Sunday, April 05, 2020
02:37 PM (GMT +5)

Go Back   CSS Forums > CSS Optional subjects > Group VII > Journalism & Mass Communication

Journalism & Mass Communication Notes and Topics on Journalism

Reply Share Thread: Submit Thread to Facebook Facebook     Submit Thread to Twitter Twitter     Submit Thread to Google+ Google+    
LinkBack Thread Tools Search this Thread
Old Saturday, March 21, 2015
Senior Member
Join Date: Nov 2014
Location: Hyderabad
Posts: 159
Thanks: 66
Thanked 133 Times in 77 Posts
SuperNova is on a distinguished road
Default Journalism Notes

Role of Press in the Pakistan Movement

The importance of Press in an independent society cannot be underestimated.

The journalists and the Press play a significant role especially during the freedom movements and national struggle.

The Press is moreover A powerful agent influencing public opinion and mustering support for public or political movement.

In 1858, Queen Victoria declared India as a colony and the Police Act of 1861 was introduced for the people of India as the slaves of the colony.

This created a sense of inferiority among the people and they got the idea that they are under a constant suppression.

Consequently, the tone and style of Muslims journalism, after the War of 1857, remained soft, and the attitude compromising.

Most of the newspapers were busy in projecting the western arts and sciences and ways of life.

There were some newspapers, however, which continued criticising the policies of the government and expressed their own point of view about the affairs of the country.

Some newspapers movingly portrayed the picture of Muslim suffering under the British rule.
They also tried to arouse and develop political and national consciousness amongst the Muslims.

Credit goes to the great leaders Sir Syed Ahmad Khan for publishing the periodicals Scientific Society and Tahzibul-Akhlaq to educate the Muslims and to train them for the struggle for survival.

Tahzib-ul-Akhlaq was monthly magazine .

These magazines were the torch bearers of his movement and representative of his policies.
Through these, Sir Syed Ahmad Khan wanted to apprise the government of the problems and difficulties of the Indian and the same time

He wished to create political consciousness amongst his countrymen and introduce to them the new system of government.

Besides, he also aimed at giving a new line of thought and action to the Muslim.

It is interesting to note that in the beginning, Sir Syed’s ideas could not attract to common Muslims.

But slowly and gradually their influence penetrated into a limited receptive circle.
The Tahzibul-Akhlaq exhorted the Muslims to accept that was good and attractive in European norms and way of life.

In the mean while Sir Syed Ahmed Khan started reformation and he assured the people that suppression could be ended by just getting modern education and Muslims were not in a position to afford any conflict with the rulers.

On the other hand, he assured Englishmen that Muslims were not only responsible for revolt but it was done by all the natives collectively so to target Muslims was not the best idea.

Sir Syed was not a professional journalist but he used print media to educate people.

Some contemporary newspapers also tried to follow in the footsteps of the Tahzibul-Akhlaq.

Agra Akhbar was the most dauntless amongst them which tried to kindle the fire of freedom in the garb of a newspaper.

The contemporary newspapers like Dabdaba-i-Sikandari and Manshur-i-Muhammadi were notable for countering propaganda of the Christian missionaries in the subcontinent.

Some newspapers were keeping a regular touch with the world of Islam and preached the of Muslims brotherhood.

Abdul Halim Sharar (Muhazzab in 1890)

After Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, the outstanding person who used the press as a source of propagating his ideas was Abdul Halim Sharar.

He tried to awaken the Muslims out of Political lethargy through his journals.

His distinguished publication in this respect was Muhazzab Abdul Halim Sharar was a strong exponent of a separate political entity of the Indian Muslims and wanted to keep away from the Congress.

In an editorial of Muhazzab in 1890, he presented in idea of the division of the sub-continent which was, in his opinion, the only solution of Hindu-Muslim problem.

It was a novel idea and was presented in the Indian press for the first time.

The twentieth century press concentrated on the politics of the country.
The newspapers and journals represented the sentiments and thoughts of the people during the stormy period of political movements and disturbances in the country.

In the beginning of the 20th century. The Comrade of Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar, Al-Hilal of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad and Zamindar of Maulana Zafar Ali Khan provided an outlet for the Muslim sentiments

During the stormy days of Khilafat Movement these journals and newspapers took the Indian Muslim by storm and stirred the Indian politics.

• Despite, the punishments Muslims continued to work for presented and adopted a bold stance in print media.

• Maulana Zafar Ali Khan, Maulana Muhammad Ali Johar and Maulana Hasrat Mohani were the famous names of that era.

• These people never cared about the ferocious laws of British Government and they continued their work.

• Zimindar that was published by Maulana Zafar Khan faced several time bans but it continued to print and gained much popularity among people.

This brave stance of Journalism in the history of Print Media of Sub-continent is knows as Militant Journalism.

Maulana Muhammad ali Jauhar published two newspapers, the Comrade in English and Hamdard in Urdu.

The Comrade was started on January 1, 1911, from Calcutta.

“Maulana Muhammad Ali had the pen of Macaulay, the tongue of a Burke and heart of Napolean”.

He had “marvellous command over the English language.

Thus, Maulana Muhammad ali Jauhar, with the help of a talented band of youngmen, gave Muslim India the best weekly it ever had.
From the date of its first appearance, the Comrade was looked upon as the mouthpiece of the grievances of the Muslims and voice of their aspiration.

“Throughout its existence. The Comrade rendered yeoman service to the cause of socio-economic and political advancement of the Muslims of Indian in particular, and to the cause of India in general, by attacking the anti-Indian attitude both of the bureaucracy and of the British Government.

” The Comrade played an important role in formulating the political policy of Muslim India.

The Comrade did not start with any bitterness towards the British Government, but certain event had taken place, to wit, he annulment of the partition of Bengal and political tension generated by the Tripoli and Balkan Wars which affected it attitude.

Before long, there were a few other causes which fed the fires of hatred between the rulers and the Indian Muslims.

Controversy about the Muslim University was one; and before it died down.

There was a serious trouble at Cawnpur after the demolition of the portion of a mosque.

All these event went a long way to change the attitude of The Comrade towards the Government.

When the first world war started, Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar in an editorial in The Comrade, under the caption, “Choice of the Turks”, supported the cause of Turkey in the Balkan war.

The editorial was indigestible to the British rulers and eventually the security of The Comrade and its Urdu counterpart Hamdard was declared forfeited to the Government and Ali Brothers were interned under the Defence of India ordinance.

The Hamdard also earned a great reputation in Urdu medium newspapers and had a respectable place in the Indian press, but it could not continue for a long time.

Al-Hilal by Maulana Abul Kalam Azad.

Al-Hilal was founded, edited and published by Maulana Abul Kalam Azad.
Its first issue appeared on 13 July 1912, and was well-timed in the contemporary political atmosphere.
The annulment of the partition of Bengal had compelled the Muslims to abandon the policy of political quietism and reliance on the government.

Al-Hilal generally published serious articles and religious literature.
A substantial portion of al-Hilal was devoted to photographs and article on Turkey.
The Muslim leaders differed with political vies of Azad.
He was not in favour of a separate platform for the Indian Muslims.
He as against the division of India and opposed to be creation of Pakistan. The period of Azad’s career as a journalist came to an end after three and half years.
In 1914, the First World War started, and on account of certain pro-German articles the security of al-Hilal was forfeited, and it was asked to deposit another sum of Rs. 10,000 which brought its publication to an end.
Although its political views were controversial yet its contribution in the field of religion was remarkable.
Maulana Azad started another weekly, Al-Bilagh.
This also came to an end in 1916 when the Maulana was externed from Bengal.


The most important Urdu newspaper published from Lahore was the Zamindar.
It was edited by Maulana Zafar Ali Khan.

He was an eminent scholar who command mastery on prose and poetry.
His writings filled the hearts of the Muslim community with religious enthusiasm and a devotion to an independent homeland.

Zamindar, in fact, was symbol of the idea of Pakistan and it waged a fierce battle against Hindu domination and British imperialism.

Zamindar strongly supported the League’s demand for Pakistan and its objectives.

It was considered to be a “naked sword” for the Hindu and the British.

Zamindar succeeded to bring about a revolution among the Muslim masses add motivated them to achieve their cherished goal-Pakistan.

Muslim Press in 1940s

Towards the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century the Hindu newspapers, novels and other writings were concentrating on Hindu revivalism and fanning the flames of Hindu-Muslim antagonism.

These activities of Hindu press provoked the Muslims.

With the advent of the Congress rule in various provinces under Government of India Act 1935, they had sustained atrocious Congress injustice, which was later catalogued in the Pirpur Report.

The comments of the Pirpur Report on the congress oppression, even in more lurid and gruesome details, were published in the Dawn and Manshoor under a series of articles captioned
‘It Shall Never Happen Again’.

“They described how the Muslims were forbidden from eating beef, their prayer meetings were disturbed and sometimes attacked and desecrated, and how Muslims suffered a much heavier toll of life and property in the riots that took place during the two and half years of Congress administration”.
There was a marked change from appeasement to resistance in the Muslim mood henceforth,

which could be seen in the Muslim newspapers, Confident defiance in the attitude of Bengali Muslims was growing into an open challenge.

Quaid-e-Azam after Pakistan Resolution paid special attention to print media and he published Dawn from Delhi that was later shifted to Karachi after communal violence.

• Similarly the Urdu daily ‘Manshoor’ and weekly ‘Aaj- Kal’ were printed in the same age.

• In the same era Jang from Delhi started to publish and Nawa-i-Waqat and ‘Inqalab’ from Lahore.

• In 1937, Progressive Papers Ltd started Pakistan Times in Lahore by Mian Iftikhar.

• All these above newspapers played a vital role in awakening people for the struggle of Pakistan as a homeland where Muslims can save themselves from cultural eclipse of the dominating Hindu majority.

Nawa-i-Waqt by Hameed Nizami

It is the name of a powerful and prestigious daily newspaper in Urdu which played a dynamic role in the Pakistan Movement.

The Nawa-i-Waqt had a character of its own.

The first issue was dated 29 March 1940.

The Muslim press in the Punjab, with the exception of the daily Ehsan, was under the firm control of the Unionist Party.

The British and Hindu Press had launched a campaign of malicious propaganda against the Muslims community and its leadership.

The Nawa-i-Waqt very successfully defused all these baseless fabrications, and Hameed Nizami had to work immensely hard on this front.
Hameed Nizami, the young and daring journalist, with his powerful pen and style tackled the situation valiantly.

He wrote very argumentative and lucid prose which instantly convinced the readers and cast a great impact on their views.
It was the mouthpiece of the younger generations which had been inspired by Iqbal:

for all practical purpose it was the organ of the Muslim League.

It published poems and article in support of the demand for Pakistan and became a powerful factor in forming public opinion in the Punjab”.

The role of Nawa-i-Waqt and its editor Hameed Nzami was no doubt without parallel as it gave voice to the Muslim community which was formerly fighting for rights, guarantees and safeguards in united India.


The daily Dawn was published from Delhi.

It was founded by the Quaid-i-Azam to meet the dire need of an English daily which could act as a powerful organ of the League as

“the Hindu press had not left any gun in its armoury unfired at the Muslims”.

It was edited by Altaf Hussain who was a prolific writer.

Dawn, which had captured, substantial Muslim readership throughout the north and the adjoining Muslim areas,

began to grow stronger and stronger with he passage of each month.

There was no looking back until partition compelled a shift from Daryaganj, old Delhi, to Karachi.

But as we all know, before the machinery and records could be brought over, the office and printing press of Dawn were burnt and destroyed by Hindu and Sikh hooligans.

So what was actually brought over were the name Dawn, the editor, Altaf Hussain, a cheque book of an Indian bank at Delhi where the funds of Dawn lay frozen”.

The other centres of Muslim journalism included Sindh, the N.W.F.P. and Baluchistan, al-Wahid was published in Sindh.

In the N.W.F.P., a good number of journalists made an excellent contribution to strengthen the Pakistan Movement.

The weekly al-Islam was published from Queetta. It was founded by Qazi Muhammad Isa and edited by Maulana Abdul Karim who was a well known religious scholar.

The objective of al-Islam was to apprise the Muslim of Baluchistan of the message of Muslim League.

Another weekly newspapers Tanzim was also published from Queeta under the patronage of Sardar Mir Ja’far Khan Jmali.

The Muslim Press and newspapers were, no doubt, quite alert and active on their respective fronts.

They were engaged in a continuous fierce battle against the League’s opponents and successfully refuted their subtle and malicious propaganda against her leadership.

They took the message of the League to every nook and corner of the subcontinent; explained the rationale of Pakistan to the Muslim masses and mustered their support for Pakistan.

Thus, through their untiring efforts they made the task of the Quaid-i-Azam easier and the creation of Pakistan inevitable.Thus, the Muslim press assumed a new tone and mood.

It helped the Muslim masses to form their own opinion on national and international issues. Although the British Government tried her best to repress and strangulate the Muslim press but it succeeded to establish its prestige and associated itself with the desire and aspiration of the Muslim community.

The Muslim press projected and protected the Muslim community.

The Muslim press projected and protected the Muslim cause very effectively.

“The Muslim League had built up a very strong press, particularly in Urdu.
Delhi had Anjam, Jang and Manshoor in Urdu, and Dawn in English, Lahore produced Inqilab, Nawa-i-Waqt,, and Zamindar in Urdu. Earlier,

Lucknow had its Hamdam.
Calcutta produced Asr-i-Jadid in Urdu, Azad Bengali and Star of India in English.

There were many besides these prominent newspapers.”
Reply With Quote
The Following 2 Users Say Thank You to SuperNova For This Useful Post:
Fahad Qaiser (Tuesday, September 04, 2018), ghulam rasool shah (Saturday, March 21, 2015)
Old Saturday, March 21, 2015
Senior Member
Join Date: Nov 2014
Location: Hyderabad
Posts: 159
Thanks: 66
Thanked 133 Times in 77 Posts
SuperNova is on a distinguished road
Default Journalism



Journalism is a profession of writing for newspaper and magazines.
Two important works are done:

1. collection of news
2. dissemination of information
Journalist: One who is attached to the profession of journalism is called journalist.

Journalism is gathering, processing, and dissemination of news and information related to the news to an audience.
The word applies to both the method of inquiring for news and the literary style which is used to disseminate it.

In a democratic society, however, access to free information plays a central role in creating a system of checks and balance, and in distributing power equally amongst governments, businesses, individuals, and other social entities.

Access to verifiable information gathered by independent media sources, which adhere to journalistic standards, can also be of service to ordinary citizens.

Importance of Journalism:

Journalism is an import profession. Its importance can not be denied in modern world. It is universally acknowledged that pen is mightier than sword. Journalism is highly important because

1. It protects society from aggression.
2. It becomes the voice of society and don’t let any one to exploit it.
3. It protects human rights.
4. It serves a s mirror and project the images of politician and leaders etc.
5. It challenges act of autocracy and dictatorship
6. World has become global village, people stay connected through mass media around the world.

Consumers of journalism:

1. Public masses
2. government
3. NGO’s
4. Organizations
5. youngsters
6. professionals
7. businessman
8. students etc

Functions of journalism:

following are the functions of journalism
1. Provide information
2. Influence people through opinions, advertisements, editorials etc.
3. Provide entertainment
4. Advertisement takes place
5. Educational function ( provide education to people on various topics)
6. Provide latest NEWS
7. Image building role ( it build image of a person as good or bad)
8. Defend propagandas of anti-state elements.
9. Builds public opinion.

The elements of journalism

According to The Elements of Journalism, a book by Bill Kovach and Tom Rosenstiel, there are nine elements of journalism [1]. In order for a journalist to fulfill their duty of providing the people with the information, they need to be free and self-governing. They must follow these guidelines:
1. Journalism's first obligation is to the truth.
2. Its first loyalty is to the citizens.
3. Its essence is discipline of verification.
4. Its practitioners must maintain an independence from those they cover.
5. It must serve as an independent monitor of power.
6. It must provide a forum for public criticism and compromise.
7. It must strive to make the significant interesting, and relevant.
8. It must keep the news comprehensive and proportional.
9. Its practitioners must be allowed to exercise their personal conscience.
10. Its the rights and responsibilities of citizens.
In the April 2007 edition of the book [2], they added the last element, the rights and responsibilities of citizens to make it a total of ten elements of journalism.

Guiding principles of Journalism:
Following are the guiding principles of journalism.
1. Journalist should always adopt rationale approach.
2. He should be neutral and impartial.
3. He should have a broad vision for journalism.
4. Journalist should remain updated with current events.
5. He should be scientific in his approach.
6. He should be professionally trained.
7. Journalist should be a patriot, familiar with norm, culture and taboos of society.
8. He should perform his duties in highest public interest.

Difference between journalism and mass communication

Journalism is about news reading, reporting and writing.

Journalism is a profession of reporting,editing,photographing and presenting news.

Main component of Journalism is to Communicate the data/information.that is called Communication in Journalism.

Though Mass Communication is a part of the profession journalism,Yet In modern terminology,journalism is called Mass Communication.

Because in Mass communication,Modern equipments are used to broadcast news.

Mass Communication is for large group of audience.

Mass communication is a broader term which includes also Journalism, Advertisement, Anchoring,Radio, Television, Newspaper, magazines.
Reply With Quote
The Following User Says Thank You to SuperNova For This Useful Post:
ghulam rasool shah (Saturday, March 21, 2015)
Old Saturday, March 21, 2015
Senior Member
Join Date: Nov 2014
Location: Hyderabad
Posts: 159
Thanks: 66
Thanked 133 Times in 77 Posts
SuperNova is on a distinguished road
Default Mass communication


Sending message to a large number of audience using technology is known as mass communication

Communication – sending of a message from one person to another, in simplest terms - has been one of the oldest characteristics of human life.

Basic Concepts of Communication
Well, the word communication has its origin in the Latin word COMMUNIS which stands for common or to create commonness with the people around you.

This is possible when you share your feelings and ideas with others.

According to commonly used definition,
communication is transfer of message from sender to receiver through a channel.

A process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols,signs or behaviours.

Elements of communication

Source: "information source", which "produces a message or sequence of messages to be communicated to the receiving terminal.

Sender: who encodes or "transmitter", which "operates on the message in some way to produce a signal
suitable for transmission over the channel

Channel: the channel is "merely the medium used to transmit the signal from transmitter to receiver.

Receiver: who decodes or the receiver "performs the inverse operation of that done by the transmitter,
reconstructing the message from the signal.

Destination: the destination is "the person (or thing) for whom the message is intended".

Message: The message is a verbal, written, recorded, or visual form to the recipient

Entropic elements, positive and negative

Essentials for Effective communication

Effective Message:short precise and concise.
Constructed according to socio economic background.
Suitable medium or channel.
Gaining the audience.
Holding the audience .
Influencing the audience.
Frame of reference Age, sex, education, financial position,
race, taste, religion, culture,tradition, attitude .
Personality needs.

Types of Communication (Social point of view)

1. Intra-personal :It is the basis of all other forms of human communication. within an individual our eyes and ear communication to our brain

2. Inter-personal : Face to Face communication

3. Extra Personal Communication: in this we share our communication with other life forms i.e: animals and plants.

4. Mass communication

Barriers of Communication

Language / Semantic barriers.
Cultural barrier .
Meaning of meaning .
Blind imitation / Stereotype thinking.
Restricted / Limited experience .

Effective Communication:
Communication can be considered to be effective when the receiver understands the message sent by the sender and gives a feedback to the sender.

Effective communication also ensures that the message sent by the sender is not distorted in any manner while it is transmitted.

The Communication Process
The goal of communication is to convey information—and the understanding of that information—from one person or group to another person or group.
This communication process is divided into three basic components:
A sender transmits a message through a channel to the receiver.
(Figure shows a more elaborate model.)
The sender first develops an idea,
which is composed into a message and then
transmitted to the other party,
who interprets the message and receives meaning.

The two-way communication process

In an effective two-way communication the sender (or source):
• encodes the message into a form the receiver will understand
• relays the message via an appropriate channel.
The receiver is then able to:
• access the message
• decode the message.
The receiver in turn becomes the sender,
providing an appropriate response,
and the process continues until the communication concludes.

At any time in the process, a lack of response or an inappropriate response would alert the sender to a problem with the communication. The sender would then need to encode the message differently, or use a different channel to ensure that the communication is received and understood.

Effective communication is a continuous and cyclic process/procedure

1. We are constantly decoding signs from our environment.
2. Communication has no starting and end point.
3. It passes through various sources but changed by the interpretation, habits, abilities and capabilities of each source.

All of us communicate with a purpose.
It may be to inform, share an idea, persuade or entertain.

Basic functions of mass communication can be divided into broad three classes: informing, persuading and entertaining.
Informing /Education : The most important function of mass communication is dissemination of information to the public primary through news media-electronic and print.
about new events, products, changes in policies, ideas, philosophies and so forth.

Interpretation function is closely related with the surveillance function.
It prevents undesirable consequences of communication.

Now-a-days, mass communicators have realized their responsibility to evaluate and interpret events for the reader.
They select the important news and issues for the attention of the people and provide information on the ultimate meaning and significance of these events.

the editorial pages of newspapers and magazines interpret the event,
comment or opine on it so that the reader gains an added perspective on the event.

Transmission of Values: (socialization function)

Our society is portrayed in the mass media and by seeing, watching or reading this people learn which are the important values.

Persuading: Persuasion is another function of mass media.

Because of its having persuasive potential, both electronic and print media are used for advertising products, services, business, charities, or for political campaign.

Entertaining: Entertainment is the most common function of mass communication.
include comics, crossword puzzles and the like. Televisions may show situation comedies, drama, variety shows, etc. Radio entertainment primarily consists of music, talk shows, etc.

The two-step flow of communication or Multistep Flow Model,

says that most people form their opinions under the influence of opinion leaders, who in turn are influenced by the mass media. So according to this model, ideas flow from mass media to opinion leaders, and from them to a wider population.

Also known as the Multistep Flow Model is a theory based on a 1940s study on social influence that states that media effects are indirectly established through the personal influence of opinion leaders.

The majority of people receive much of their information and are influenced by the media secondhand, through the personal influence of opinion leaders.
Reply With Quote
The Following User Says Thank You to SuperNova For This Useful Post:
ghulam rasool shah (Saturday, March 21, 2015)
Old Saturday, March 21, 2015
Senior Member
Join Date: Nov 2014
Location: Hyderabad
Posts: 159
Thanks: 66
Thanked 133 Times in 77 Posts
SuperNova is on a distinguished road
Default News


Man can subsist without newspaper but no newspaper can subsist without news.
News is the spinal cord of journalism.
The basic assumption of journalism is the collection, presentation and interpretation of news
which is meant to inform the people about new and novel.

Definitions of News?

News has been defined differently by different experts. Some of the definitions are given below:

1. News is anything out of the ordinary (CHANGE)
2. News is something revealed.
3. News is anything that people talk about; the more it excites the greater its value. ,
4. News comprises all current activities which are of general human interest and the best news is that which interests most of the reader.
5. Anything that enough people want to read is news provided it does not violate the canons of good taste and the law of libel.
6. News is like a hot cake coming straight from oven.
7. News is the report of an event that is fresh, unusual and which is interesting to a greater number of people.

News writing
News writing attempts to answer all the basic questions about any particular event—
who, what, when, where and why (the Five Ws) and also often how—at the opening of the article.
This form of structure is sometimes called the "inverted pyramid", to refer to the decreasing importance of information in subsequent paragraphs.
News stories also contain at least one of the following important characteristics relative to the intended audience:
proximity, prominence, timeliness, human interest, oddity, or consequence.


Factual accuracy means any statement with name ,date.age,address and quotation.

A reporter must inform his readers with details and gives an account of the new event in its proper relationship and perspective

News is the factual report of an event. What the reporter sees is supposed to report. Objectivity means to report the facts exactly the same way as they occurred.

It goes against objectivity if the reporter adds something from his own imagination.

Comment/suggestion or proposal is not the task of a news reporter.

These are considered right in a column, editorial, etc. In these formats of journalistic writings the writer can provide in-depth and background information.

In simplest words objectivity means just to report the tip of the iceberg and leave the rest to analytical and in-depth reporting.

Concise and Clear
There is a famous sentence about writing a news story : “Brevity and simplicity are the soul of journalism.”
Journalism has got a special language – journalistic language – which is quite different from all other languages and particularly from the literature.
Journalistic language is simple, easy, concise and clear. Its basic aim is to convey the message in the simplest way to the masses because every person in the masses is not highly educated.
There is an approved writing style of achieving concision and brevity. Which is called “Inverted pyramid style of news”? This news writing style has been explained in Unit No. 2 of this course.

Characterstics Of News

There are various factors that qualify an event to be a news story. Let’s discuss these factors.


Time factor plays an important role in the effectiveness of a news story. Nobody likes to read an outdated story, even if it is very important. News is just like a perishable commodity having a very short life.
We can accommodate a past time story in literature, drama, feature, etc.. but it does not work in news. Journalism’s famous slogan is that “Today news is today”^

Proximity or Nearness

The importance of a news greatly depends on the place of its origin. Proximity in journalism does not only refer to geographical nearness but interest of nearness is well. For examples, Imran Khan’s marriage took place in U.K. but the story is .;iore interesting for the people of this part of the world.
An earthquake in China killing 200 people will be less important in our
newspapers than the story of earthquake killing 30 persons in Pakistan

Readers have interest in names of persons with whom they are familiar. The bigger the personality involved in the event, the greater its news value. Stories of film stars, players, politician’s philosophers and poets etc., have greater news value.

The event relating to greater loss of life, damage or natural disaster creates interest for the readers. Example: A story of fire resulting in the death of one person will have less impact than the story of fire resulting in the death of 100 people.

Everybody takes interest in confrontation among people, nations and groups. The highest form of conflict is war and no war story fails to create interest for the readers.

A dog bites a common man is not a news but if a man bites a dog it is a great news because it is unusual. The more the event is unusual the greater its value.

The news story that affects some change in the life of people will have great value. For example, news about budget, rise in petrol price, electricity rates and increase in salary, etc. are read with great interest by people.

Human interest
Human interest stories deal with usual events but usually these stories involve fellow feeling, emotion of brotherhood and humanness.
When a person reads about joy or sorrow of others he mentally associates himself with them.
Example: A story of a child rescued by a fireman as a seven-storey building caught fire has greater value than the story of the complete loss of the building.

Stories that fit with the media's expectations receive more coverage than those that defy them (and for which they are thus unprepared). Note this appears to conflict with unexpectedness above. However, consonance really refers to the media's readiness to report an item.

Reference to elite nations:
Stories concerned with global powers receive more attention than those concerned with less influential nations.

Reference to elite persons:
Stories concerned with the rich, powerful, famous and infamous get more coverage.

Negativity: Bad news is more newsworthy than good news.

There are essentially three origins for a story:

1.Naturally occurring "events" such as disasters, floods, earthquakes, fires, and airline crashes are inherently unpredictable and journalists must respond after the fact. News stories about disasters follow a predictable pattern: early reports, which frequently over estimate the severity of the disaster, rely on everyday people, because they’re frequently the only witnesses; later stories, assuming the story is newsworthy enough to become developing news over several days, tend to rely on officials – mayors and governors, insurance company representatives, disaster relief agency officials. This is a way the news becomes routinized.

2.Created and "subsidized" news is more frequent than unpredicted news. It occurs because a person, group or organization either does something public and newsworthy and/or seeks press attention. Public relations practitioners participate in the process of news making.

3."Enterprise" news is made when journalists act rather than react as they do in a disaster or tragedy. This is called enterprise news because the editor or reporter takes the initiative on a story. These can develop from beat coverage and investigative journalism.


A typical newspaper perform following 5 functions.

News function


Educational function

Opinion making function

Entertainment function.
Reply With Quote
The Following 2 Users Say Thank You to SuperNova For This Useful Post:
ghulam rasool shah (Saturday, March 21, 2015), waleedrana (Saturday, March 28, 2015)
Old Saturday, March 21, 2015
Senior Member
Join Date: Nov 2014
Location: Hyderabad
Posts: 159
Thanks: 66
Thanked 133 Times in 77 Posts
SuperNova is on a distinguished road
Default Media Ethics in Pakistan

Media Ethics in Pakistan

This is the right time that media owners, editors, practitioners and professional journalists should pay due attention to the issue and prepare a comprehensive code.

Media is regarded as eyes and ears of a society which not only serves as a watchdog but also provides credible information regarding important and newsworthy national and international events to enrich and strengthen the social fabric.

Thus the significant information through media plays a role of oxygen in social structure.

If people do not know precisely what is happening around, they cannot become active citizens and play their meaningful part in the affairs of the country.

It is hard to imagine of having real democracy or good governance without informed citizens.

In any democratic dispensation, public opinion is required to develop freely and independently and journalists have a special responsibility in this regards.

Mass media being an educator, informer, reformer, guide and a trend-setter is more accountable.

Hence it should follow ethics strictly.

Ethics is a branch of philosophy and its purpose is to describe moral sentiment as well as to establish norms for good and fair behaviour.

Boundaries of ethics are drawn in different dimensions in different societies.

In Pakistan, the ethical dimensions are partly similar to those of other countries having different demographic, religious and social backgrounds.

Media ethics kept the journalism and cultural industries with the responsibility to perform for the betterment of society.

Until 2002, the only television channels that operated in Pakistan were the state-run PTV and a couple of its specialized news and entertainment subsidiaries.

Media in Pakistan purposely followed the ethical lines to disseminate the credible information.

which caused to the gradual rise in the maturity in the attitude of the people towards politics and the social responsibility.

However, the last decade has witnessed a great shift in the media policy of the government due to opening of a lot of private television channels.

In line with the global trends, the government also introduced the new media technologies in the country resulting in a rapid growth of broadcast media in Pakistan.

With the passage of time it has become diverse and touching the topics which once were considered forbidden for public consumption.

But in the same vein, media in Pakistan has become an industry in the real sense of the word and is following its own agenda.

With the opening up of the media industry, the unrestrained news channels are involved in a mad race of breaking news syndrome in order to gain the audience and popularity instead of delivering correct information to viewers.

Today, prominent news channels are broadcasting uncensored violence, crime stories, live coverage of terrorist attacks while compromising media ethics.

Commercial interest of media to generate revenue never let it to observe public service message time.

News channels dramatize the event to make them saleable which is against media ethics.

The TV anchors are losing their credibility as they are found biased and manipulate the issue most of the time, serving their owners or other specific stakeholders for petty gains.

This practice is against the norms of journalism.

Sensitive issues regarding gender are highlighted in a vulgar way.

Yellow journalism and inappropriate division of time for coverage of news event and personalities through broadcast media raised the question about media ethics.

Issues that are more important for society and have to be dealt with the masses such as non-availability of potable water, loadshedding, public health, infrastructure, wages, poverty, unemployment, etc. are not pursued by the media properly to a point where a solution is eventually reached.

In November 2009, a Gallup Pakistan poll found that almost one-third of all Pakistanis (31 per cent) blame media for political instability in Pakistan.

These findings have two important implications: first, media are creating confusion and chaos by distracting the public from the real issues; and second, by discrediting themselves with unconfirmed reports, members of media are undermining their own profession and ultimately freedom of press.

In Pakistan, Council of Pakistan Newspapers Editors, All Pakistan Newspapers Society and Pakistan Federal Union of Journalists have developed code of ethics to follow.

Similarly, Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA) has developed rules to follow but implementation in this context is the weak link.

Media in Pakistan is is not fully mature yet.

At such stage it is very vital to prioritize the socio political health of the public through credible and newsworthy information and positive entertainment.
We need to develop a code of ethics for the media so that it could serve as a watchdog in the society besides helping public form opinion about national and international issues through provision of authentic and verifiable debates.

The government always formulates a code of ethics through which it can control the media in its own favour.

Press Council Ordinance and the PEMRA rules and regulations are obtrusive examples.

Similarly the code of ethics drafted by the owners and broadcasters unnecessarily defends their rights.

The working journalists are not giving any importance and the audience rights not secured.

All the abovementioned issues can be resolved through a code of ethics based on a broadest possible consensus among all stakeholders.

This is the right time that media owners, editors, practitioners and professional journalists should pay due attention to the issue and prepare a comprehensive code. This code should be acceptable for all parties including audience. Further Pakistan’s media community should adopt the international practice of defining standards that it shall always strive to attain.

The Pakistan Federal Union of Journalists (PFUJ) has drafted a code of ethics for Pakistani media which is based upon the belief that fair, balanced and independent journalism is essential for good governance, effective public administration and the capacity of people in Pakistan to achieve genuine democracy and peace.

The code recognizes that the creation of a tolerant, peaceful and just society depends upon the freedom of citizens to have access to responsible journalism through media that respect principles of pluralism and diversity.

For this code to be effective, journalism and media policy in Pakistan must be guided by the following principles:

* That media, whatever the mode of dissemination, are independent, tolerant and reflect diversity of opinion enabling full democratic exchange within and among all communities, whether based on geography, ethnic origins, religious belief or language;

* That laws defend and protect the rights of journalists and the rights of all citizens to freedom of information and the right to know;

* That there is respect for decent working and professional conditions, through legally enforceable employment rights and appropriate regulations that guarantee editorial independence and recognition of the profession of journalism;

* That there is credible and effective peer accountability through self-regulation by journalists and media professionals that will promote editorial independence and high standards of accuracy, reliability, and quality in media.

Code of Ethics (Draft)

1. Journalism is a profession based upon commitment to principles of honesty, fairness, credibility and respect for the truth.

2. A journalist is obliged to uphold the highest professional and ethical standards and shall at all times defend the principle of freedom of the press and media.

3. A journalist shall ensure that information he/she provides is fair, accurate and not subject to falsification, distortion, inappropriate selection, misrepresentation or any form of censorship.

4. A journalist shall avoid the expression of comment and conjecture as fact.

5. A journalist shall protect confidential sources of information.

6. A journalist shall not distort or suppress the truth for commercial, institutional or other special interests.

7. A journalist shall not accept personal favours, bribes, inducements, nor shall he/she allow any other factor pertaining to his/her own person to influence the performance of his/her professional duties.

8. A journalist shall disclose any potential conflict of interest where they involve financial gain or political affiliations.

9. A journalist shall mention a person’s age, sex, race, colour, creed, illegitimacy, disability, marital status, or sexual orientation only if this information is strictly relevant. A journalist shall neither originate nor process material, which incites discrimination, ridicule, prejudice or hatred.

10. A journalist shall not take prior advantage of information gained in the course of his/her professional duties for private gain.

11. A journalist shall obtain information, data, photographs, and illustrations only by straightforward means. The use of other means can be justified only by overriding considerations of the public interest. A journalist is entitled to exercise a personal conscientious objection to the use of such means.

12. A journalist shall avoid intrusion into private life, grief or distress, except when there are overriding considerations of public interest.

13. A journalist shall not exceed the limits of ethical caution and fair comment because of time constraints or to gain competitive advantage.

14. A journalist shall not glorify the perpetrators of illegitimate acts of violence committed under any garb or cause, including honour and religion.

15. A journalist shall never indulge in plagiarism. Using or passing off the works of another as one’s own and without crediting the source is a serious ethical offence. Commercial interest of media to generate revenue never let it to observe public service message time.
News channels dramatize the event to make them saleable which is against media ethics.

16. A journalist shall strive to ensure that his writing or broadcast contains no discriminatory material or comment based on matters of race, national or ethnic origin, colour, age, sex, marital status or physical or mental handicap.

17. A journalist shall respect and uphold principles of gender equality both in performance of his/her professional duties and in his/her relations with fellow journalists. A journalist shall not discriminate and shall avoid sex-role stereotyping and exploitation in his/her work.

18. A journalist, while reporting on communal, ethnic, or sectarian violence shall not identify victims by race, ethnicity or sect unless it is in the public interest. When this is the case he/she shall ensure that information is not presented in any manner, which may incite hatred or social disharmony.

19. A journalist, when reporting on sectarian or communal disturbance, including broadcast media, shall be aware of the danger of publishing images (or words) that may incite public discontent and anger.

20. A journalist shall not publish or broadcast extreme images of violence, mutilation, corpses or victims of tragedy irrespective of the cause unless it is necessary in the public interest.

21. A journalist shall respect the rights and needs of vulnerable members of society including women, children, marginalized communities and people suffering from disability.

22. A journalist shall not identify or photograph minor children, infants who are the offspring of sexual abuse, forcible marriage or illicit sexual union, or where they are victims of trafficking or forcible drafting into conflict.

23. A journalist shall always be conscious of the need for safety and shall take no action that endangers themselves or their colleagues in their work.

24. A journalist shall at all times respect other journalists and shall defend journalists where they suffer discrimination or are victimized for the exercise of their profession.

25. A journalist shall respect the public right to know and shall always act quickly to correct errors of fact or omission.

26. A journalist shall honour the decisions of the Media Complaints Commission.

Media stakeholders in Pakistan collectively need to reassess the role of media in society and come up with a collective will for compliance on the code of conduct for journalists of the print and electronic media. Such measures will not only bring a positive change in Pakistani society but will also strengthen media itself and bring more institutional credibility.

The infancy period of Pakistani media is almost over and senior journalists, concerned government officials and society as a whole should play their part in making media more vibrant and torch-bearer of truthfulness while keeping in the societal norms and traditions.

Last edited by Last Island; Friday, March 27, 2015 at 05:22 PM. Reason: source added
Reply With Quote
The Following 3 Users Say Thank You to SuperNova For This Useful Post:
Animo (Tuesday, September 05, 2017), ghulam rasool shah (Saturday, March 21, 2015), Qasim Farooq (Friday, January 19, 2018)
Old Saturday, March 21, 2015
Senior Member
Join Date: Nov 2014
Location: Hyderabad
Posts: 159
Thanks: 66
Thanked 133 Times in 77 Posts
SuperNova is on a distinguished road
Default Advertising


Today's world is known as the world of advertising. It is the backbone of media industry. Both business and advertising go hand in hand. There can be no business without advertising and there can be no advertising without business.

Advertising is a paid communication through a medium in which the sponsor is identified and the message is controlled. Variations include publicity, public relations, product placement, sponsorship, underwriting, and sales promotion

Hence, it may be defined as “any paid form of non-personal presentation of ideas, goods or services by an identified sponsor.”

Advertising is the paid, non-personal promotion of a cause, idea, product, or service by an identified sponsor attempting to inform or persuade a particular target audience.
The various delivery mechanisms for advertising include banners at sporting events, billboards, Internet Web sites, logos on clothing, magazines, newspapers, radio spots, and television commercials.

The area which benefited the most from the extraordinary growth of mass media from the seventeenth century is advertising.
Advertising generally means announcing new products and services with commercial interest and which people can use as part of their daily life.


Consumer Audience
They are sponsored by the manufacturer or the dealer of a product. They are usually directed at the ultimate consumer.

Business Advertising

Advocacy Advertising
Advocacy advertising is normally thought of as any advertisement, message, or public communication regarding economic, political, or social issues. The advertising campaign is designed to persuade public opinion regarding a specific issue important in the public arena.

FUNCTIONS Of Advertising

Functions of advertising can be as follows:

Marketing functions

Communication functions

Education functions

Economic functions

Social functions

The purpose of an ad campaign is to bring in new clients, buyers, users, and customers. That can be hard, especially today, when people are more conscious about what they are buying.

Here are 10 principles of what an effective ad may consist of. Keep in mind that there are many different types of advertisements, and not all of these tips apply to every advertisement.

1. Attract the Audience
A good advertisement must captivate people at the first look. Your ad should be so striking that it must hold someone who glances at it even for just a moment. Make people take a second glance instead of simply passing by. An excellent ad will make almost everyone look at it.

2. Be Creative
Though it's like a mantra, yet it is very true. It is inevitable to be smart in an ad campaign. It attracts people and represents the brand in a positive way. Think about it. A clever ad represents a clever company.

3. Be 'Loud'
The louder you talk, the more people hear you.
The same concept applies to advertising. You want your ad to say something, and you want it to be heard.
A “loud” advertisement isn't just a big one, though. It can be achieved in many ways.

4. Convey Comprehensive Message
One of the common guidelines is to make the message so comprehensive, precise and to the point that it doesn't allow people to take too much time to ponder upon.

5. Colour It!
Colour choice is an important aspect of advertisements.
You must make colours work with the feeling of the brand.
Your colours must also be in synch with the environment in which the ad is being placed.
Appeal to the targeted people through colours, but don't make them distracting.
If you are making an illustration for a “fun” brand, use a collaboration of bright colours while with a more serious ad, use a simpler colour scheme.

6. Be Informative
Your advertisement must provide brief information about the product and it must convey a message.

7. Stand Out and Be Memorable
A good ad must also have two essential components, so you should be:
(i) unique
(ii) memorable
Your ad should be unique and completely different than anyone else.

8. Give off a Feeling
Every company or brand has its peculiar mood or tone. You need to present that, too, in the advertisement. It should be so striking that any one may recognize the company immediately.

9. Show, Don't Tell
An advertisement which shows the audience instead of telling them the product, is the only successful one. Try using a more visual way of representing a concept instead of text.

10. Be Humorous and Metaphorical
Humour is an effective tool to attract people to an ad. Metaphors can be a great way to add humour. Though it's not always appropriate, and sometimes it just doesn't work, but when it works, it does wonders.
Reply With Quote
Old Saturday, March 21, 2015
Senior Member
Join Date: Nov 2014
Location: Hyderabad
Posts: 159
Thanks: 66
Thanked 133 Times in 77 Posts
SuperNova is on a distinguished road
Default How Social Media Changed the World

How Social Media Changed the World

When Harvard student Mark Zuckerberg launched in February 2004, even he could not have imagined the forces it would unleash. His intent was to connect college students. Facebook, which is what this website rapidly evolved into, ended up connecting the world.


We record our thoughts, emotions, likes and dislikes on facebook; we share our political views, social preferences and plans.
We post intimate photographs of ourselves.

With increased internet penetration in Pakistan, the youth of the country has taken enthusiastically to connecting and socializing via social media networks.
Facebook, Twitter, Youtube, Tumblr, Blogsphere, and other platforms have provided people with forums to interact, to share their stories, information, personal experiences, etc.
The enormous global outreach potential has made social media hugely important in the contemporary world.

Research has shown that in Pakistan,
39% of teens posted thing(s) which they later regretted,
37% used sites to make fun of others,
29% created a fake profile while
13% posted nude or seminude pictures or videos of themselves or others online.
Over 30% school students have been identified as victims, whereas
15-22% of them confess that they had bullied others.
Due to mobile phones, laptops etc. the opportunities are endless.
In addition, anonymity of fake profiles further aggravates the situation.

Internet has revolutionized the way we interact.

In recent years, the most dominant buzz has been the rise of social networking.

Social media giants like Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have overwhelmed almost all aspects of modern life.

They have altered altogether the way information is exchanged, relationships are formed and free time is killed.

They have provided untold possibilities for the online world and yet as the internet has aged and its users have begun to adapt, a darker underworld has emerged.

28% of the 20 million Pakistanis online are on LinkedIn, instagram, twitter and other outlets, with Facebook grabbing the major chunk with 8.5 million users as in April 2013.

A recent survey has revealed that the use of social media in Pakistan grew by 60% in 2014.

Presently, 60-70% of youth is active user of the internet.

Out of them, 51% check their updates more than once a day while 22% do so even more than 10 times a day.

In Pakistan, the penetration of social media is constantly on the rise perhaps due to affordable as well as speedy connectivity offered by different service providers.

Positive Impacts Of Social Media

Getting back to the bright side, major changes are happening in fields such as health care because of social media.

Already, by analysing Google searches, researchers can track the spread of disease across the world.

Patients are able to converse with others who have had the same ailment as they now have and learn which remedies or methods worked for others and which did not.
People all over the world are providing each other with advice and moral support.

The marketers are also seeing big opportunities.
Amazon is trying to predict what we will order.

Google is trying to judge our needs and wants based on our social-media profiles; it wants to be our personal assistant.
We need to be aware of the risks and keep working to mitigate the dangers.

This new and greater access, no doubt, led to empowerment of people where everyone had equal access to show his/her sentiments and opinions.

The main intent behind the progression of social media was to provide people with such forums where they could express their ideas and opinions with a relative ease and freedom.

This vibrant new society surprised everyone with the power of community-building by organizing people with different races and communities under one common cause.

Its greatest manifestation was the Arab Spring where dissenting youth used Twitter and Facebook to unite the like-minded people and to quickly disseminate information in order to plan and organize massive countrywide protests.

Even autocratic governments in Gulf had to give in to the pressure of protestors demanding change.

Social media also filled in the vacuum of electronic media where, for vested interests or want of commercial value, the latter ignored just voices of the aggrieved and dejected people.

Shahzeb murder case from Karachi where electronic media didn't highlight this issue until a massive movement started on social media.
It built so much pressure that the apex court had to intervene and suspects were brought to the book.

social media has affected our relationships and how wasting billions of hours purposelessly on social media has made us actually antisocial,

Admittedly, the youth learns fast through social media and is using it mostly for constructive purposes.
Reply With Quote
The Following User Says Thank You to SuperNova For This Useful Post:
Animo (Tuesday, September 05, 2017)
Old Saturday, March 21, 2015
Senior Member
Join Date: Nov 2014
Location: Hyderabad
Posts: 159
Thanks: 66
Thanked 133 Times in 77 Posts
SuperNova is on a distinguished road
Default Negative Impacts Of Social Media

Negative Impacts Of Social Media

It is commonly addictive and provides a tool for stalking children.

Social media is used by extremists in the Middle East and elsewhere to solicit and brainwash recruits.

And it exposes us and our friends to unsavoury spying.

We may leave our lights on in the house when we are on vacation, but through social media, we tell criminals who may want to rob us exactly where we are, when we plan to return home and how to blackmail us.

No spy agency or criminal organisation could actively gather the type of data that we voluntarily post for them.

Social media is fast changing the aspirations and values of our youth.

New generation is getting so engaged with social media that they spend hardly any time with their elders.

They are more interested to know what's happening in their fave star's life rather than their own family.

They never falter in updating their 'status' or 'recent activity'.

For family, they don't have time.

It is being apprehended by sociologists and other observers that face-to-face interaction will diminish soon mainly due to these 'killer' technologies.

Studies have shown that social media is actually hampering people's ability to interact in an offline setting.
But those who adopt it as the only medium fail to develop social competency.

The quality of relationships and the strength of connections are weakening.

Failed relationships and broken bonds.

Social media, undoubtedly, brings people together.
Divorces have increased by nearly 20% due to social media sites.

A site that connects old friends, allows users to make new ones as well.

'flirt' not knowing where it would lead.

unfortunate rise of cyber bullying;

a social concern that has taken previous forms of harassment to an altogether new level.

A huge majority of social networkers share personal pictures and information which can be misused.

Nevertheless, the problem arises when its use becomes excessive and people become its addicts.

Social media is a trap that entangles our youngsters who get so much involved in it that it becomes a primary way of their interactions.

Now, they prefer to contact through social media.

They meet each other in educational institutions and discuss the data uploads.

While chatting with their friends, they forget their other important activities and responsibilities.

This is just the wastage of precious time.


This growing peril demands a swift action from those at the helm of affairs as well as from civil society.

Surely, a crackdown against social media, like in case of Youtube, won't be a wise option.

Unlike Gulf States, where courts have sentenced people for dissent on social media, we need a crackdown against these fake profiles.

Facebook and Twitter may be asked to link user accounts on these sites to mobile numbers used in Pakistan by these users.

It would remove the anonymity and facelessness from these warriors and at least they would realize that their real identities are known to everyone
and they will have to face the music for their 'shares'.

All the political parties and their leadership should tighten their filter against fake profiles and abusive posts.

Political parties especially need to denounce and condemn in clear words any such e-Brigades that are tarnishing their names as well.
It is their responsibility to cultivate in their workers a sense to abide by the moral and ethical values and societal norms while professing their political agendas.

Moreover, as a society we need to teach our youth that argumentation doesn't imply fighting rather
it's a constructive debate based on empirical evidence, objective analysis and logical reasoning.

We also need to realize the implications of 'sharing' a post without checking its authenticity.

Social media and internet are meant to be a boon. Let us not make it a bane for our society.

Social media has become such an important part of our society that using it in a negative way will only set us back.
It has enhanced online communities.

The future of social media is still unknown.
We, as a society, can still control the situation.

We must push forward and continue to incorporate social media in more positive ways.
Reply With Quote
The Following User Says Thank You to SuperNova For This Useful Post:
Animo (Tuesday, September 05, 2017)
Old Sunday, March 22, 2015
Senior Member
Join Date: Nov 2014
Location: Hyderabad
Posts: 159
Thanks: 66
Thanked 133 Times in 77 Posts
SuperNova is on a distinguished road
Default Opinion Leaders

Opinion Leaders

1.General: Influential members of a community, group, or society to whom others turn for advice, opinions, and views.

2.Marketing: Minority group (called early adopters) that passes information on new products (received from the media) to less adventuresome or not as well informed segments of the population. However, only products such as automobiles, books, and clothing are susceptible to such influencers whereas appliances, food, toiletries, etc., are not.

Characteristics of Opinion Leaders

Opinion leaders are generally people who have the ability to influence others.

They usually have deeper expertise in a certain area, and are often looked to for help in making consumer decisions.

For example, a local high school teacher may be an opinion leader for parents in selecting colleges for their children.

Often, an opinion leader is among the first to use a new product or service, and can then pass on his or her opinions of the product to others.

Opinion leaders are often trusted and unbiased and have the social network of friends, family, and coworkers necessary to disperse information.

Opinion Leaders in Marketing

Opinion leaders are particularly useful in marketing. If a marketer can identify key opinion leaders for a certain group, she can then direct her efforts towards attracting these individuals. In marketing, celebrities are often used as opinion leaders. Although they may not actually know more about a product or service, there is usually the perception that they do. Celebrity endorsements in marketing are a way to give clout to a product or service . Opinion leaders can have a profound influence on the success of a product, and on one's own consumer purchases.


Last edited by Last Island; Friday, March 27, 2015 at 05:51 PM. Reason: source added
Reply With Quote
The Following User Says Thank You to SuperNova For This Useful Post:
Animo (Tuesday, September 05, 2017)
Old Sunday, March 22, 2015
Senior Member
Join Date: Nov 2014
Location: Hyderabad
Posts: 159
Thanks: 66
Thanked 133 Times in 77 Posts
SuperNova is on a distinguished road
Default Article vs Column

Article vs Column


An article discusses current or recent news of either general interest (i.e. daily newspapers) or of a specific topic (i.e. political or trade news magazines, club newsletters, or technology news websites).

A news article can include accounts of eye witnesses to the happening event.

It can contain photographs, accounts, statistics, graphs, recollections, interviews, polls, debates on the topic, etc.

Headlines can be used to focus the reader’s attention on a particular (or main) part of the article.

The writer can also give facts and detailed information following answers to general questions like who, what, when, where, why and how.

Quoted references can also be helpful.

References to people can also be made through written accounts of interviews and debates confirming the factuality of the writer’s information and the reliability of his source.

The writer can use redirection to ensure that the reader keeps reading the article and to draw her attention to other articles.

While a good conclusion is an important ingredient for newspaper articles,

the immediacy of a deadline environment means that copy editing often takes the form of deleting everything past an arbitrary point in the story corresponding to the dictates of available space on a page.

Therefore, newspaper reporters are trained to write in inverted pyramid style, with all the most important information in the first paragraph or two.


A column is written weekly, monthly or bi-monthly, and must be focused on one particular topic.

You have to be consistent in what you write, maintain the same tone of voice, and stay focused on the issue at hand.

If you’re writing a column for the writing parent, don’t delve into issues of parenting in general.

You’re readers will probably be parents who write, and they will be more interested in learning how to find time for their writing, rather than how to take care of their children.

When you decide to write a column, make sure that the topic you choose is of interest to readers and will keep them coming back for more, week after week.

If your topic is boring or uninteresting, chances are you’ll have no readers, and the editor will soon wrap up your column with a short goodbye note.
Reply With Quote
The Following User Says Thank You to SuperNova For This Useful Post:
Animo (Tuesday, September 05, 2017)

Thread Tools Search this Thread
Search this Thread:

Advanced Search

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off
Trackbacks are On
Pingbacks are On
Refbacks are On

Similar Threads
Thread Thread Starter Forum Replies Last Post
How to make Good Notes? rose_pak Tips and Experience Sharing 8 Thursday, October 17, 2019 10:30 AM
Questions of English Literature Last Island English Literature 5 Friday, December 27, 2013 12:25 PM
Download Journalism notes, all that u require. Capt Farhan Journalism & Mass Communication 7 Sunday, February 17, 2013 12:21 PM
Journalism Qurratulain Journalism & Mass Communication 9 Friday, September 21, 2012 10:46 PM

CSS Forum on Facebook Follow CSS Forum on Twitter

Disclaimer: All messages made available as part of this discussion group (including any bulletin boards and chat rooms) and any opinions, advice, statements or other information contained in any messages posted or transmitted by any third party are the responsibility of the author of that message and not of (unless is specifically identified as the author of the message). The fact that a particular message is posted on or transmitted using this web site does not mean that CSSForum has endorsed that message in any way or verified the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any message. We encourage visitors to the forum to report any objectionable message in site feedback. This forum is not monitored 24/7.

Sponsors: ArgusVision   vBulletin, Copyright ©2000 - 2020, Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd.