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Old Friday, September 16, 2011
ABDUL JABBAR KATIAR's Avatar
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Default The Radcliffe Award

In the words of Quaid-i-Azam, the Radcliff Award was an unjust, incomprehensible and even perverse award.

Background
The partition plan of June 3, 1947, under the Indian Independence Act, inter-alia, envisaged the division of Punjab and Bengal which made it necessary to set up a Boundary Commission to demarcate the boundaries of the parts of each of these provinces into Hindu and Muslim majority districts, to be assigned to India and Pakistan, respectively.

Role of Radcliff
The genesis and history of the Kashmir dispute will remain incomplete unless the perfidious role played by Sir Cyril Radcliff, apparently at Mountbatten’s behest, is recalled. Incontrovertible evidence is available that Mountbatten was very keen to see that the whole Gurdaspur district, which had a Muslim majority, should not be assigned to Pakistan. Mountbatten’s strategy was that Punjab may be divided in such a manner that the state of Jammu and Kashmir could join either India or Pakistan.

The renowned British writer, Aalstair Lamb in his book, ‘Kashmir, a disputed legacy’, has also established a sinister collusion between Mountbatten and the Indian Congress leadership as a result of which the Boundary Commission awarded Gurdaspur to India which culminated in the Indian intervention in Jammu and Kashmir on October 27, 1947. In the words of Quaid-i-Azam, the Radcliff Award was an unjust, incomprehensible and even perverse award.

Members
Partition committee proposed that Sir Cyrill Radcliffe should be invited to serve as chairman of the Punjab and Bengal Boundary Commission. Radcliffe was a renowned barrister who came from England. The League and the Congress nominated two High Court judges.

The genesis and history of the Kashmir dispute will remain incomplete unless the perfidious role played by Sir Cyril Radcliff, apparently at Mountbatten’s behest, is recalled.
The members of Punjab Boundary Commission were Din Muhammad and Muhammad Munir on behalf of Pakistan and Mehr Chand Mahajan and Tej Singh on behalf of India while members of Bengal Boundary Commission were Abu Saleh and S.A. Rahman on behalf of Pakistan and C.C Biswas and B.K. Mukherji on behalf of India.

Controversy in division of Punjab
In the division of Punjab, the award was unfair and awarded a number of Muslim majority areas to India. In Gurdaspur district two contiguous Muslim majority Tehsils of Gurdaspur and Batala were given to India along with Pathankot tehsil to provide a link between India and the Stat of Jammu and Kashmir. The Muslim majority tehsil Ajnala in the Amritsar district was also handed over to India. In Jullundur district the Muslim majority areas of Zira and Ferozepur in the Ferozepur distirct, were also given to India.

Controversy in division of Bengal
Similarly, in Bengal the most important question related to the future of Calcutta. It was the capital of the province. Although the Muslims formed only a quarter of the population of Calcutta, a large section of its population consisted scheduled castes that were allied with the Muslim League. In any case, for more than two hundred years the Muslims of Bengal had contributed to make Calcutta what it was in 1947 a centre of commerce and industry.

The city of Calcutta, the capital of the province, was the biggest industrial, commerce and educational centre. The entire development of Calcutta was based on the toil of Muslim peasantry of Bengal. East Bengal produced most of the raw material which had to be sent to Calcutta because all factories and mills were in Calcutta. The Congress leaders were determined to get Calcutta by all foul or fair means. Eventually, Calcutta was awarded to India ignoring the claim of the Muslim.

Ch. Muhammad Ali’s remarks
Chaudhry Muhammad Ali has mentioned in his book that Liaqat Ali Khan told him that Quiad-i-Azam had received very disturbing reports about the likely decision of the demarcation, particularly in Gurdaspur district, and asked him to see Lord Ismay, a senior staffer of Mountbatten to convey to him from Quaid-i-Azam that “if the boundary actually turned out to be what these reports foreshadowed, this would have a most serious impact on relations between Pakistan and the United Kingdom whose good faith and honour were involved in this question”.

Sardar Patel, in his speech in Calcutta on January 15, 1950, had disclosed that the Congress had made a condition that it would agree to the partition of India only if they did not lose Calcutta. Sardar Patel had also once disclosed that Mountbatten had entered into a secret agreement with the Congress leaders to have Calcutta assigned to India.

Ch. Muhammad Ali’s Apprehensions
Accordingly, Chaudhry Muhammad Ali went to see Lord Ismay who was closeted with Sir Cyril Radcliff. Chaudhry Muhammad Ali, therefore, decided to wait. When Chaudhry Muhammad Ali conveyed Quaid-i-Azam’s message to him, Lord Ismay “professed complete ignorance of Radcliff’s idea about the boundary and stated categories that neither Mountbatten nor he himself had ever discussed the question with him. It was entirely for Radcliff to decide; and no suggestion of any kind had been or would ever be made to him”.

Sardar Patail’s Remarks
Sardar Patel, in his speech in Calcutta on January 15, 1950, had disclosed that the Congress had made a condition that it would agree to the partition of India only if they did not lose Calcutta. Sardar Patel had also once disclosed that Mountbatten had entered into a secret agreement with the Congress leaders to have Calcutta assigned to India.

Thus, no less a person than Sardar Patel himself exposed the myth of impartiality of Mountbatten and Radcliff. These are hard facts relating to the ‘Radcliff Award’ and have been re-stated for the benefit of our people and to keep the record straight.

Perfidious Award
At the time of the creation, Pakistan had already been squeezed as much as possible as a result of an unholy collusion between Mountbatten and the Indian Congress leaders. However, the Radcliff award was the meanest cut. This perfidious award paved the way for India’s military intervention in Kashmir.

The inhabitants of Kashmir, a valley of indescribable beauty, are unfortunately still locked in a life and death struggle for their survival and their inalienable right to self-determination. They have been facing naked brutality and inhumanity during the last over fifty years. It is, therefore, the moral obligation of the international community to extend all possible help to the oppressed people of Kashmir who are still waiting for liberation from terror and injustice.
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Old Wednesday, November 14, 2012
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Could you please further elaborate that what was the role of Muslim league representatives, Justice Muneer and Justice Deen Muhammad, why did not they refuse to accept the Redcliff awards? why did they sign to that accord? are they not equal culprits?

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It was really unjust. Muslims are ignored at that time and until now. We hope that the current Govt of pakistan slove the kashmir problem with peace and discussions.
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