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Old Tuesday, August 23, 2005
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Default Pak Affairs info(Mcqz)

List of Prime Ministers of Pakistan
Name From To
Liaqat Ali Khan 14 August1947 16 October 1951
Khawaja Nazimuddin 17 October 1951 17 April 1953
Muhammad Ali Bogra 17 April 1953 12 August 1955
Chaudhry Muhammad Ali 12 August 1955 12 September 1956
H. Shaheed Suhrawardy 12 September 1956 17 October 1957
Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar 17 October 1957 16 December 1957
Sir Feroz Khan Noon 16 December 1957 07 October 1958

From October 07, 1958 until July 03, 1972, no person held the title of Prime Minister due to Martial law

Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto 03 July 1972 05 July 1977

The office was again suspended from July 5, 1977 until March 24 , 1985 due to martial law.

Muhammad Khan Junejo 24 March 1985 29 May 1988
Benazir Bhutto 09 December 1988 06 August 1990
Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi 06 August 1990 01 November 1990
Nawaz Sharif 01 November 1990 18 April 1993
Balakh Sher Mazari 18 April 1993 26 May 1993
(Restored)* Nawaz Sharif 26 May 1993 18 July 1993
Moin Qureshi 18 July 1993 19 October 1993
(Again)* Benazir Bhutto 19 October 1993 05 November 1996
Malik Miraj Khalid 05 November 1996 17 February 1997
(Again)* Nawaz Sharif 17 February 1997 12 October 1999

On October 12, 1999, Pervez Musharraf overthrew Nawaz Sharif, and took the title of Chief Executive. On June 20, 2001, he was made the President of Pakistan. Elections were held on October 10, 2002 leading to the return of the position of Prime Minister

Zafarullah Khan Jamali - 21 November 2002 26 June 2004
Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain 30 June 2004 28 August 2004
Shaukat Aziz 28 August 2004 To date

Muhammad Adnan

Last edited by Emaan; Friday, August 26, 2005 at 02:39 AM.
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The Prime Minister of Pakistan is the Head of Government of Pakistan.

The Prime Minister is elected by the National Assembly. The National Assembly is voted in by popular vote, and the leader of the party or coalition with the most votes is made the Prime Minister for a four year term. The Prime Minister is responsible for appointing a cabinet. The President has the constitutional power to remove the Prime Minister, through a dissolution of the National Assembly, triggering new elections.

The office of Prime Minister has been suspended by the President on several occasions in Pakistan's history, a circumstance that is different (and more significant) than the dismissal of an individual Prime Minister by the President. The former occurred during the various times that Pakistan has been under martial law, and after the coup of Pervez Musharraf. During such times, the President, who often held the addition office of martial law administrator, effectively had the powers of Prime Minister as the head of government, without the title of Prime Minister.

Shaukat Aziz is the current Prime Minister of Pakistan. He was elected by the National Assembly on August 28, 2004.


The office of Prime Minister was created when Pakistan gained independence in 1947. Originally, the Prime Minister was given executive powers, which were later reduced as the power of the Governor-General grew. The office was discontinued in 1958 and revived in 1973. The power of the Prime Minister's office peaked in the late 1990s, with the removal of institutional check and balances, and the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment and Fourteenth Amendments.

The first Prime Minister of Pakistan was Liaquat Ali Khan who was appointed to the position by the first Governor-General, Muhammmad Ali Jinnah. The office of Prime Minister continued until 1958. Many Prime Ministers were removed by the Head of State. In 1958 martial law was declared by Iskander Mirza, and the office of Prime Minister essentially disappeared until 1973. In 1973 a new constitution was written giving the Prime Minister executive power once again, and making Pakistan a Parliamentary system. The architect of that constitution, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, became the Prime Minister.

However, Bhutto was overthrown in 1977, and martial law declared again, with the office of Prime Minister being suspended until 1985 when Muhammad Khan Junejo was appointed by the newly elected National Assembly. This election also brought the eighth amendment to the 1973 constitution, and gave the President powers that balanced those of the Prime Minister. The President was now able to dismiss the Prime Minister and the National Assembly (effectively calling for new elections) without prior consultation with the Prime Minister.

In 1988, Benazir Bhutto was elected as Prime Minister, becoming the first female head of government to be democratically elected in a Muslim country.

From 1990 onwards, the offices of President and Prime Minister would clash, with the President dissolving the National Assembly, and thus dismissing the Prime Minister a total of three times until 1996, with new elections each time. After the coup of Pervez Musharraf in 1999, Musharraf assumed the role of Chief Executive, and was the sole leader of Pakistan. In 2002, general elections were held, with no party gaining the majority. A new Prime Minister was appointed after much political wrangling, Zafarullah Khan Jamali who belongs to the PML-Q, a pro-Musharraf political party. In December 2003, the National Assembly passed the Seventeenth Amendment, partially restoring the power of the President to dissolve the National Assembly (and thus dismiss the Prime Minister), but making the dissolution subject to Supreme Court approval.

Jamali resigned on June 26, 2004. Finance minister and former Citibank EVP Shaukat Aziz has been named to the post by interim prime minister Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain.
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Default Governor-General of Pakistan

The Governor-General of Pakistan was the resident representative of the King George VI in Pakistan from 1947 to 1952 and then Queen Elizabeth II from 1952 until 1956 when Pakistan was proclaimed a republic.

When Pakistan became an independent, self-governing nation in 1947, it initially adopted the constitutional monarchy form of government as a Commonwealth realm dominion.

The monarch appointed a Governor-General, upon the advice of the Prime Minister of Pakistan to serve as de facto Head of State.

Mohammed Ali Jinnah, considered Quaid-e-Azam ("Father of the Nation"), intimated to Lord Mountbatten: "when I am Governor-General the Prime Minister will do what I tell him to"--Jinnah is a rare example of executive governorship by a Governor-General.

Jinnah's successors, like most other Commonwealth Governors-General, served as figureheads and but did exercise their virtually unlimited political powers when the deemed fit which was mostly related to dissolving the parliament.

The following are Governors-General of Pakistan:

1947 - 1948 Mohammed Ali Jinnah (1876 - 1948)
1948 - 1951 Khwaja Nazimuddin (1894 - 1964)
1951 - 1955 Ghulam Mohammad (1895 - 1956)
1955 - 1956 Iskander Mirza (1899 - 1969)

The office of Governor-General was abolished and replaced by a President of Pakistan when Pakistan became a republic in 1956. Governor-General Iskander Mirza became Pakistan's first president.
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Default History of the Presidency

History of the Presidency

In 1947 Pakistan became a dominion within the British Commonwealth with the British Monarch as head of state (reiging as "King / Queen of Pakistan"). The monarch was represented in Pakistan by a Governor-General of Pakistan. In 1956, dominion ended when Pakistan established its first constitution, and the positions of Queen and Governor-General were merged into the President.

Pakistan's first president was Iskander Mirza, who was also the last Governor General. In 1958, he abrogated the constitution and declared martial law. A few weeks later, he was overthrown in a bloodless Coup d'état by General Ayub Khan who had himself declared President. The constitution was revised, and the President became the ruler of Pakistan. The constitution also stipulated that the President be elected by the people. Elections were held in 1963, and Khan defeated the sister of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Fatima.

Ayub Khan continued as president until March 25, 1969, and he passed the Presidency onto Yahya Khan. Yahya Khan stepped down after the (Indo-Pakistani War of 1971), and Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto became the new president and presided over the formation of a new Constitution. This constitution was completed in 1973, and reduced the presidency to a figurehead position, giving power to the Prime Minister. Bhutto stepped down as President and became Prime Minister, symbolizing the transition. The President was henceforth elected by legislative assembly members, not by popular vote. Popular vote would be used to directly elect the members of the National Assembly, including the Prime Minister.

In 1978, Prime Minister Bhutto was toppled by General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq who declared himself President. The presidency again became the premier position in the Pakistani government. Zia introduced the Eighth Amendment which gave reserve powers to the President's office. Zia died in 1988, and the Prime Minister's office regained leadership of the country. The Presidency retained its reserve powers until 1997, when the Thirteenth Amendment was passed.

However, the 1999 coup of General Pervez Musharraf brought executive powers back to the President's office. National and provincial elections were held in 2002. In December 2003, the Seventeenth Amendment partially restored the President's reserve powers - but made the exercise of those powers subject to Supreme Court approval or veto within 30 days. In January 2004, the Electoral College gave Musharraf a vote of confidence, as result of which he was (according to the Constitution) "deemed to be elected." Musharraf's term of office as president ends in 2007.

Name , Took Office , Left Office
01 Dr. Iskander Mirza March 23, 1956 October 27, 1958
02 Muhammad Ayub Khan October 27, 1958 March 25, 1969 Military
03 Yahya Khan March 25, 1969 December 20, 1971 Military
04 Zulfikar Ali Bhutto December 20, 1971 August 13, 1973
05 Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry August 13, 1973 September 16, 1978
06 Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq September 16, 1978 August 17, 1988 Military
07 Ghulam Ishaq Khan August 17, 1988 July 18, 1993
08 Wasim Sajjad July 18, 1993 November 14, 1993
09 Farooq Leghari November 14, 1993 December 2, 1997
* Wasim Sajjad December 2, 1997 January 1, 1998
10 Muhammad Rafiq Tarar January 1, 1998 June 20, 2001
11 Pervez Musharraf June 20, 2001 In Office Military

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Eighth Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan

The Constitution (Eighth Amendment) Act, 1985
was an amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan passed in 1985. It changed Pakistan's government from a Parliamentary system to a Semi-presidential system by giving the President a number of additional powers. These powers included the right to dissolve the National Assembly (but not the Senate) if, in his opinion, "a situation has arisen in which the Government of the Federation cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution and an appeal to the electorate is necessary." (Constitution of Pakistan, Article 58)

The Eighth Amendment was invoked three times in the 1990s. Its use was justified by the President as necessary, for the removal of corrupt governments that, he asserted, had lost the confidence of the people. Elections were held each time that caused the ruling party to lose its majority or plurality in the National Assembly.

In 1997, the Thirteenth Amendment was passed, stripping the President of the power to dissolve the National Assembly and call for new elections, effectively reducing the Presidency to a figurehead.

Pakistan's democracy provides no means for the people to directly recall members of Parliament before the end of their terms. Consequently, the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments had the effect of removing the institutional Checks and Balances on the Prime Minister's power, by giving him immunity from being legally dismissed.

The power of the President's office was partially restored by the Seventeenth Amendment. The power to dissolve the National Assembly and dismiss the Prime Minister is now subject to Supreme Court approval.

Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan

The Constitution (Thirteenth Amendment) Act, 1997 was an amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan passed in 1997 by the government of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif. It stripped the President of Pakistan of his right or reserve power to dissolve the National Assembly, call for new elections, and dismiss the Prime Minister.

In Pakistan, once legislators are elected to national or provincial assemblies, the people cannot recall them before the end of their five-year terms. In the past, this has contributed to a sense of immunity on the part of members of the ruling party, and to rampant corruption among leading politicians.

The combined effect of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments was to take away institutional Checks and Balances on the Prime Minister's power, giving him immunity from being legally dismissed.

Nawaz Sharif's government became increasingly unpopular after the passage of these amendments, even though it was the election of his Pakistan Muslim League by a heavy majority that enabled him to alter the Constitution in the first place. The storming of the Supreme Court by political-party goons in 1997, and the forced resignation of the Chief Justice, strengthened the perception that the country was becoming a civilian dictatorship.

In 1999, Pervez Musharraf assumed power in a military coup. Among the reasons he gave for doing so were the destruction of institutional checks and balances, and the prevailing corruption in the political leadership. The coup was widely welcomed in Pakistan, and the Supreme Court later validated it on the grounds that a situation had arisen for which the Constitution had no remedy, the Thirteenth Amendment having removed a constitutional means of dismissing an unpopular Prime Minister.

In October 2002, elections were held in Pakistan. In December 2003, Parliament passed the Seventeenth Amendment, which partially restored the reserve power of the Presidency, but made it subject to Supreme Court approval.

Seventeenth Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan

The Constitution (Seventeenth Amendment) Act, 2003 was an amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan passed in December 2003, after over a year of political wrangling between supporters and opponents of Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf.

This amendment made many changes to Pakistan's constitution. Many of these changes dealt with the office of the President and the reversal of the effects of the Thirteenth Amendment. Summarized here are brief descriptions of the major points.

President Musharraf's Legal Framework Order (LFO) was largely incorporated into the constitution, with a few changes.
Article 63(1)(d) of the Constitution to become operative after December 31, 2004. The intent of this was to prohibit a person from holding both a political office (such as that of the President) and an "office of profit" - an office that is typically held by a career government servant, civil or military - such as the office of the Chief of Army Staff. Although this was supposed to separate the two types of office, a loophole - ".. other than an office declared by law .." - allowed Parliament to pass an ordinary law later in 2004 - permitting the President to hold on to the office of Chief of Army Staff, an option that President Musharraf then exercised.
Should the President win a majority in a vote of confidence in the electoral college within 30 days of the passage of this amendment, he shall be deemed to be elected to the office of President. (On January 1, 2004, Musharraf won 658 out of 1,170 electoral-college votes - a 56% majority - and was thereby deemed to be elected as president.)
The President regains the authority to dissolve the National Assembly - and thus effectively to dismiss the Pakistani Prime Minister - but the power to do so is made subject to an approval or veto by the Supreme Court of Pakistan.
A Governor's power to dissolve a Provincial Assembly is similarly subject to Supreme Court approval or veto.
Article 152A, which dealt with the National Security Council, was annulled. (The legal basis for the NSC is now an ordinary law, the National Security Council Act of 2004.)

Ten laws had been added by the LFO to the Sixth Schedule, which is a list of "laws that are not to be altered, repealed or amended without the previous sanction of the President." After this amendment, five of those laws will lose their Sixth Schedule protection after six years. Laws to be unprotected include the four laws that established the system of democratic local governments. (Those in favor of this change have argued that it would enable each province to evolve its own systems. Opponents fear that authoritarian provincial governments could disempower or even dismantle the system of local democracies.)

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Default Timeline: Pakistan

CSS aspirants must have these years on their tips

A chronology of key events:

1906 - Muslim League founded as forum for Indian Muslim separatism.

1940 - Muslim League endorses idea of separate nation for India's Muslims.

1947 - Muslim state of East and West Pakistan created out of partition of India at the end of British rule. Hundreds of thousands die in widespread communal violence and millions are made homeless.

1948 - Muhammed Ali Jinnah, the first governor general of Pakistan, dies.

1948 - First war with India over disputed territory of Kashmir.

1951 - Jinnah's successor Liaquat Ali Khan is assassinated.

1956 - Constitution proclaims Pakistan an Islamic republic.

1958 - Martial law declared and General Ayyub Khan takes over.

1960 - General Ayyub Khan becomes president.

War and secession

1965 - Second war with India over Kashmir.

1969 - General Ayyub Khan resigns and General Yahya Khan takes over.

1970 - Victory in general elections in East Pakistan for breakaway Awami League, leading to rising tension with West Pakistan.

1971 - East Pakistan attempts to secede, leading to civil war. India intervenes in support of East Pakistan which eventually breaks away to become Bangladesh.

1972 - Simla peace agreement with India sets new frontline in Kashmir.

1973 - Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto becomes prime minister.

1977 - Riots erupt over allegations of vote-rigging by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto's Pakistan People's Party (PPP). General Zia ul-Haq stages military coup.

1978 - General Zia becomes president.

1979 - Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto hanged.

1980 - US pledges military assistance to Pakistan following Soviet intervention in Afghanistan.

1985 - Martial law and political parties ban lifted.

1986 - Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto's daughter Benazir returns from exile to lead PPP in campaign for fresh elections.

1988 August - General Zia, the US ambassador and top Pakistan army officials die in mysterious air crash.

1999: Echoes of General Zia

1988 November - Benazir Bhutto's PPP wins general election.

1990 - Benazir Bhutto dismissed as prime minister on charges of incompetence and corruption.

1991 - Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif begins economic liberalisation programme. Islamic Shariah law formally incorporated into legal code.

1992 - Government launches campaign to stamp out violence by Urdu-speaking supporters of the Mohajir Quami Movement.

1993 - President Khan and Prime Minister Sharif both resign under pressure from military. General election brings Benazir Bhutto back to power.

1996 - President Leghari dismisses Bhutto government amid corruption allegations.

1997 - Nawaz Sharif returns as prime minister after his Pakistan Muslim League party wins elections.

1998 - Pakistan conducts its own nuclear tests after India explodes several devices.

1999 April - Benazir Bhutto and her husband convicted of corruption and given jail sentences. Benazir stays out of the country.

1999 May - Kargil conflict: Pakistan-backed forces clash with the Indian military in the icy heights around Kargil in Indian-held Kashmir. More than 1,000 people are killed on both sides.

1999 October - Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif overthrown in military coup led by General Pervez Musharraf. Coup is widely condemned, Pakistan is suspended from Commonwealth.

2000 April - Nawaz Sharif sentenced to life imprisonment on hijacking and terrorism charges.

2000 December - Nawaz Sharif goes into exile in Saudi Arabia after being pardoned by military authorities.

2001 20 June - Gen Pervez Musharraf names himself president while remaining head of the army. He replaced the figurehead president, Rafiq Tarar, who vacated his position earlier in the day after the parliament that elected him was dissolved.

2001 July - Musharraf meets Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee in the first summit between the two neighbours in more than two years. The meeting ends without a breakthrough or even a joint statement because of differences over Kashmir.

2001 September - Musharraf swings in behind the US in its fight against terrorism and supports attacks on Afghanistan. US lifts some sanctions imposed after Pakistan's nuclear tests in 1998, but retains others put in place after Musharraf's coup.

2001 October - India fires on Pakistani military posts in the heaviest firing along the dividing line of control in Kashmir for almost a year.

2001 December - India imposes sanctions against Pakistan, to force it to take action against two Kashmir militant groups blamed for a suicide attack on parliament in New Dehli. Pakistan retaliates with similar sanctions.

2001 December - India, Pakistan mass troops along common border amid mounting fears of a looming war.

2002 January - President Musharraf bans two militant groups - Lashkar-e-Toiba and Jaish-e-Mohammad - and takes steps to curb religious extremism.

2002 January - Musharraf announces that elections will be held in October 2002 to end three years of military rule.

2002 April - Musharraf wins another five years in office in a referendum criticised as unconstitutional and fraught with irregularities.

2002 May - 14 people, including 11 French technicians, are killed in a suicide attack on a bus in Karachi. The following month 12 people are killed in a suicide attack outside the US consulate in the city.

2002 May - Pakistan test fires three medium-range surface-to-surface Ghauri missiles, which are capable of carrying nuclear warheads. Musharraf tells nation that Pakistan doesn't want war but is ready to respond with full force if attacked.

2002 June - Britain and USA maintain diplomatic offensive to avert war, urge their citizens to leave India and Pakistan.

2002 August - President Musharraf grants himself sweeping new powers, including the right to dismiss an elected parliament. Opposition forces accuse Musharraf of perpetuating dictatorship.

2002 October - First general election since the 1999 military coup results in a hung parliament. Parties haggle over the make-up of a coalition. Religious parties fare better than expected.

2002 November - Mir Zafarullah Jamali selected as prime minister by the National Assembly. He is the first civilian premier since the 1999 military coup and a member of a party close to General Musharraf.

2003 February - Senate elections: Ruling party wins most seats in voting to the upper house. Elections said to be final stage of what President Musharraf calls transition to democracy.

2003 June - North-West Frontier Province votes to introduce Sharia law.

2003 November - Pakistan declares a Kashmir ceasefire, which is swiftly matched by India.

2003 December - Pakistan and India agree to resume direct air links and to allow overflights of each other's planes from beginning of 2004 after two-year ban.

2004: Karachi - Volatile metropolis

2004: Pakistan's schisms spill into present

2004 February - Leading nuclear scientist Dr Abdul Qadeer Khan admits to having leaked nuclear weapons secrets. Technology is said to have been transferred to Libya, North Korea and Iran.

2004 April - Parliament approves creation of military-led National Security Council. Move institutionalises role of armed forces in civilian affairs.

2004 May - Pakistan readmitted to Commonwealth.

Factional violence in Karachi: Senior Sunni cleric shot dead; bomb attack on Shia mosque kills 16, injures 40.

2004 June - Military offensive near Afghan border against suspected al-Qaeda militants and their supporters after attacks on checkpoints. Earlier offensive, in March, left more than 120 dead.

2004 August - Shaukat Aziz is sworn in as prime minister. In July he escaped unhurt from an apparent assassination attempt.

2004 December - President Musharraf announces that he will stay on as head of the army. He had previously promised to relinquish the role.

2005 January - Tribal militants in Baluchistan attack facilities at Pakistan's largest natural gas field, forcing closure of main plant.

2005 7 April - Bus services, the first in 60 years, operate between Muzaffarabad in Pakistani-administered Kashmir and Srinagar in Indian-controlled Kashmir.

2005 July - More than 130 people are killed and hundreds are injured in a collision between three passenger trains in Sindh province.

2005 August - Pakistan tests its first, nuclear-capable cruise missile.

Best of luck
[COLOR=Navy][SIZE=4]Shoot for the moon even if you miss, you will land among the stars.[/SIZE][/COLOR]
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Default basic Facts Abt Pakistan

RELIGIONS: Muslim 97% (Sunni 77%, Shi'a 20%), Christian, Hindu, and other 3%
MEDIAN AGE: total: 19.8 years
male: 19.7 years
female: 20 years (2002)
AGE STRUCTURE: 0-14 years: 39.3% (male 30,463,958; female 28,726,776)
15-64 years: 56.5% (male 43,571,093; female 41,651,872)
65 years and over: 4.2% (male 3,051,674; female 3,229,367) (2003 est.)
NET MIGRATION RATE: -0.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
SEX RATIO: At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.94 male(s)/female
total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
INFANT MORTALITY RATE: total: 76.53 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 76.09 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
male: 76.95 deaths/1,000 live births
ETHNIC GROUPS: Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun (Pathan), Baloch, Muhajir (immigrants from India at the time of partition and their descendants)
LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH: Total population: 62.2 years
male: 61.3 years
female: 63.14 years (2003 est.)
LANGUAGES: Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official and lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski, and other 8%
FLAG DESCRIPTION: green with a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of religious minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam
Currency Pak Rupee.
Per Capita Income US$ 443
Per Capita Income at (PPP) US$ 2230
GDP: Purchasing power parity - $311 billion (2002 est.)
industry: 25%
services: 51% (FY01 est.)
LITERACY: Definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 45.7% male: 59.8% female: 30.6% (2003 est.)
LABOR FORCE: 41.54 million (2003)
EMPLOYED: 38.29 million (2003)
UNEMPLOYED: 3.25 million (2003)
UNEMPLOYMENT RATE: 7.8% plus substantial underemployment (2002 est.)
LABOR FORCE - BY OCCUPATION: Agriculture 48.42%, manufacturing & Mining 11.55%, Construction 5.78%, Trade 13.8%, Transport 5.03%, Services 42% (2001 est.)
Registered Companies 43,000+
Listed Cos 700+
Foreign Firms 600+
Industrial Estates/Zones 63
EXPORTS: $9.8 billion f.o.b. (FY02/03 est.)
EXPORTS - COMMODITIES: textiles (garments, cotton cloth, and yarn), rice, leather, sports goods, and carpets and rugs
Universities 68 (40 in private sector)
Transport & Communications
Railways Network 7,791 route KMs
RAILWAYS: total: 8,163 km
broad gauge: 7,718 km 1.676-m gauge (293 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 445 km 1.000-m gauge (2002)
HIGHWAYS: total: 247,811 km
paved: 141,252 km (including 339 km of expressways)
unpaved: 106,559 km (2001)
MERCHANT MARINE: Total: 18 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 247,675 GRT/375,435 DWT ships by type: cargo 14, container 3, petroleum tanker 1 (2002 est.)
Pakistan International Airline Covers 33 International and 21 domestic stations.
Pakistan International Airline Major Airports Domestic Stations: Islamabad , Lahore , Karachi , Quetta , Peshawar and Gwadar
Major Seaports Domestic: Minora, Gwadar and Pasni.
International: Karachi and Bin Qasim.
Post Offices 12,234 (2302 Urban and 9932 Rural)
Telephone Connections 4.28 million
Public Call Offices 71,771
Telegraph Offices 362
Internet Connections 1.7 million
LABOR FORCE: 41.54 million

Agriculture Sector 48.42%
Manufacturing & Mining Sector 11.25%
Others 40.33%
RELIGIONS: Muslim 97% (Sunni 77%, Shi'a 20%), Christian, Hindu, and other 3%
MEDIAN AGE: total: 19.8 years
male: 19.7 years
female: 20 years (2002)
AGE STRUCTURE: 0-14 years: 39.3% (male 30,463,958; female 28,726,776)
15-64 years: 56.5% (male 43,571,093; female 41,651,872)
65 years and over: 4.2% (male 3,051,674; female 3,229,367) (2003 est.)
[FONT=Lucida Console]2 B R NOT 2B[/FONT] :unsure:
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Arrow Pakistan: Basic Facts


Official Name

Islamic Republic of Pakistan

Father of the Nation
Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948)

National Poet
Allama Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938)

Head of the State
General Pervez Musharraf, President

Head of Government
Shaukat Aziz , Prime Minister



796,095 Sq. km.

205,344 Sq. km.

140,914 Sq. km.

North West Frontier Province
74,521 Sq. km.

347,190 Sq. km.

Federally Administered Tribal Areas
27,220 Sq. km.

Islamabad (Capital)
906 Sq. km.

153.96 million (E)

Administrative Setup

Pakistan is divided into four provinces viz.,

North West Frontier Province (NWFP), Punjab, Sindh and Balochistan.

The tribal belt adjoining NWFP is managed by the Federal Government and is named FATA i.e., Federally Administered Tribal Areas. Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas have their own respective political and administrative machinery, yet certain of their subjects are taken care of by the Federal Government through the Ministry of Kashmir Affairs and Northern Areas. Provinces of Pakistan are further divided into Divisions and Districts






While FATA consist of 13 Areas/Agencies and Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas have 7 and 5 Districts respectively.


95% Muslims, 5% others.

Annual Per capita income

US $846




Pak. Rupee.


Industrial equipment, chemicals, vehicles, steel, iron ore, petroleum, edible oil, pulses, tea.


Cotton, textile goods, rice, leather items carpets, sports goods, handi-crafts, fish and fish prep. and fruit


Urdu (National) and English (Official)

Literacy rate

Parliamentary form

Parliament consists of two Houses i.e., the Senate (Upper House) and the National Assembly (Lower House).

The Senate is a permanent legislative body and symbolises a process of continuity in the national affairs. It consists of 100 members. The four Provincial Assemblies, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Federal Capital form its electoral college.

The National Assembly has a total membership of 342 elected through adult suffrage (272 general seats, 60 women seats and 10 non-Muslim seats).

Pakistan National Flag

Dark green with a white vertical bar, a white crescent and a five-pointed star in the middle. The Flag symbolizes Pakistan's profound commitment to Islam, the Islamic world and the rights of religious minorities.

National Anthem

Approved in August, 1954

Verses Composed by: Abdul Asar Hafeez Jullundhri

Tune Composed by: Ahmed G. Chagla

Duration: 80 seconds

State Emblem
The State Emblem consists of:

The crescent and star which are symbols of Islam
The shield in the centre shows four major crops
Wreath surrounding the shield represents cultural heritage and
4. Scroll contains Quaid's motto: Unity Faith, Discipline

Pakistan's Official Map

Drawn by Mian Mahmood Alam Suhrawardy (1920-1999)

National Flower


National Tree

Deodar (Cedrus Deodara).

National Animal


National Bird

Chakor (Red-legged partridge)


Pine, Oak, Poplar, Deodar, Maple, Mulberry


The Pheasant, Leopard, Deer, Ibex, Chinkara, Black buck, Neelgai, Markhor, Marco-Polo sheep, Green turtles, River & Sea fish, Crocodile, Waterfowls

Popular games

Cricket, Hockey, Football, Squash.

Tourist's resorts

Murree, Quetta, Hunza, Ziarat, Swat, Kaghan, Chitral and Gilgit

Archaeological sites

Moenjo Daro, Harappa, Taxila, Kot Diji, Mehr Garh, Takht Bhai.

Major Cities

Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar, Quetta, Rawalpindi, Hyderabad, Faisalabad, Multan and Sialkot

Major Crops
Cotton, Wheat, Rice and Sugarcane

Agricultural Growth Rate
7.5% in 2004-05

Total cropped area
22.94 million hectares


Textiles, Cement, Fertiliser, Steel, Sugar, Electric Goods, Shipbuilding

Major sources
Electricity ( Hydel, Thermal, Nuclear) Oil, Coal, and Liquid Petroleum Gas

Power Generating Capacity
19,389 MW



Basic Health Units (BHUs)

Maternity & Child Health Centres

Rural Health Centres (RHCs)

Tuberculosis (TB) Centres

Hospital Beds

Doctors (registered)

Dentists (registered)

Nurses (registered


Lady Health Workers

Primary Schools

Middle Schools

High Schools

Secondary Vocational Institutions

Arts & Science Colleges

Professional Colleges


Transport & Communication
Total length of roads
259, 758 km

Pakistan Railway network
7,791 km


Railway stations

Pakistan International Airlines

Covers 38 international and 24 domestic stations with a fleet of 49 planes.

Major Airports

8 (Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore, Quetta, Peshawar, Multan, Faisalabad and Gwadar)


2 (Karachi and Bin Qasim) Gwadar deep sear port is under construction

Fish Harbors -Cum-Mini

3 (Minora, Gawadar, and Keti Bandar)


Post Offices

Telephone connections

Public Call Offices

Telegraph offices

Internet Connections
2 million

Mobile Phones

Total Labour force
46.84 million

Employed Labour Force
43.22 million

Agriculture Sector
18.60 million

Manufacturing & Mining sector
5.96 million

2.52 million

6.39 million

2.48 million

6.98 million


Electronic Media
Print Media (In accordance with Central Media List)





News Agencies


PPI, NNI, On Line and Sana.

TV Channels

State Owned

Pakistan Television Network (PTV) is a state owned television station which operates on both terrestrial & satellite. PTV offers six channels:

PTV World
PTV National - Regional Languages Channel
PTV Bolan - Baluchi Language Channel
AJK TV - Azad & Jammu Kashmir TV
Virtual University is also state owned and operate two channels.
Virtual Television 1 (VTV 1)
Virtual Television 2 (VTV 2)
Aaj TV
ARY Digital
ARY One World
Business Plus
Channel G - Music Channel
Dhoom TV
Filmazia - Pakistani Movies Channel
Fortune TV
Geo TV
Geo News
Hum TV
Indus Music
Indus Plus/Indus News
Indus Vision
Labbaik TV
Mashriq TV
TV One
Roshni TV
Rung TV
Sun Biz - Business Channel
TV 2 Day
The City Channel
The Musik
Uni Plus
KTN - Sindhi Language Channel
Sindh TV - Sindhi Language Channel
Kashish TV - Sindhi Language Channel
Apna Channel - Punjabi Language Channel
Ravi TV - Punjabi Language Channel
Punjab TV - Punjabi Language Channel
AVT Khyber - Pushto Language Channel
HBO - Part of ARY Digital Network
Fashion TV Pakistan
Al-Jazeera Urdu
CNBC Pakistan
Cartoon Network
Ten Sports

Pakistani radio channels

Following are radio channels in Pakistan .


Radio Pakistan AM820 Karachi
Radio Pakistan AM1000 Hyderabad
Radio Pakistan AM1000 Larkana
Radio Pakistan AM920 Khairpur
City FM89 Karachi
RadioActive FM96 Karachi
FM100 Karachi
FM101 Karachi
FM101 Hyderabad
APNA Radio FM107 Karachi
HUM FM106 Karachi
HUM FM106 Sukkar


Radio Pakistan AM630 Lahore
Radio Pakistan AM1080 Lahore
Radio Pakistan AM1260 Rawalpindi
Radio Pakistan AM792 Rawalpindi
Radio Pakistan FM92 Rawalpindi
Radio Pakistan AM1030 Multan
Radio Pakistan AM1320 Bahawalpur
Radio Pakistan AM1476 Faisalabad ( Lyallpur )
City FM89 Lahore
City FM89 Rawalpindi
City FM89 Faisalabad ( Lyallpur )
FM100 Lahore
FM101 Lahore
FM101 Faisalabad ( Lyallpur )
FM101 Sialkot
FM101 Sargodha
FM95 Mianwali
MAST FM103 Lahore
Radio Buraq FM104 Sialkot
AWAZ Radio FM105 Gujrat
AWAZ Radio FM106 Gujranwala
HUM FM106.2 Lahore

Islamabad Capital Territory
Radio Pakistan AM585 Islamabad
City FM89 Islamabad
FM99 Power Radio Islamabad
FM100 Islamabad
FM101 Islamabad
HUM FM106.2 Islamabad
Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP)
Radio Pakistan AM540 Peshawar
Radio Pakistan AM1400 Dera Ismail Khan
Radio Pakistan AM1600 Abbottabad
Radio Pakistan AM1580 Chitral
UPesh Radio FM107 Peshawar
Radio Buraq FM104 Peshawar
Radio Buraq FM104 Mardan
FM101 Peshawar
FM101 Bannu
FM101 Kohat
Radio Pakistan AM750 Quetta
Radio Pakistan AM1580 Sibi
Radio Pakistan AM560 Khuzdar
Radio Pakistan AM1580 Turbat
FM101 Quetta
FM101 Gwadar

Central Bank

State Bank of Pakistan

Nationalized Scheduled Banks

First Woman Bank Ltd.

National Bank of Pakistan

Specialized Banks

Zari Taraqiati Bank (ZTBL) Industrial Development Bank of Pakistan Punjab Provincial Cooperative Bank Ltd

Private Scheduled Banks

Askari Commercial Bank Limited

Bank Al-Falah Limited
Bolan Bank Limited

Faysal Bank Limited

Bank Al-Habib Limited

Metropolitan Bank Limited

KASB Commercial Bank Limited

Prime Commercial Bank Limited

PICIC Commercial Bank Limited

Soneri Bank Limited

Union Bank Limited

Meezan Bank Limited

Saudi-Pak Commercial Bank Limited

Crescent Commercial Bank Limited

Dawood Bank Limited

NDLC-IFIC Bank Limited (NIB)

Allied Bank of Pakistan Limited

United Bank Limited

Habib Bank Limited

SME Banks

Foreign Banks

ABN Amro Bank N.V

Albaraka Islamic Bank BSC (EC)
American Expresss Bank Limited

Bank of Tokyo Mitsubishi Limited

Citibank N.A

Deutsche Bank A.G.

Habib Bank A.G. Zurich

Hongkong & Shanghai Banking Corp Limited

Oman International Bank S.O.A.G

Rupali Bank Limited

Standard Chartered Bank Limited

Development Financial

Pakistan Industrial Credit and Investment Corp. Limited

Pak Kuwait Investment Company (Pvt) Limited
Pak Libya Holding Company (Pvt) Limited

Investment Banks

Crescent Investment Bank Limited

First International Investment Bank Limited
Atlas Investment Bank Limited
Security Investment Bank Limited

Fidelity Investment Bank Limited

Prudential Investment Bank Limited

Islamic Investment Bank Limited

Asset Investment Bank Limited

Al-Towfeek Investment Bank imited

Jahangir Siddiqui Investment Bank Limited

Franklin Investment Bank Limited
Orix Investment Bank (Pak) Limited

Famous Mountain Peaks

World Rating

K-2 (Chagori)
8616 m

Nanga Parbat
8125 m

8068 m

Broad Peak
8065 m

8047 m

7952 m

7925 m

Disteghil Sar
7885 m

Kunyang Kish
7852 m

Masherbrum (NE)
7821 m

7788 m

Batura I
7785 m

Kanjut Sar
7760 m

Saltoro Kangri
7742 m

7720 m

Tirich Mir
7708 m

Famous Mountain Passes



The Khyber Pass

The Kurram Pass

The Tochi Pass

The Gomal Pass

The Bolan Pass

The Lowari Pass
Chitral (NWFP)

The Khunjrab Pass
Northern Areas



The Indus
2,896 km

825 km

1,242 km

901 km

1,551 km

Beas (tributary of Sutlej)
398 km

Famous Glaciers


75 km

55 km

65 km














Northern Areas

Northern Areas

Major Dams



Mangla Dam

Tarbela Dam

Warsak Dam

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Thumbs up Pak Affairs Objectives

1. When did the Sindh assembly decided to join Pakistan?

June 26, 1947

2. By which margin the Sindh assembly decided to join Pakistan?

Ans. by 33 to 20 votes

3. Who were the members of the Steering Committee of the Partition Council in the Center?

Ans. Ch. Muhammad Ali and H.M. Patel

4. What was the description of the border between the East and the West Bengal?

Ans. "The new frontier would run approximately north-south from the Himalayan foothills, east of Darjeeling to the Ganges delta on the Bay of Bengal, leaving East Bengal in Pakistan and West Bengal in India"

5. What was the population of Bengal before partition in 1947?


6. What was the area of Bengal before partition in 1947?

Ans. 77000 Sq. miles

7. What was the estimate of the former Bengali population in both East and Wast Bengal after partition in 1947?

Ans. 35.14% in West Bengal and 64.86% in East Bengal

8. Who was the Chairman of both the Boundary Commissions?

Ans. Sir Cyril Radcliffe

9. Who were the members of Boundary Commission?

Ans. Mr. Justice Din Muhammad, Mr. Justice Muhammad Munir, Mr. Justice Mehrchand Mahajan, Mr. Justice Teja Singh.

10. How long did the Boundary Commission work?

Ans. From 21-07-1947 to 30-07-1947

11. According to Justice Muhammad Munir, by which date the award had been finalized?

Ans. Aug. 8, 1947

12. When was the Boundary Commission Award Announced?

Ans. 17-08-1947

13. Where was Mr. Radcliff staying between Aug. 8 and Aug. 17, 1947?

Ans. In New Delhi as a guest of Lord Mountbatten.

14. Who was the last Governor of the undivided Punjab?

Ans. Sir Even Jenkins

15. Who was the first Governor of the West Punjab?

Ans. Sir Francis Mudie

16. Sir Francis Mudie found a sketch map left over in the confidential safe at Government House, Lahore. What was it about?

Ans. This sketch map was the advance information provided to Sir Even Jenkins by the Radcliff award commission on the possible boundary line of Punjab.

17. How this sketch map differed from the actual Award announced on Aug. 17, 1947?

Ans. According to this sketch map the tehsil of Ferozepur and Zira was to be assigned to Pakistan, but in actual Award it was assigned to India.

18. According to a publication of Manchester Guardian in 1950, Gurdaspur was assigned to India possibly owing to pressure from Lord Mountbatten. Why India needed Gurdaspur so badly?

Ans. It was the sole land route to Kashmir, which India had planned to occupy.

19. How many Princely States were in undivided India?

Ans. 562

20. According to 1941 census, what was the total population of all the princely states?

Ans. 93 million

21. What was the total area of the princely states?

Ans. 712000 Sq. miles

22. When was a conference of the Princely States rulers held in Delhi before the announcement of Partition Plan?

Ans. July 25, 1947

23. What was the direction given to the rulers of the Princely States by Mountbatten in the Delhi Conference?

Ans.Join, either Pakistan or India

24. Which 3 States had failed to decide accession issue by 15th August, 1947?

Ans. Hyderabad, Junagadh and Kashmir

25. How was the decision of joining Pakistan reached by the British Baluchistan?

Ans. A jirga (assembly) of all the tribal chiefs of the British Baluchistan met on June 29, 1947 and unanimously decided to join Pakistan.

26. Which was the largest state in Baluchistan?

Ans. Kalat

27. When was the announcement of accession of Kalat to Pakistan was made?

Ans. April 2, 1948

28. What was the area of the State of Kalat?

Ans. 75000 sq. miles

29. What was the population of the State of Kalat?

Ans. 500,000

30. When did the rulers of the states of Kalat, Las Bela , Makran and Kharan agreed to form a single State Union?

Ans. April 1952

31. Which new provinces were constituted under the Indian Independence Act, 1947, (after being defined in Sir Cyril Radcliffe's boundary award)?

Ans. East Bengal and West Punjab

32. What was the population of the undivided Punjab?

Ans. 28,000,000

33. What was the area of the undivided Punjab?

Ans. 100,000

34. Which districts of the Punjab province were allotted to the newly constituted Western Punjab province?

Ans. In Lahore Division, Lahore, Gujranwala, Sheikhupura, Sialkot. In Rawalpindi Division, Rawalpindi, Attock, Jhelum, and Shahpur. In Multan Division, Multan, Dera Ghazi Khan, Lyallpur, Montgomery and Muzaffargarh.

35. What was the area of the West Punjab?

Ans. 62,100 Sq. miles

36. What was the population of West Punjab as per the 1941 census?

Ans. 15,800,000

37. What was the percentage of Muslims in West Punjab?

Ans. 74.7%

38. When did polling take place in N.W.F.P for referendum on the question of union with Pakistan or India?

Ans. July 6, 1947

39. How many votes were cast in favor of both Pakistan and India in the NWFP referendum?

Ans. 289,244 for Pakistan and 2874 for India

40. Which organization in N.W.F.P boycotted the referendum and who was the founder of this organization?

Ans. Redshirts, Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan

41. Which two States decided to merge in Pakistan on 4th October, 1947?

Ans. Bahawalpur and Khairpur

42. When were the States of Bahawalpur and Khairpur formally merged in Pakistan?

Ans. 7th and 12th October, 1947

43. Who was the Prime Minister of the State of Bahawalpur?

Ans. Mushtaq Ahmed Gurmani

44. What was the population of Bahawalpur state?

Ans. 1,500,000

45. What was the area of Bahawalpur state?

Ans. 16,500 Sq. miles

46. Which district of Assam voted in favour of joining Pakistan on July 6, 1947?

Ans. Sylhet

47. Which three Frontier States acceded to Pakistan?

Ans. Chitral, Dir and Swat

48. When did the Punjab Legislative Assembly decided in favour of the partition of the province?

Ans. June 23, 1947

49. What was the verdict of the Punjab Assembly?

Ans. 91 members (including three non-Muslims) voted in favour of joining a new Constituent Assembly, while 77 (Hindus, Sikhs and Scheduled Caste representatives) voted in favour of entering the existing Constituent Assembly, if the Province remained united.

50. When did the Bengal Legislative Assembly meet to decide on the question of partition of Bengal?

Ans. June 20, 1947
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51. Who was the Governor of Bengal at the time of deciding the partition of the province?

Ans:Sir Frederick Burrows

52. Who was the Chief Minister of Bengal at the time of deciding the partition of the province?

Ans: Hussain Shaheed Suharwardy

53. Which was the ruling party in Bengal at the time of deciding the partition of the province?

Ans: Muslim League

54. What was the verdict of the Bengal Legislative Assembly on the question of partition of Bengal?

Ans:Bengal Legislative Assembly met in two sections on June 20, 1947; the Hindu-majority section voted in favor of partition of Bengal by 58 votes to 21 and Muslim-majority section voted against partition of Bengal by 106 to 35.

55. When did the elections take place in East and West Bengal for nominees to the Constituent Assemblies of India and Pakistan?

Ans:July 4-5, 1947

56. When was the award of the Punjab Boundary Commission announced?

Ans:Aug. 17, 1947

57. When did the Nawab of Manavadar announced accession to Pakistan?

Ans:September, 24, 1947

58. When was the State of Manavadar forcibly occupied by the Indian troops?

Ans:February 15, 1948

59. When did the Kathiawar State of Junagadh announced accession to Pakistan?

Ans:August 18, 1947

60. When did Pakistan accept the accession of Junagadh?

Ans: Sept. 15, 1947

61. Who warned Pakistan that "Pakistan's acceptance of accession of Junagadh was in utter violation of principles on which the Partition of India was agreed upon and effected"?

Ans:Lord Mountbatten

62. What was the population of the State of Junagadh?

Ans: 800,000

63. What was the percentage of Hindu Population in the State of Junagadh?


64. Where exactly was the location of Junagadh in the Kathiawar peninsula?

Ans:South West of the Kathiawar peninsula.

65. What was the distance of Jungadh from Pakistan?

Ans: 450 miles

66. The landlords of which two feudatory areas of Junagadh announced accession to India?

Ans: Mangrol and Babriawad

67. When did the Indian troops enter in Babariawad and Mangrol?

Ans:November 1, 1947

68. Why did the Indian troops enter in Babariawad and Mangrol?

Ans:These were the tributary states of Junagadh. The Indian troops entered here to find an excuse for occupying Junagadh.

69. When did the Indian troops enter in the capital city of Junagadh?

Ans:November 9, 1947

70. Who was the Dewan (Chief Minister) of the Junagadh State?

Ans:Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto

71. Who at Junagadh said " Handing over the administration to the Indian Union was comparable to inviting thief to tea" ?

Ans:Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto

72. Through which port of Junagadh India made its amphibious landing?


73. When was the referendum in under-occupation Junagadh held on the question of joining India or Pakistan?

Ans:Feb. 24, 1948

74. .What was the result of the referendum?

Ans: The referendum was a merely farce as there were no neutral observers and the unilateral announcement from Indian Govt was made that 190,779 votes were in favor of India and 91 in favor of Pakistan .

75. What was the area of the State of Hyderabad?

Ans:82000 sq. miles

76. What was the population of Hyderabad in 1947?

Ans:18 million

77. What was the title of the ruler of Hyderabad?


78. What was the name of the Nizam of Hyderabad and Berar?

Ans:Mir Osman Ali Khan

79. What was the decision of the Nizam of Hyderabad on the accession issue on June 11, 1947?

Ans:To remain Independent

80. Which State, after receiving threats from Indian Government on accession issue, sought attention of the United Nations on 24-08-1947?


81. When was a standstill agreement reached between India and the Nizam of Hyderabad?

Ans: Nov. 29, 1947, was to continue for one year.

82. Which reprehensible pressure tactic was used by India to force Hyderabad for accession?

Ans: Economic blockade

83. When did Indian forces occupy Hyderabad against the wishes of its Muslim Nawab?

Ans: September, 12 1948

84. Apart from Junagadh, Hyderabad and Kashmir which other State was forced to accede to India against the wishes of its ruler?

Ans: Jodhpur

85. What was the percentage of Muslim population in entire Kashmir at the time of partition?


86. .What was the percentage of Muslim population in the valley of Kashmir at the time of partition?

Ans: 93%

87. Historically speaking from which century Kashmir was being ruled by Muslims till its conquest by Ranjit Singh in 1819?

Ans:14th Century

88. When did Ranjit Singh sell the Kashmir State to the Dogra Raja, Gulab Singh for an amount of Rs. 7500,000?


89. What is the distance from Kashmir to Pakistan?

Ans: 250 miles

90. Who was the founder of the National Conference in Kashmir?

Ans: Sheikh Abdullah

91. In May 1947 which President of the Indian National Congress went to Kashmir to persuade the Dogra Raja for accession with India?

Ans:Acharya Kirpalani

92. When did the Muslim Conference of Kashmir adopt a resolution in favor of accession to Pakistan?

Ans:19th July, 1947

93. What was the name of the Maharajah of Kashmir in 1947?

Ans:Hari Singh

94. Which Kashmir State Prime Minister was in favor of Independent Kashmir?

Ans: Ram Chandra Kak

95. After the visit of Gandhi to Kashmir there were two significant developments; one was the appointment of Dogra Janak Singh as Prime Minister, which was the other?

Ans:Release of Sheikh Abudullah from Prison

96. In October 1947 Dogra Janak Singh was replaced by a nominee of Indian National Congress. What was his name?

Ans:Mehr Chand Mahajan - A former member of Boundary Commission

97. What incited the Kashmiris to initiate a guerrilla war against the Dogra ruler?

Ans:The Raja of Kashmir Hari Singh ordered Muslims to deposit all arms they possessed and also disarmed the Muslim personnel in the State army.

98. In which district the RSS and Sikh gangs from India reached to assist the Dogra Raja in extermination of Kashmiri Muslims?


99. When did the Pathans from the tribal belt of Pakistan reach Kashmir to fight against the forces of the Dogra Raja?

Ans:21/22 October, 1947
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