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Old Wednesday, June 20, 2012
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Q: Write a note on life and literary works of Taha Hussain.

Introduction:
Taha Hussein (1889- 1973)was one of the most influential Egyptian writers and intellectuals. He was a figurehead for the modernist movement in Egypt and was considered dean of contemporary Arabic literature and a pioneer of enlightenment.

LIFE:
Born in AI-Minya province, Upper Egypt, on November 14th, 1889 he became blind due to illness at a very early age of two years. He went to an Islamic kuttab (a traditional school where children learn to read, write, and recite the Quran), and then was sent to Al-Azhar University, where he was educated in religion and Arabic literature. He studied under Nalino and Javedi in criticism. He also learnt French language. In 1914 he got the degree of Ph.d by writing Zikraa Abi Al-Aalaa.
He traveled to France on scholarship. He studied history and Greek literature and composed thesis on Ibne Khuldoon. He served as Arabic professor in jamia Al-ahlia. In 1950he became education minister.

His Literary Works:
Taha Hussein's works can be divided into three categories:
1) Scientific study of Arabic literature and Islamic history:
In 1962, Taha wrote On Pre-islamic poetry (في الشعر الجاهلي). In this book, he brought some different and opposite ideas and views against rigid and conservative ideas and became criticized by many literary persons namely Mustafa Sadiq Al-Rafie and Mamen Al-Aziz. After some time On Pre-islamic poetry (في الشعر الجاهلي). was banned by Egyption Parliament due to its novel and odd ideas.
A year later, he published a presumably softened version of the book under a different title, Fī al-adab al-jāhilī.
2) Creative literary works with social content combating poverty and ignorance,
He wrote many novels like The Tree of Misery شجرة البؤس ,The Call of the Curlew دعاء الكروان , The True Promise الوعد الحقetc. The true Promise is his famous and monumental novel in which he proved by historical incidents and evidences that Allah’s promise is true.
In his novels, he expresses an astounding sensitivity, insight and compassion in that age for a person with his background. His arguments for justice and equality are supported by deep and honest understanding of Islam. Equally remarkable are his sympathy with his downtrodden compatriots and his understanding of the deepest emotions and thoughts of woman as girl, lover, wife and mother.
3)Political articles:
Taha Hussain became the editor-in-chief of a newspaper “Al-katib-al-Misri” and wrote many political articles which were published in the same newspaper. He also produced “The Sufferers: Stories and Polemics المعذبون فى الأرض” in which he wrote stories of suppression of Egyptions during political demise in Egypt.
He also remained editor of newspaper “ASSIASIAH” . In 1925 he wrote “Qadat ul Fikr”(leaders of thought) and mentioned some western thoughts and behaviors.

Greek Influence on Taha’s Work:
A great influence of Greek culture can be seen on Taha’s works. He issued "Selected Pages" from Greek Dramatic poetry (1920), "The Athenian System" in 1921, and "Leaders of Thought" in 1925. “The Athenian System” was an incomplete attempt at an expose of Greek poets and their works. “Leaders of Thought” was a meticulous translation of one of the most important texts of Greek history of civilization. He deals with the religious impact on thought in the Middle Ages, then moves on to the Modern Ages of multi influences.

His Prominent literary Works:

Among his most prominent works are:
• Wednesday talk (حديث الأربعاء) a collection of essays on literary criticism
• On Pre-islamic poetry (في الشعر الجاهلي)
• The Sufferers: Stories and Polemics المعذبون فى الأرض
• A Man of Letters, a novel أديب
• The Days (3-Part Autobiography) الأيام
• An Egyptian Childhood
• The Future of Culture in Egypt مستقبل الثقافة فى مصر
• The Tree of Misery شجرة البؤس
• The Call of the Curlew دعاء الكروان
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  #2  
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Q:Explain the significance of pre-Islamic poetry and its importance in understanding the language of Quran.

Pre Islamic Poetry:
Pre-Islamic poetry is the master piece of pre Islamic literature. Indeed poetry is considered history of pre Islamic Arabs. In pre Islamic era the best poetry was used to be hanged with the wall of Kaaba. Hammaad –The Rhapsodist has collected some of the Qasaids in the volume named as ― “Mualqaat.
Its Significance:
Pre Islamic era was the age when poetry had reached the apex of its brilliance. The poet was the most respectable person in tribe. To safeguard the honor and respect of the tribe, the poets were always at the forefront.
Ahmad Hassan’s view:
Ahmed Hassan Zyat in his book ―Tarik h Adab Arabi has mentioned that ― “Whenever there emerged a poet in a tribe, it was taken as a blessing of Providence. The appearance was celebrated as the people of other tribe used to congratulate the tribe in which the poet was emerged”.
Clement Huart’s view:
Clement Huart in his book ―Literary History of Arabs has mentioned that “there were many poets the evidence of whom was the final say in order to decide to encamp or decamp a certain place. The booty which was collected in fights with other tribes was distributed by no person other than the poet.”
Poetry as source of depiction of pre Islamic conditions:
Another significance of pre Islamic poetry is that it depicts the social, political, cultural and moral condition of the society of Arabs before the emergence of Islam. Through this poetry of Dour-e-Jahlia, we know that Arabs were racially prejudiced without any central government or authority. The ordinary Arab out of the love for his tribe did not leave any stone unturned.
Relevance to Quran:
The poetry was given so much importance that Allah bestowed on the Holy Prophet(PBUH) His miracle in the form of a lucid and eloquent Holy Quran. It is an established fact that the miracle bestowed by Allah to different Prophets were according to the art, which was at its apex in that era. Poetry was most significant thing in the pre Islamic era. So Quran is the miracle of Allah, to show and answer the eloquent and lucid poets of Arabs.

Importance of Pre Islamic Poetry In Understanding Holy Quran

Socio Economic Culture:
The interpretation of Holy Quran sometimes require a peep into the socio economic setup of that era and the poetry of that era is very good depiction and manifestation of the socio economic circumstances of that time. So, poetry was consulted to know thecustoms and traditions of that era.
Understanding of Ghraib:
There are many strange words or Gharaib in the Holy Quran which were alien to Arabs because these were no more in use in there day to day life. However these words were used by the poets in their poetry. So, in order to understand these Gharaibs , the interpreters and Mufasareen used to consult the pre Islamicpoetry. To understand Waduhaa the Mufasareen sought help from Pre Islamic poetry.
Explanation of Ayats:
Hazrat Abdullah bin Abbas was asked to explain some Ayats of the Holy Quran, He made allusion to the pre Islamic poetry to make it comprehendable for the people who asked him to explain them.
Source to understand Grammar:
The pr Islamic poetry was the master piece in the Arabic literature therefore this poetry provided as being a source for the grammar and it was used as a guideline.
Source to know the superiority of Quran:
Pre Islamic poetry also shows when it is compared with the Holy Quran that Holy Quran is the best of the lot and superior in its style, eloquence and lucidity than the pre Islamic poetry.
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Q: Write a note on modern trend in Arabic literature.

How and when Arabic literature was revived?
Arabic literature which was facing its downfall for the last five centuries was revived in Egypt. After the invasion of Napoleon, Arabs especially Egypt came in direct contact with French or west. Now all the trends which were introduced in Arabic literature were determined by this very fact. This revival of Arabic literature is called “Al-Nahdat Al-Adab” . During the 20th century the Arabic literature was affected by the political turmoil and upheavals which were taking place in the Arab world. A cursory look at the trends in all genres will make the situation and picture more clearly to us.
1-Poetry:-
Poetry was an area in which the new trends were emerged during 20th century. Overall these are four main groups of poet in modern era of Arabic poetry.
1-Neo–Classical
2-Pre–Romantic
3-Romantic
4-Committed Poets
First part of 20th century witnessed that most of the poets wrote romantic poetry. Poetry of Adb-e-Mehjar was part of it. Jabran, Abu Alia Mazi, Mikhail Naemia etc. were from famous Mehjari poats.
Ibrahim Naji, Khalil Matran and Ahmad Zaki Abu Shadi were some other poets of romantic group of poets.
However, after world war-I, the political situation took new turn. The forceful creation of Israel was a sort of injury inflected on the heart of Arabs by the western world. Romantic poetry lost its charm and was replaced by the committed poetry. Now it was regarded necessary that there should be an objective or commitment of the poetry. No poetry can be said as according to the circumstances and charm full until an objective is not tried to achieve. Some poets resort to write for the favor of Nationalism. Mahmood Dervaish, who got unmatchable fame, was a ‘Palestinian Poet’ who wrote for the propagation of Nationalism. Another innovation was the introduction of ‘Free Verse’ by the poet named Badr Shakir Al-Sayab.
2-Modern Arabic Novel In 20thCentury:-
Modern novel or novel of 20th century also witnessed two trends. These trends are as following:
1- Neoclassical movement to revive the old traditions of past. Maqama and Thousand and One Night is an example.
2- Modern movement which emphasized on imitating the French novel.

Notable novel writers include:
1-Jurji Zaidan
2-Jabran
3-Mekhail Naemia
4-Najib Mehfooz.
Najib Mehfooz, from Egypt got a Nobel Prize in literature in 1988.

3-Drama In 20th Century:-
Though Drama in Modern era was started to be written in 19th century, it took major trends in 20th century by getting influenced by the French Drama. Art of tragedy was introduced in Arabic Literature. Tofique Al Hakim is one of the most famous Drama writers of his times. He wrote “Pyjmalion” in which he discussed backwardness of Arabs. His dramas ‘seven sleepers’ and epilogue of ― ‘One Thousand and one Night’ became very famous.

Some New Topics in Arabic Literature:


With new trends in Arabic Literature, new topics began to be discussed in prose and poetry. These new trends were according to the atmosphere of different countries. Some new trends are:
• Patriotism
• Nationalism
• Opposition of Imperialism
• Democracy
• Liberal thoughts
• Voice of public
• Depiction of wars
• Slogan of universal peace
• Need of renaissance
• Emphasis on basic rights
• Love and its basic demands
• Literature free from columns and classical regulations
• Political, economic and geographical description of regions
In modern era every attempt was taken to adorn Arabic literature with accordance of needs and trends in modern and completely changed world.
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Q: Write comprehensive note on Quran, its miracles, language with special influence on the subsequent literature.

Quran---a Heavenly revealed Book:
The Holy Quran is last heavenly revealed book. It is in pure Arabic language. It can be divided in two main parts; one is Makki and second is Madni. Most of the Mkki surahs consist of fundamental beliefs of Islam like Tauheed, Resalat, life hereafter etc. On the other hand Madnio surahs are consisting of orders relating to ethics, social life and Islamic government.

Miracles of Holy Quran:-

1- Inimitable:-
The Holy Quran was revealed in an era when the Arabian Peninsula was full of the lucid and eloquent poets. But Quran as it was ‘kalam’ of Rehman was superior to the poetic work of the poets. Quran challenges everybody to bring even a very small verse in competition to Quran.
2-Quran–Safeguarded by Allah Almighty:-
Even after 1400 years time, the Holy Quran is safeguarded and intact. This is indeed a marvelous miracle of the Holy Quran that Allah Almighty has safeguarded this book by employing ‘His Wisdom’. Even a minute change can not occur in this Holy Book, this indeed is the blessing and miracle of Allah.
3-Impact of Quran For The Who Understand It Is Miraculous:-
The Holy Quran‘s lucidity made it even more effective for the people who try to
understand it. When Labid bin Rabia tried to complete (in poetic sense, he tried to add another stanza) Sura-al-kusar but could not do so. He understood that this cannot be the kalam of a man. So, he wrote ‘This is not written by any man‘ and embraced Islam.
4-Quran neither A verse nor A Prose:-
Another miracle is that Quran has been revealed in such a way that it looks like neither a prose nor like a verse, as depicted by Dr. Taha Hussain. It flips qasidah, totally, when Sura Rehman is revealed and understood. All the magnificence shows that Quran is also a miracle in its context and style.

Impact of Quran on Subsequent Literature:
Impact of Holy Quran on the subsequent literature can be enunciated by mentioning following points.
1-Impact on language
2-Impact on prose
3-Impact on creating new fields of knowledge
4-Introduction of new narrative style
1-Impact on Language:-
The Holy Quran introduced new words in it e.g.
Al Qayam
Al Rakuh
Al Sajood

Ghraibs were used by Quran. Imam Raghib Asfahani has counted many Ghraibs which were mentioned in the Holy Quran. These Ghraibs were no more use of the ordinary Arab people.
2-Impact on Prose:-
As the Holy Quran was revealed and preached by the Holy Prophet (PBUH), soon it spread in far off areas which came under the sway of Muslims. Their expenses were recorded by the revenue board of the Caliphate.
Secondly, the letters written by the Holy Prophet (PBUH) ‘Maktubat e Nabvi’ and ‘Khutbat e Nabvi’ followed a specific style which was propagated in Islamic Caliphate.

3-New Fields of knowledge:-

After the revelation of the Holy Quran, it was propagated to the far off areas. Non Arabic people committed blunders while pronouncing the Holy Quran. This necessitated the introduction of new fields of knowledge in order to understand Holy Quran.
The new fields e.g.
Ilm e lughat
Ilm e Fiqah
Sarf e Nahv
Istanbat
Were introduced by the Muslims.
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Q: Discuss the contribution of Al Jahiz in various fields of literature.

Introduction:-

His full name was ‘Abu Usman Umro Bin Behr Al-Jahiz, born in Bsara. He was a famous Arab scholar, believed to have been an Afro-Arab of East African descent. He was an Arabic prose writer and author of works on Arabic Literature, biology, zoology, history early Islamic philosophy, Islamic psychology etc.
He spent a life of 100 years where he saw many ups and downs yet he was the most glaring personality of Arabic literature as he has been designated the title of ‘Imam ul Adab’ in a book of Al Qairwani. The name of that book is ‘Al Umda’

Contribution:
He contributed a lot in Arabic literature. Although the number of works he produced during his lifetime range in supposed number from one hundred and forty to three hundred and fifty, Al-Jahiz certainly wrote enough to change what was acceptable to write about in Arabic literature from the ancient themes of the nomadic life, to any topic that inquiring minds care to explore on the written page.
Not only did the scholarly works of Al-Jahiz change the very face of Arabic literature, but they also paved the way for scientific discoveries that were fleshed out more than a thousand years after his death, in the work of Charles Darwin and other Evolutionary Biologists of the nineteenth century, a world away in Europe.
Books:
Some say he wrote one hundred and forty works, others cite the number three hundred as an estimated figure, and still others say that the works cannot ever be numbered since so many have been lost during the twelve hundred years since his era. His books have been praised by ‘Ibn Al Amid’ in these words “ the books of jahiz teach us knowledge and duty” .One such undeniable fact is the overwhelming prolificness that characterizes Al-Jahiz’s remarkable body of contributions to Arabic Literature. Some of his books are given as under:
I – kitab al Haivan (About animals):
The Kitab ul Haiwan is an encyclopedia of seven volumes of anecdotes, poetic descriptions and proverbs describing over 350 varieties of animals. It is considered as the most important work of Al-Jahiz.
II – Kitab al Bukhala(book of Misers):
It is a collection of stories about greedy. Humorous and satirical, it is the best example of Al-Jahiz’s prose style. It is an insightful study of human psychology.

III – Kitab al Biyan wal tbeen (Arabic culture and literature):
Kitab al Biyan wal tbeen is one of his last works in which he approached various subjects such as epiphanies, rhetorical speeches, sectarian leaders, princes as well as giving a sardonic treatment to foolish and crazy people. This book is considered one of the earliest works in Arabic literary theory and literary criticism.
Translator:
He was a prolific intellectual and translator. He translated the works of Persian and Greece in Arabic.
Leader in Prose:
When we see the second group of prose writers, without any doubt and dispute, Jahiz was the leader of this group.
Literary tradition:
Another contribution of Al Jahiz is that he was the first who started to pen down the literary tradition in Abbasid era. This was done by him because of the reason that many non Arabic crept in because of the territorial expansion. Mistakes and flaws in the Arabic of non indigenous people were avoided by Al Jahiz by ensuring what was pure Arabic work.
Conclusion:
It can be seen from the long life of al-Jahiz, that he was no doubt the product of the Golden age of Abbasid rule which, as Nicholson says, was marked by a great intellectual development. Al-Jahiz has long been a source of literary and intellectual inspiration for the generations of Arab writers that have followed in his wake.
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Q: Discuss salient features of pre Islamic poetry with special reference to the literary importance of Al-Muallaqat.
________________________________________
Introduction:
Pre Islamic era, known as “Dour-e-Jahlia” in other words it is the era of highly brilliant activities in poetic field. Many a notable poets can be traced back to that era. The poet enjoyed an unmatchable fame and respect in this era. As depicted by F I Malik in his book “Muqalat”’
“Whenever a poet used to emerge on the scene in any tribe, the people considered it the blessing of Allah Almighty as he was the defender and leader of the tribe in all the circumstances to come.”

Salient features:
Pre-Islamic poetry is the master piece of pre-Islamic literature. Al-Muallaqat is the work (poetic) compiled by “Hammad Al- Rawya.” This poetry is consisted of Qasaids, long poems of the poet of pre Islamic era. These are known as “Muallaqat” as it indicates these qasaids were hanged on the wall of Ka’abah.
Pre-Islamic poetry has many salient features. Some of them are as under:
1-Weeping:
There were great stories of love and courtship in pre-Islamic era. The poets were very keen in describing there loves. Sometimes they used to weep at the remembrance of separation of their beloveds and they began to weep bitterly. As Imra ul Qais said:
“Qifa nbki…………………fahoumal”

2-Wisdom:
Pre-Islamic poetry yields the quality of wisdom. There are many sayings of wisdom in pre-Islamic poetry. Zuhair bin Abi Salma can be refered in this regard. As he said:
“Wa man yaja’lil maroof…………….wa yandim”

3-Depiction of Nature:
Nature depiction is also the quality of pre-Islamic literature. The poets were in habit of depicting natural scenes. They depicted these scenes so artfully that a man could visualize the original thing that was depicted by the poet. As Imra ul Qais said:
“Wa qadi ghtadi………….min ale”

4-Romance:
Romance was a very important feature of pre-Islamic poetry. The poets were usually stuck by the fire of love and sexual disharmonies. So they used to describe these features in poetry. As Imra ul Qais said:
“Iza qamata………..alqaranful”

5-Great Observation:
Pre-Islamic poetry also consisted with great, true and keen observations. The poets were very keen observers and their descriptions were true and based on reality. As Labeed said:
“Ara-l-aisha……………yanfade”

6-Bravery:
Events of bravery were in great abundance in pre-Islamic era. The poets as well as other people used to consider life just a game and their wistful desires were only to win the game. As Antar Bin Shadad said:
“Fashakaktu……………bimuharram”

7-Pride:
Pride is also one of the prominent salient features of pre-Islamic poetry. The poets used to relate their events of bravery to enhance their sense of dignity. Umar bin Kulsoom was famous in this art. As he said:
“Ala la yajhalan………….aljahileena”

8-Eulogy:
Pre-Islamic poetry is remarkable for its depiction of Eulogy. The poets were in habit of praising kings. As Labeed bin Rabee composed a verse in the praise of Allah:
“Alaa kulla sha’een ma khla allah -----batloon wa kullu na’eemin la mahalata zaa’elu”.

Conclusion:
Pre-Islamic poetry was simple. It was void and empty from any philosophical thoughts. The poets were in habit of using simple lines to express their views. And the most important thing of pre-Islamic poetry is that it was composed and extracted from the atmosphere.
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dear is there any perfect book for Arabic subject and can you help me in this regard as I have no back ground of arabic.
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Me too dont have any background of arabic.

Well, there are some books that are helpful but as per my knowledge no book covers the whole syllabus.
i am going to prepare all the notes but u will have to wait bcoz i will make and post here after my pms exams.
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Faiza Dar View Post
Me too dont have any background of arabic.

Well, there are some books that are helpful but as per my knowledge no book covers the whole syllabus.
i am going to prepare all the notes but u will have to wait bcoz i will make and post here after my pms exams.
Are you attempting it in urdu or in english??
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in english
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Khud kaisi hon kabhi bhool kr b na socha
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