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Old Saturday, February 06, 2010
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Post Repeated questions of Botany

BOTANY

( PAPER 1 )


PHYCOLOGY


Describe the life history of any multicellular green alga. ( 2009 )
Write note on different parameters which are used in classification of algae. ( 2009 )
Describe :

a : methods of reproduction in algae.
b : economic imporatnce of algae . ( 2007 ) ( 2008 ) ( 2005 )
c affinities of algae with land plants. ( 2008 )
Discuss cell structure, methods of reproduction and importance of blue green algae. ( 2006 )
Describe briefly the various modes of sexual reproduction in algae giving examples. ( 2007 )
Describe in detail life cycle of Chara . why its considered more close to chlorophyceae. ( 2005 )
Draw a graphic representation of life cycle of Volvox. ( 2006 )
Graphic life cycle of Polysiphonia. ( 2006 )
Give an account of the structure of a vegetative cell of Cyanophyceae and compare it with that of Chlorphyceae. ( 2007 )
Note on following :

a : vegetative reproduction in Nostoc. ( 2005 )
b : sexual reproduction in Oedogonium. ( 2005 )
c : plant body of Vaucheria. ( 2005 )


MYCOLOGY

Discuss five plant diseases of economic importance caused by fungi. ( 2009 ) ( 2005 )
Describe the general characteristics (and methods of reproduction ) in fungi. ( 2009 ) ( 2008 )
What are different types of Lichen. give in detail methods of reproduction in lichens . ( 2005 )
Describe in Yeast and Agaricus
a : economic importance
b : scientific names.
c : classification .
d : asexual reproduction ( yeast ) & sexual reproduction ( Agaricus ) ( 2007 )
Cmpare and contrast characteristics of zygomycete with basidiomycetes. ( 2008 )
Describe the causing organisms, symptoms and possible methods to control the following plant diseases:

a : Rust
b : Loose and covered smut
c : Early Blight of Potato
d : Damping Off ( 2006 )
Note on Parasexualilty . ( 2008 ) ( 2006 )


BRYOLOGY

Explain in detail the evolution of gametophyte and sporophyte in bryophytes? ( 2009 )
what are affinities oof bryophytes with Pteridophytes and algae . ( 2008 )
Compare and contrast the structure of the thallus of Riccia with that of Marchantia. ( 2007 )
What do u know abt sporophyte of Riccia . ( 2005 )
Draw a label diagram of the longitudinal section of the capsule of Funaria. ( 2007 ) ( 2006 )
Describe sporophyte of Athoceros and draw labelled diagram . ( 2008 )
Note on sexual reproduction in Bryophytes. ( 2008 )
Write down chaharcteristics of Bryophytes . ( 2005 )


PTERIDOPHYTES and GYMNOSPERMS

Salient features of gymnosperms. Also describe the features in which this group resembles and differs with pteridophytes. ( 2009 )
Evolutionary trends in structure of sporophyte among Pteridophytes. ( 2008 )
" Gingko is a living fossil. comment on the statement. ( 2008 )
Comment on the statement that “Cycas is a living fossil”. ( 2007 )
Describe the distribution and habitats of conifers of Pakistan. ( 2007 )
Describe characteristic features of Saleginella towards seed habit. ( 2008 )
What affinities Gymnosperms have with Angiosperms. ( 2008 )
Life cycle of Equisetum . ( 2005 )
Draw labelled diagram of T.S of stem Equisetum. ( 2008 )
Draw labelled diagram of T.S of leaf of Cycas. ( 2008 ) ( 2006 )
Describe male and female cones of PINUS . ( 2005 )
Draw labelled diagram of leaf of Pinus. ( 2005 )


ANATOMY and EMBRYOLOGY

What do you understand by secondary growth? Describe the process in detail in a typical Dicot Stem. ( 2009 ) ( 2007 ) ( 2006 )
describe in detail cell types in present in Xylem . ( 2008 )
What is pollination and fertilization? Give an account of post fertilization events leading to the development of seeds in angiosperms. ( 2009 )
Write a detailed note on Pollination . ( 2005 )
What do u know about Stellar system . discuss various types of stele . ( 2005 )
Describe different types of stomata present in plants. discuss their fiuctions . ( 2005 ) ( 2006 )
L.S. of Dicot stem. ( 2006 )
Differentiate following :

a ) Heart wood & Sap wood
b ) Proto xylem & meta xylem
c ) Perenchyma & collenchyma
d ) porous wood & non porous wood
e) Apical meristem & Lateral meristem
f ) Taxonomy & Systematics. ( 2005 )

How do you differentiate the following?

Actinostele, plectostele, siphonostele, solenostele and dictiostele. Illustrate your answers with suitable examples. ( 2007 )

Notes on :

_ Nodal anatomy ( 2008 )( 2006 )
_ Laticifers ( 2008 )
_ Sieve tubes. ( 2008 )
_ Abscission layer ( 2006 )
_ procambium ( 2006 )
_ Cork cambium ( 2006 )
_ Medullary bundles ( 2006 )

L.S. of Dicot stem. ( 2006 )



TAXONOMY OF ANGIOSPERMS


Explain the different systems of classification in angiosperms. Also discuss the modern trends in plant taxonomy. ( 2009 ) ( 2006 ) ( 2005 )
What is Bionomial Nomemclature . write rules for nomenclature . describe history of principles of nomenclatue ? ( 2006 ) ( 2008 ) ( 2005 )
Explain the role of anatomy and cytology in relation to taxonomy. ( 2006 )
Describe in detail the characteristics features of the family Fabaceae or Poaceae giving their floral formula and floral diagram. ( 2007 )
Note on Chemo taxonomy ? ( 2005 )
Write names of families of any 5 of following plants :

1 : Cassia fistula. ( 2008 ) ( 2007 )
2 : Trabulus aestivum ( 2008 )
3 : Triticum terisstris ( 2008 )
4 : Habiscus esculantum ( 2008 ) ( 2007 )
5 : Elegnus angustifolia ( 2008 )
6 : Sachaarum officinarum ( 2008 )
7 : Punica granthum ( 2008 )
8 : Pyrus malus. ( 2007 )
9 : Cicer arietinum ( 2007 )
10 : Raphanus sativus ( 2007 )
11 : Lactuca sativa ( 2007 )
12 : Papaver somniferum ( 2007 )
13 : Zey mays ( 2007 )
__________________
Woods are lovely, dark and deep
But i have promises to keep ;
And miles to go before I sleep
And miles to go before I sleep.

**************************
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  #2  
Old Saturday, February 06, 2010
A Journey in Fog's Avatar
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Join Date: Jan 2010
Location: Pakistan
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Post Repeated questions of BOTANY paper II

BOTANY

( PAPER II )



PHYSIOLOGY


• What is photophosphorylation? Describe the cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation ? also draw the figure . ( 2006 ) ( 2009 ) ( 2008 )
• Discuss role of light and transformation of carbon dioxide in PHOTOSYNTHESIS. ( 2005 )
• Write a concise account of the mechanism of transportation and its
significance to plants. ( 2007 )
• Note on OSMOSIS. ( 2005 )
• Enlist the essential plant mineral elements.
Discuss the uptake of phosphorous and its role in plant metabolism ? ( 2009 )
• Discuss the uptake and role of Nitrogen and Phosphorous in green
plants. ( 2006 )
• How would you determine whether a plant nutrient is essential or non
essential?( 2006 )
• Define RESPIRATION . whats meant by
respiratory quotient .
( 2005 )
• What are enzymes? Discuss the chemical
nature and mechanism of enzyme action ?
( 2009 )
• What is PHOTOPERIODISM . Give an
account of photoperiodic induction and its possible mechanism. ( 2009 ) ( 2007 )


Following are short notes of either 5 or 10 marks .

• Note on VERNALIZATION and write its
significance. ( 2009 ) ( 2006 ) ( 2005 )
• What is dormancy and what are methods to
break it ? ( 2005 )
• What are plant growth hormones. ( 2006 ) ( 2008 ) ( 2005 )
• Discuss role of Cytokinins in plants . ( 2006 )
• Discuss role of Auxins in plant growth. ( 2008 )
• Discuss role of ethylene in fruit ripening ? ( 2008 )
• Discuss process of CO₂ fixation in C₃ AND C₄ plants . ( how does the process differs in both kind of plants ) ( 2006 ) ( 2008 )
• Wite note on TCA Cycle . ( 2008 )
• Draw Z Scheme of Photosynthesis . ( 2008 )
• Write note on Micronutrients . ( 2008 )
• Write note on mechanism of Enzyme action 4 . ( 2008 )
• Note Glycolysis . ( 2006 )
• Note on Ammonia assimilation in plants. ( 2006 )


ECOLOGY

• Define ecology, describe applications
of ecology in detail. ( 2007 ) ( 2005 )
• Write an essay on the role of climatic and edaphic factors on plant
growth. ( 2009 )
• Discuss the problem of water logging and salinity. Also suggest important methods for the reclamation of water logged and saline soils ( especially with reference to Pakistani soils ) ( 2006 )
( 2009 ) ( 2005 )

• What is Soil Erosion. What are its causes
and how it can be
controlled ? ( 2005 )
• Discuss the role of water in plants. ( 2009 )
• Explain the concepts and productivity of ecosystems. ( 2009 )
• Describe Plant Succession and discuss plant
succession starting in lake . ( 2008 ) ( 2007 ) ( 2005 )
• Give a detailed account of different xerophytes and their
morphological and physiological adaptation. ( 2007 )
• Enlist the major sources of air, water and soil pollution. ( 2006 )
• Envoirnmental pollution is result of
Urbanization and industrialization.
Comment on it. ( 2005 )

Following are short notes of either 5 or 10 marks.

• Note on Soil Texture. ( 2008 ) ( 2006 )
• Note on Food Chain. ( 2008 )
• Note on Food Web. ( 2005 )
• Note on AIR pollution. ( 2008 )
• Note on Eergy flow in ecosysytem . ( 2008 ) ( 2006 )
• Note on natural resources . { of Pakistan ( 2005 ) } ( 2008 )
• Note on Climate zones . ( 2008 )


CYTOLOGY


• Describe the ultrastructure of chloroplasts ? ( 2009 )
• Differentiate between mitosis and meiosis.
Write a concise account of meiosis and its significance. ( 2007 )
• Significane of MEIOSIS . ( 2009 ) ( 2007 ) ( 2006 )
• Describe
A : ultra structure of MITOCHONDRIA
B : enlist Functions of mitochondria.
C : write about Evolution of mitochondria . ( 2008 )
• Describe structure and function of following cell organelles and draw
diagrams
a : Mitochondria
b : Cell Wall
c : Endoplasmic Reticulum
d : Gogibodies.
e : Ribosomes. ( 2008 )

• What are mutations? Give a critical account
of various types of
mutations. ( 2007 )( 2005 )

GENETICS


• Note on Biochemical nature of hereditary material. ( 2009 )
• Note on Sex linked genes. ( 2009 )
• what do you know about linkage and crossing over.
( 2006 ) ( 2005 )
• Note on Transduction . ( 2009 )
• Note on Genetic code . ( 2006 )
• Note on Polyploidy and write its importance . ( 2006 ) ( 2005 )
• Write the basis of Law of Independent Assortment
and law of Segregation
presented by Gregor Mendle . ( 2008 )
• Wrie the characteristics of model plant organism to study the
genetics . ( 2008 )


EVOLUTION


• Describe in details the different theories of
evolution
. Also discuss
the merits and demerits of these theories. { Which theory you think
explains the best process of evolution and why? } ( 2007 )( 2009 ) ( 2006 )
• What do u know about Theory of Natural Selection . ( 2005 )
• Write a note on adaptive mutation. ( 2007 ) ( 2006 )


P.S : questions have been complied from papers of last 5 yrs.
__________________
Woods are lovely, dark and deep
But i have promises to keep ;
And miles to go before I sleep
And miles to go before I sleep.

**************************

Last edited by Andrew Dufresne; Saturday, February 06, 2010 at 11:26 PM. Reason: Title was different from the inline title
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