic form of carbon
• Graphite is used to hold molten metals
• Charcoad is used in gas masks for absorbing unpleasant smells
• Fullerences are the most recently discovered allotropes
• The main ingredient in glass making is sand, the mineral is silical.
• The ordinary glass used for bottles and windows is known as soda lime glass as it is made by using soda ash and limestone.
• Adding lead oxide in glass making recipe makes crystal glass which has extra brilliance and sparkles like a diamond.
• Glass with a very high lead content is made for the nuclear industry because it blocks harmful radiations.
• Boron is added to glass making recipe to protect glass from expanding and cracking when heated.
• Borosilicate glass is used to make heat resistant cookware and laboratory equipments.
• Glues comes from animals by boiling bones and skin of cattle and fish bones
• Gums come from the sticky resins make by certain plants.
• Most adhesives used today are synthetic and are usually made from petroleum chemicals.
• Among the strongest adhesives are the epoxy resins
• Gold is the most malleable metal of all
• Silver is used today in photography because many silver salts darken when they are exposed to light.
• Platinum is used in industry as a catalyst.
• Rubies and sapphires are made mostly of a material called alumina, but rubies are red beacuase they contain tiny amount of chromium and sapphires are ususlly blue as these cotain timy amounts of iron
• Driest deserts on earth are the cold, dry valley of Antarctica
• Detergents are synthetic products made from petroleum chemicals
• Soap is made by heating fat or oil with alkali like caustic soda. A product we get from making of soap is glycerine which is used in making plastics and explosives.
• Pure iron is quite a weak metal but if carbon is added to it, it becomes both strong and hard
• Iron bricks are called steel ingot
• Iron is not found in metal form but extracted from iron ore by smelting ie heating at high temp:
• 90 elements exist naturally and 25 artificially
• At room temperature most elements are solids but a number are gases like oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, helium and neon and only two are liquids like mercury and bromine.
• Gold rarely combine with other metals and fluorine is highly reactive
• Diamond and graphite are allotropes of carbon
• Hjeating coal without air produce coke which is used to make steel
• Bitumen (damber) is used for surfacing roads comes from coal
• Isotopes are same chemicals but with different physical properties
• Aircrafts are made of aluminum alloys.
• Chemical used in bettery cells is electrolyte
• Sulphuric acid is used in batteries as electrolyte
• In alkalin battery Anode = Zinc powder mixed with electrolyte and Cathode = manganese compound mixed with electrolyte
• Anode = negative terminal and Cathode = positive terminal
• Votalic Pile was the first battery made in 1799
• Fuel cells make electricity using hydrogen as a fuel
• Almost all explosives contain nitrogen. Nitrogen compound Ammonia is the starting point of several explosives.
• Calcium is a metal found in chalk, limestone and marble in the form of Calcium Carbonate
• Beryllium is used to make cutting tools where it is important to avoid spark
• Minerals containing beryllium don’t show up on x-rays, and are used for the windows of x-ray machines
• Magnesium is present in chlorophyll
• Sulphur dioxide is not an odorless gas
• Glass is soluble in Aqua Reggie
• Fuel in an automobile is a mixture of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons
• Power of alcohol is methyl and petrol
• Lead is used in batteries
• The odour of garlic is due to a Sulphuric compound
• Cabbage contains sulphur
• The strongest known acid is an 80% solution of antimony pentafluoride in hydrofluoriv acid.
• Saffron is used to color fabrics. Cochineal red is a dye extracted from insects.
• Crude oil and natural gas are made mostly from hydrocarbons. When they burn CO2 is released into atmosphere
• Synthetic fibers are mostly plastics make from petroleum chemicals.
• Lime is sometimes applied to soil in order to increase the alkalinity of the soil
• BHCC Benzene Hex chloride is used for killing for insects.
• Opposite of acit is alkali.
• Pure water has 7 P.H.
• Cola drinks contain phosphoric acid to give them flavor.
• Bee stings contain formic acid.
• People used to treat bee stings by rubbing them with bicarbonate of soda.
• Acid contains Hydrogen and reacts with metals such as iron and zinc, they give off Hydrogen.
• Acid turns litmus paper red.
• Alkalis are part of a group of chemicals called bases. Alkalis are bases that dissolve in water, have bitter taste and feel soapy.
• Alkali turns litmus paper blue.
• Stomach produces hydrochloric acid
• Backing powder => Bicarbonate of Soda -> an alkali
• Strong acids like sulphuric acid used in factories to make fertilizers, explosive, plastics, synthetic fabrics, paint, dyes, medicines, detergents, and many other chemicals.
• Strong alkalis => Sodium Hydroxide (Caustic Soda).
• Sodium Hydroxide solution dissolves fats used as oven and drain blocked cleaners.
• In industry, alkalis are used in the manufacture of soap, glass, paper and textile, and in the refining of crude oil.
• Chemical in cell of battery is called electrolyte.
• Lead metals are used in batteries.
• A personal stereo used alkaline battery. In this the electrodes are powders, mixed with an electrolyte to make a paste.
• Sulphuric acid is used in batteries are electrolyte.
• In alkalin battery:-
o Anode = Zinc powder mixed with electrolyte.
o Cathode= Manganese compound mixed with electrolyte.
• Anode = Negative Terminal
• + Cathode= Positive Terminal
• Votalic pile was the first battery in 1799.
• Fuel cells make electricity using hydrogen as a fuel.
• Carbon is the element of life.
• Shoot is an example of amorphous carbon.
• Different form of the same elements are called allotropes.
• Diamond is allotropic from of carbon.
• Graphite is used to hold molten metals.
• Charcoal is used in gas masks for absorbing unpleasant smells.
• Fullerenes are the most recently discovered allotropes.
• Carbon dioxide we release is comes from food we eat.
• Carbohydrates = C+O+H
• Protein = Nitrogen + O + H
• Chromatography shows what’s in the colored coating of some sweets.
• Mass spectrography is one of the most powerful ways of analyzing many kind of chemicals.
• Electrophoresis = > Separation of tagged core fragments of DNA with radioactivity.
• Sodium Carbonate is used in making glass and in caustic soda for making soap.
• Heavy Chemicals => Sodium Carbonate, Caustic Soda, Sulphuric Acid, Nitric Acid, Ammonia, Benzene.
• Sulphuric acid is also known as ‘lifeblood of industry’
• Sulphuric acid is made from sulphur by contact process.
• Benzene is known as organic chemical.
• Oxidation -> addition of oxygen to the substance is made.
• Hydrogenation -> adding hydrogen.
• Polymerization is the reaction by which plastics are produced. It involves the linking together of small molecules (monomers) to form large ones (polymere).
• Cracking - > large molecules are broken down into small ones (used in refining petroleum).
• Halogens means salt like.
• Chlorine combines with sodium to make salt (Sodium chloride). It is one of the halogens, a group of highly reactive nonmetals that are all poisonous in their pure forms.
• Other halogens are Fluorine, Bromine, Iodine, Astatine.
• The halogen light bulbs used in cars headlamps have a halogen gas, usually iodine or bromine, surrounding the light filament. Halogen bulbs are brighter and last much longer than ordinary light bulbs.
• Fluoride compounds in toothpaste and drinking water help to prevent tooth decay.
• Chlorine reacts with lots of other elements to make some very useful compounds such as PVC, a plastic for pipes and waterproof fabrics.
• CFC – Chlorofluoro carbons.
• Iodine (turns straight into a gas) (Sublimes) at room temperature.
• Chlorine is used in swimming pools to kill germs, that is why swimmers use goggles.
• Carbon has two isotopes.
• Muons are particles of atom.
• Isotopes have same chemical but different physical properties.
• Ions => In an atom, the positive electrical charges of the protons are balanced by the negative electrical charges of the electron. The atom is therefore electrically neutral. However, if you add or take away one or more electrons from an atom, it becomes either negatively or positively charged, such charged particles are called Ions.
• The purest naturally occurring crystalline form of carbon : diamond
• The mixture which can dissolve platinium : Aqua regia
• Steel is more elastic than rubber
• Marble is --- rock : metaphoric
• Oil rises in a wick of oil lamp because of a property of matter, called capillary action
• Mercury metal is 13.5 times heavier than water
• Diamond is the purest naturally occurring crystalline form of : Carbon
• Caustic soda is extensively used for making : making Surf
• Charcoal Sulphur Saltpetre make what - Gunpowder
• What elements name comes from the Greek meaning lazy Argon
• What are silver coins made from-Copper Nickel
• Kallium is the old name for which element-Potassium
• Coal is formed from the remains of forests that grew in the carboniferous period about 300 million years ago.
• Half-time is a time of radioactive substance taken by that substance to decompose radioactivity to half of its weight.
• Calcium chloride is present in the common toothpastes as an abrasive.
• Copper and tin make gun-metal.
• Liquefied Petroleum Gas consists mainly of methane, butane and propane.
• Magnesium is a metal extracted from the sea water.
• Magnetite can be used for extraction of iron.
• The main constituents of Pearl are calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate.
• Pollution in rivers is measured by the percentage of dissolved amount of Nitrogen.
• Uranium is called White Coal.
• Lead and tin are used in solder.
• Caffeine, a constituent of tea and coffee is a diuretic.
• Citric Acid is used in soft drinks.
• A substance which radiates light when heated to a high temperature is said to be incandescent.
• Light waves are electromagnetic.
• If a solution of pH 6 is diluted by 100 times, the resulting solution would be Acidic.
• Acid rain is caused due to emission of oxides of nitrogen and sulphur.
• Hydrogen iodide is used for writing on glass.
• Infrared radiation has the longest wavelength.
• Stainless steel cooking pans are fabricated with copper bottom because conductivity of copper is greater that that of stainless steel.
• Sucrose is the sweetest natural sugar among glucose, fructose and lactose.
• Lead is used in storage batteries.
• Nobel gases are so called due to their chemical inertness.
• Alum is not present in cement.
• Due to continuous use of calcium superphosphate as fertilizer in soil, the pH of soil becomes more than 7.
• Among the fertilizers used, urea contains maximum % of N.
• Potassium magnesium sulphate is called the muraite of potash.
• Sodium acetate salt when dissolved in water makes the solution basic.
• Yellow colour of usual nitric acid is due to the presence of N2O5.
• Astatine is the rarest naturally occurring element on earth.
• Nitrogen and carbon are most essential for building cells in the human body.
• Among the sedimentary rocks, limestone is of organic origin.
• Red Hematite is an ore of iron.
• Radio-carbon dating is used to find the age of fossils.
• Which of the following is used as raw material for the manufacture of rayon? Cellulose
• Saponification is the process that makes what common product: Soap
• If an alloy is an amalgam what metal must it contain-Mercury
• An example of inorganic compound is carbon monoxide.
• ATP is a molecule containing high energy bonds.
• Sand, Soda and what are the main ingredients of glass-Limestone
• Which acid dissolves glass- Hydrofluoric Acid
• What colour is iridium-Steel Grey
• What gives onions their distinctive smell- Sulphur - taken in when growing
•
GEOGRAPHY OF EARTH
• Longitude is measured from East to West
• Latitude is measured from North to South of Equator.
• New Zealand is close to Int: Date Line.
• Arabia is the larges peninsula.
• Antarctica is in South Pole.
• The largest latitude circle on earth is the Equator.
• Equinox (equal nights) means the equal duration of day & night.
• Lines drawn parallel to equator is latitude
• 1 hour difference in local time between two places is 15 deg: Longitude
• 23 degree longitude is Tropic of Cancer
• 70% of earth’s surface is covered with water
• Isobar is the lines joining places of equal air pressure on a map
• Isohyets are lines joining places of equal rainfall over a period
• Isotherm are Lines of equal temperature
• Contours are places with equal altitude
• There are 36 tectonic plates
• Crust of earth is 0.5%
• Upper part of earth on which earth floats is Asthensosphere
• Earth’s speed is greatest when it is closest to the sun
• Spring tide occurs when earth, moon and sun are in straight line
• Isthmus is a narrow land strip separating two seas and connecting two land marks
• Day and night are equal on 21st March (at all parallel of latitude) and 23rd September
• Core of earth is metallic
• Temperature at earth’s core is 2000 deg: C
• Tide at its maximum height is spring tide
• International dateline lies along 180 deg: meridian
• Speed of earth rotation is highest at the north pole
• Minimum land area recommended for forest is 25%
• Earth’s total surface covered by forests is 15%
• Ordovician are the oldest rock
• Earthquake is a post volcanic activity
• Of total water on earth, fresh water reserves are 2.7%
• Highest grade of coal is Anthracite
• Coal mainly suitable for thermal power production is Bituminous
• First stage of coal formation is Peat
• Equator is called the great circle
• Mean radius of earth is 6400 km
• Total world surface area is 510 million sq: km
• soil formed by deposition of silt is Alluvial soil
• Winds blow from areas of high pressure to low pressure.
• Movement of tectonic plates may cause eruption of a volcano
• What creates new islands in the ocean? Volcanoes
• soil best suited for deep rooted crops is Black soil
• latitude of south pole is 90 deg:, latitude of equator is 0 deg:
• humidity in air is maximum in Monsoon
• earth revolves in its orbit 1 deg: per day
• 1 deg: longitude on equator is equal to 112 km
• Doldrums is a belt of low atmospheric pressure on either side of Equator
• Removal of rock layer by layer due to weathering is called Exfoliation
• Rocks formed by the solidification of lava are Basalts
• Tundra region gets no rainfall throughout the year
• At equator an object weights the least.
• At 7050 km per hour, Sun rotate on its axis.
• The northern polar lights are called Aurorae Borealis, and southern polar lights are called Aurorae Australis.
• The pulsating universe theory explains the evolution of universe.
• 230 million years ago there was only one huge continent on earth. This super continent is known as Panagea, which means all lands
• In 1912 Alfred Wegener said that continents drift around on earth’s surface
• Continental drift means plate tectonics
• Rain forests grow near the equator.
• In autumn deciduous forests glow with brilliant red and gold colors as the leaves dry up and fall off the trees.
• The shape of the earth is an oblate spheroid.
• Arctic is the worlds northmost region.
• The largest latitude circle on earth is Equator.
• 230 million years ago, there was only one huge continent on Earth. This super continent is known as panagea, which means all lands.
• In 1912, a German Scientist called Alfred Wegener (1880-1930) suggested that the continent drift around on Earth’s surface.
• The latitude of a point on the Earth’s surface is the angular distance of that point measured at the centre of the Earth
• Mass of earth is 6 X 10²Ή tons
• Density of earth is 5.52.
• Chemically earth id made up of Oxygen 46.6%, Silicon 27.7%, Aluminum 8.1%, iron 5%, Calcium 3.6%
• Earth is divided into four zones.
• Torrid zone lies b/w Tropics of Cancer & Capricorn.
• Torrid zone lies between the Tropics and is bisected by the Equator
• The North Temperate Zone lies b/w Tropic of Cancer & the Arctic Circle.
• The South Temperate Zone lies b/w Capricorn & Antarctic Circle.
• The area around north and south poles within the polar circles is called ‘the frigid zone’.
• Hot belt lies b/w latitude 0° & 3°
• Tundra region is a region of high altitude and is without trees.
• Steppes is the vast, treeless waste of Russia and part of Asia.
• Moorland is rocky surface.
• Coniferous forests extend up to 13,000 km across North America, Europe & Asia.
• Tropical or Savannah region lies b/w desert & forest. More than 1/3rd of Africa is Savannah.
• Pakistan lies in Monsoon land area.
• The three abundant elements in the earth’s crust are aluminium, oxygen and silicon. The correct order of their abundance is silicon, oxygen, aluminum (8.1%)
• Inner core is made mostly of iron.
• Meridian is an imaginary circle in sky passing though celestial poles.
• Africa is the 2nd largest continent of the world.
• A wind which reverses seasonally is known as Monsoon wind.
• Temperature increases with increasing altitude by 10° C for every 250 meter rise.
• Water vapour turns into clouds in the atmosphere when Dew Point is reached.
• When a warm air is lifted off the surface in temperature depression it is called an Occlusion.
• Afternoon rains in the equatorial region are the result of convectional forces.
• Mediterranean regions are not useful for forestry.
• The best projection to suit the map of Pakistan is conventional.
• The extinct Volcano Peak of Koh-i-Sultan is in Pakistan.
• Cotopaxi: is the highest volcano in the world. It is situat¬ed in Ecuador.
• Dust Devil: is a dusty whirlwind normally a few feet in diameter and about 100 feet tall, sometimes also wider and higher.
• Earth mass: The mass of the earth is about 81 times that of the moon.
• Earth’s core: is mainly composed of iron and nickel. Lithosphere is the innermost layer of the earth.
• El Nino: is the weather phenomenon brewing in the tropical Pacific Ocean. It is the largest climate event of the 20th century setting off more global disasters than ever before. El Nino is warming of the waters off Equatorial South America which causes climate abnor¬malities around the world. The impact can be flooding drought in California, Brazil, Africa and Australia, severe storms in the Central Pacific and a decline in hurricanes hitting the south-eastern United States.
• Exfoliation: This type of weathering is common both in the cold as well as in the hot cli¬mate regions.
• Great Circle: A circle on the earth’s surface whose plane passes through its centre, and bisects it into two hemispheres. Two opposing meridians together form a Great Circle. The shortest distance between any two points on the earth’s surface is the arc of the Great Circle which passes through them. 0° latitude forms a Great Circle. (The latitude or longi¬tude 75°W should be combined with 75°E to obtain the Great Circle).
• Horse Latitudes: Sub-trop¬ical belts of high atmospheric pressure over the oceans situat¬ed in both hemispheres. These are called Belts of Calm between regions of the Trade Winds and Westerlies of higher latitudes.
• Hydroponics: means culti¬vation of the plants without use of soil.
• Hyetology: is the study of rainfall.
• Kandla: is a sea port situat¬ed at the head of the Gulf of Kuch in Gujarat State.
• Lapse Rate: is the rate of change in temperature with increase of altitude.
• Laterite soils: Laterite soils are formed by the weathering of laterite rocks. These can be dis¬tinguished from other soils by their acidity.
• Loams (loamy soil): Amix¬ture of sand, clay and silt is known as loamy soil. Loams are formed where the soils have equal proportion of sand, silt and clay.
• Local winds and their areas: Khamsin—Egypt; Zonda—Argentina; Santa Ana—California; Simoon—Iran.
• Mansarover Lake: is in Tibet. Near it, the rivers having their source are the Brahamputra, the Sutlej and the Indus.
• Maoris (Tribes): are the original inhabitants of New Zealand.
• Nutrification: is the process of conversion by action of bacteria, of nitrates in the soil.
• Pangong Tso: is one of the world’s highest and brackish lakes in Jammu & Kashmir.
• Proxima Centauri: is a star nearest to the earth.
• Roaring Forties: are west¬erly winds.
• Selvas: The rain forest of Amazon basin is called Selvas. These are rainy tropical forests.
• Spring Tides: are caused when the sun and the moon are in a straight line. The tide on its maximum height is known as Spring Tide.
• Tsunamis: are huge sea waves caused by earthquakes.
• Willy Willy: is a tropical cyclone of the north-west Australia.

FACTS OF EARTH
• Largest element found in earth crust is Silicon, second is Aluminum
• Polar diameter of earth is 7900 miles
• Equatorial diameter is 7927 miles = 12,756 km
• Earth’s polar diameter is shorter than the equatorial diameter by 43 km
• Distance of equator from either of poles is 10,002 km
• World is divided into 24 time zones
• Age of earth is 5 billion years
• Speed of earth in orbit around sun is 8.5 miles/sec = 1600 km/min = 29 km/sec
• Weight of earth is 6586 x 10 raise to 18 tons
• Earth has 46.6% oxygen and 27.7% silicon
• On 21st June, sun is vertically overhead the Tropic of Cancer
• The South Temperate zone lies between Capricorn and Antarctic circle
• At equator the duration of the day is 12 hours
• 510 million square kilometers is the total surface area of the earth
• Sun is 400 times larger than the Moon.
• About 6 billion people living on the Earth.
• When are you most likely to see a penumbra: During an Eclipse
• At equator an object weights the least.
• A wind which reverses seasonally is Monsoon.
• Water is the most powerful source of erosion
• Tropic of cancer crosses Pakistan.
• Spring tides occur at new moon or at full moon.
• Neap tides occur at first and third quarters of the moon.
• Oceans are on average 4 km deep.
• Frozen water covers about 10% of the earth
• Solar eclipse occurs on new moon.
• Lunar eclipse occurs on full moon.
• The standard time of England is known as Greenwich Mean Time. T is local time of Greenwich Observatory which on 0° longitude.
• Daylight saving time begun during WWI.
• There are three belts of calm viz: Doldrums, Tropic of Cancer & Tropic of Capricorn.
• Horn of Africa is Ethiopia, Djibouti and Somalia.
• Kimberley is associated with Diamonds.
• In Titusfills in Pennsylvania (US) is world’s first oil-well drilled.
• Thickness of earth crust 20 miles.
• Max height of cloud 20,000.
•
ATMOSPHERE OF EARTH
• Nitrogen gas found in atmosphere is 78%, oxygen is 21%
• Speed of electromagnet ways is 300000 km/sec
• The layer of earth in which we live is Troposphere
• The atmospheric layer closet to earth is Troposphere.
• Weather phenomenon take place in Troposphere
• Atmospheric layer ideal for flying is Troposphere
• Ionosphere reflects radio-waves back to earth
• Nimbostratus clouds bring a long steady rain
• Clouds found at highest altitude are Noctilucent
• Thickness of atmosphere around earth is 145 km
• Atmosphere maintains earth’s temperature
• % of insulation received by earth’s surface is 51%
• Atmospheric layers are divided into 4 parts
• Sun’s heat and energy reaches earth by Radiation
• Air is composed of 78% Nitrogen.
• 21% Oxygen.
• 1% Other gases.
• Planetary winds consist of doldrums, trace winds and westerlies.
•
• Troposphere is 10 km, Stratosphere is from 10 to 40 km, Mesosphere (Neutraspace) is from 40 to 80 km, Thermosphere (Ionosphere) is from 80 to 370 km and Exosphere (Heaviside) is beyond 370 km.
• Megnetosphere that lies beyond the Exosphere is not the part of atmosphere.
• 3/4th of the air that envelops the earth is in troposphere.
• 97% of the air is below the upper boundary of the stratosphere which is the maximum height that aircraft may reach with the support of air.
• Smog is when water vapour condenses around a particle of smoke
• Atmospheric temperature increases at higher altitudes due to convection
• Formaula of Ozone is O3
• CFCs are Chloro Fluoro Carbons
• Earth’s atmosphere is over 1000 km deep
• Biosphere is the sphere of life which covers all the three spheres i.e litho, hydro, atmosphere
• Ozone layer is found in Stratosphere.
• Climate is the average weather of a particular place over many years. Weather change day to day, whereas climate remains same for years.
• Every seson, trees add a new ring of growth to their trunks
• Clouds are made of water droplets, ice, crystals, particles of dust and air
• Warm air can hold more water vapour than cold air
• The age of Earth is calculated as 4500 million years.
• Ozone is measured in percentage (chk)
• The amount of ozone in the atmosphere is expressed in ppm/ The amount of ozone in the atmosphere is expressed in ___dobson units (chk)
• Air is composed of nitrogen (78.08%),oxygen (20.95%),argon (0.94%) and carbon dioxide (0.03%).
• Nitrogen gas dominates the earth’s surface.
• Weathering takes place more quickly in warm, wet area than in cold and dry regions.
• An atmosphere is a blanket of gas that surrounds a plane. Earth’s atmosphere is over 1000 kilometers deep, but most of it is in the 30 kilometers closest to Earth.
• Weight of the air pushing on us is known as atmospheric pressure.
• Atmospheric pressure is equal to 14.73 lbs per sq. inch.
• Atmospheric pressure decreases with height.
• In nature the nitrogen of the atmosphere is made available for the plant growth through the activity of bacteria called nitrogen fixation of bacteria in roots of plants. Earthworms provide nitrogenous wastes.
• Ozone is found in stratosphere b/w 20 to 50 km.
• The tidal effect of Moon on the surface of Earth is less that that of Sun because Moon’s gravitational pull at Earth’s surface is less as compared to Sun’s gravitational pull. Tidal effect of sun is 146% of moon.
• Injurious ultraviolet radiations are mostly prevented from reaching the earth as these are absorbed mostly by Ionosphere.
• 510 million square kilometers is the total surface area of the earth.
• At 7050 km per hour, Sun rotate on its axis.
• The northern polar lights are called Aurorae Borealis, and southern polar lights are called Aurorae Australis.
• The pulsating universe theory explains the evolution of universe.
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Old Sunday, August 08, 2010
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thanks a ton. excellent work bro. but there are some mistakes in the International Organizations Section..

for example: EU was established in 2000
ICJ was established in 1951
ADB in 1986.


EU was established in 1993, ICJ in 1945, African Development Bank in 1964, Asian Development Bank in 1966.

I'll dig out more mistakes if there are any and for that i have to read all. Once again thanks for the excellent work..
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Quote:
Originally Posted by terminator View Post
• Strongest muscle is Thigh muscle (chk Heart muscle and cheek muscle)
All the above said muscles (Heart, Cheeks, Thigh) may be said as "Strongest Muscles" according to the situation.

Explanation is given below.

What Is The Strongest Muscle in The Body

The gluteus maximus is the largest muscle in the body and it is often called the strongest muscle in the body because it is the primary muscle that keeps the body erect during walking. If a person's glueteus maximus is injured, he or she will often end up walking in a slouched or slumped posture. Conversely there are the muscles of the eye, which are some of the smallest muscles of the body. Despite their size, they are often considered to be some of the strongest muscles in the body because of strength endurance and elastic strength properties, which allows them to exert force quickly. The eye muscle's dynamic strength, basically the ability to complete repeated motions, is also very strong. The external muscles of the eye are constantly at work, moving the eyes at a nearly nonstop pace during the day.

Only women have the muscles of the uterus, another group of muscles that, when combined, are sometimes called the strongest muscle in the body. These muscles are used during birth, and are responsible for pushing the baby out through the birth canal. The amount of absolute strength and elastic strength generated by these muscles is incredible, but they are not used that often.

A muscle that is used often is the heart, which has greater strength endurance than any other muscle in the body. The heart is often considered to be the strongest muscle in the body because it is the hardest working muscle in the body. The heart never stops working from birth until death, pumping approximately 2 billion times during a person's lifetime.

Source: What Is The Strongest Muscle In The Body


What Is The Strongest Muscle in Your Body


What is the strongest human muscle? Is it your biceps, quadriceps or could it be your gluteus maximus? You might be surprised to learn that it’s none of the above. Though it depends on what your definition of “strongest” means.

If you by strongest you mean “ability to exert a force on an external object”, then a human’s strongest muscle is his or her ‘masseter’ muscle. The masseter muscle is a thick muscle in the cheek and is located at the back of the jaw. It’s responsible for opening and closing your jaw during chewing. It is the muscle that can generate the largest externally measurable force attributable to the action of a specific muscle. Its strength is the result of incredibly densely packed muscle fibers combined with being attached to a short-armed lever. It can close the teeth with a force as great as 55 pounds (25 kilograms) on the incisors or 200 pounds (91 kilograms) on the molars. Guinness Book of Records lists the strongest bite recorded at 975 lb for 2 seconds. That’s more than six times the normal biting strength of a human.

Now if you take ‘strongest’ to mean ‘does the most work’, the heart lies claim to that. The heart performs the largest amount of physical work in the course of a human’s life. The power output of the human heart range is estimated to be between 1 to 5 watts. Compared to the power output of other muscles, it’s much less. For example, the quadriceps can produce over 100 watts, but only for a few minutes, then it fatigues. The heart does its work continuously over an entire lifetime without pause, and hence ‘outworks’ every other muscle.

Source: What Is The Strongest Muscle in Your Body
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Sir is this necessary to finish and go through all these objs to completely attempt EDS paper,please.
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