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Old Sunday, July 10, 2011
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Smile Essay On PAKISTAN’S EFFORTS AT INDUSTRIALIZATION (Kindly check)

respected members kindly check my outline on the following topic and give ur suggestions...Regards

PAKISTAN’S EFFORTS AT INDUSTRIALIZATION


OUTLINE:

 Introduction

 Industrialization Defined

 Industrial Revolution

 Industrial Sector At The Inception Of Pakistan

 Pakistan’s Efforts At Industrialization


• Establishment Of Sind Industrial Training Estate, SITE
• Pakistan Council Of Scientific And Industrial Research, PCSIR
• Pakistan Industrial Development Corporation, PDIC
• Development Of Landhi Town Ship And Landhi Industrial Area
• Establishment Of Small And Large Industrial Complexes.

Causes Of Backwardness Of Industry In Pakistan

• Political Instability
• Lack Of Capital
• Limited Markets
• Underutilization Of Labour’s Potential
• Lack Of Communication And Basic Infrastructure
• Expensiveness Of Means Of Transportation
• Lack Of Technical Knowledge
• Shortage Of Entrepreneurs
• Energy Crisis
• Economic Restrictions
• Lack Of Exploitation Of World Market

Recommendations

Conclusion
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Old Monday, July 11, 2011
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Dear,
add few points from current export policy available on Ministry Of Commerce in term of governments efforts for promotion of industry in country.To inscribe legislation for industrial development will be elaborating point.
regard
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respected members kindly check my outline on the following topic and give ur suggestions...Regards

PAKISTAN’S EFFORTS AT INDUSTRIALIZATION


OUTLINE:

 Introduction

 Industrialization Defined

 Industrial Revolution

 Industrial Sector At The Inception Of Pakistan

 Pakistan’s Efforts At Industrialization


• Establishment Of Sind Industrial Training Estate, SITE
• Pakistan Council Of Scientific And Industrial Research, PCSIR
• Pakistan Industrial Development Corporation, PDIC
• Development Of Landhi Town Ship And Landhi Industrial Area
• Establishment Of Small And Large Industrial Complexes.

Causes Of Backwardness Of Industry In Pakistan

• Political Instability
• Lack Of Capital
• Limited Markets
• Underutilization Of Labour’s Potential
• Lack Of Communication And Basic Infrastructure
• Expensiveness Of Means Of Transportation
• Lack Of Technical Knowledge
• Shortage Of Entrepreneurs
• Energy Crisis
• Economic Restrictions
• Lack Of Exploitation Of World Market

Recommendations

Conclusion

ESSAY:

Industry is one of the vital sectors and makes the major portion of the economy of the country. The industry gained a great boost after the “Industrial Revolution”. The countries which were previously relying solely on agriculture encouraged their industrial sector. This switch over from agricultural to industrial sector has paid the price to these countries. The examples of developed nations like America, Germany, Great Britain, Japan, Russia, China etc. are before us. On the other hand the countries which did not give weight to the industry are lagging behind. With the development of industry national income increased, the living standard improved, employment opportunities increased and the investment increased. Not only this, but there was also a great rise in agricultural production. All such developments opened new vistas for the countries. Countries of the world climbed out of the poverty and became self-dependent.

Industrialization is linked with the development of the industrial sector on a massive scale in a society i.e. changing the society from an agrarian one to an industrialized nation. This process involves technological changes, where new technology is developed and used.

The Industrial Revolution was a great phenomenon in the history of the world. It started in England during the 18th century when machines began to replace manual labour in many industries. It spread through much of the world starting in the 19th century and is still continuing in undeveloped countries. The whole scenario of the production altered with the introduction of the machinery. Machines made the work faster and easier. The production exceeded the demand of the items. Resultantly the prices dropped according to the supply and demand theory. With industrial development, many other sectors of the economy also developed. In short, the Industrial Revolution brought unprecedented changes in every aspect of life.

Pakistan got independence in 1947. At the time of partition, Pakistan had a negligible industrial base. It got only 34 industries out of total 955, while remaining were held by India. Such a small number of industries were not enough for a newly born country to face the industrialized world. Pakistan had to start from the scratch to develop its industrial sector and stand on its own feet. It had to make the most of its limited resources in order to keep the pace with the changing trends of the world. With the passage of time Pakistan utilized it’s all available resources domestic as well as external for rapid development of manufacturing sector. Pakistan has now attained a fairly diversified base in manufacturing ranging from essential goods to ship building industry. Domestic production of items such as refined sugar, steel, fertilizers, cement etc. has helped in import substitution and has saved substantial amount of foreign exchange.

Pakistan during its early years realized the need for development of appropriate industrial infrastructure that included setting up industrial estates and an engineering base. The first such estate was established beyond Lyari in Karachi at the present Sindh Industrial Trading Estate, SITE at Manghopir road. It was provided necessary facilities such as water, roads, and waste disposal system. To augment the pace of industrialization, the Shipyard and Engineering Works was created to cater to the needs of engineering material, plant and equipment.

The Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, PCSIR was created in 1953 to develop technologies for utilization of indigenous resources, dissemination of results of research and solving problems in processes and operations besides those encountered by newly established industries.

The Pakistan Industrial Development Corporation, PIDC was created almost simultaneously to serve as the recipient of technologies in heavy industries such as cement and in those for which private investment may feel shy. PCSIR and PIDC were charged with the responsibility of development of high level manpower which could strengthen its technology base and assist in the process of technology transfer.

The Landhi town ship and Landhi Industrial Area were developed almost simultaneously. Korangi town ship developed in 1961-69 therefore considered the establishment of industrial estates as an integral part of their planning and as the first and necessary step to ensure employment within the new settle¬ment for those being shifted.

The small scale manufacturing, based on indigenous or indigenised technologies, continued to be the main contributor to economic development, more than the large scale industries, until the late fifties. In the mid-fifties the contribution of the large scale manufacturing based on embodied technologies overtook that of the small industries. The contribution of the latter was 30% of the total in mid-sixties and continues to be approximately 25% of the manufacturing sector. Subsequently large and small industri¬al complexes were established in the cities of Karachi, Lahore, Nowshera, Hyderabad, Sukkur, Nawab Shah, Mirpur Khas and Khairpur and later on in Baluchistan.
The causes of industrial backwardness in Pakistan are varied and complex. The Government of Pakistan since 1947 is trying to develop industries and infrastructure facilities for the growth of industrial sector, yet it has not achieved success to the desired extent. In the last over three decades the main obstacles which have slowed and retarded industrial development in Pakistan are as follows:

The first and the foremost cause of the backwardness of the industry has been the political instability which has led to instability of policies. Each successive government unveils its own policies and disposes of all policies of previous government after it takes over. In the wake of such negligence from government’s part, the industrial sector is suffering a great setback.
Furthermore the lack of capital is a major hurdle in attaining self-sufficiency in industrial sector. Every industry requires a large sum of capital to keep its wheel moving. But due to the lack of capita and loan facilities the progress of industry is lingering.

Limited market is also the major cause of industrial deterioration. Owing to government’s indifference, our domestic markets have not expanded to an extent to accommodate the home-made goods. Moreover our peoples’ proclivity to foreign goods is also giving a severe blow to our industry.
The proper utilization of the capabilities of the labour play a very vital role in the progress of the industry. By fully utilizing labour capabilities the production can be improved and increased. But unfortunately, underutilization of labours’ potential on right place is inflicting a great loss and industry is lagging behind to compete with the world.

Communication plays a very important and vital role in industry’s progress. If communication is in disorder, industry fails to survive. Due to lack of transportation and absence of basic infrastructure like roads, water supply, sanitation and proper disposal of waste water and solid wastes, our industry is lagging behind.

Lack of basic infrastructure along with the expensiveness of means of transportation and communication is also contributing to industrial failure.
The significance of technical knowledge to industry cannot be negated. Industrial progress is thwarted in the absence of workers equipped with technological knowledge. The paucity of such technically experienced labour force makes the journey towards industrialization challenging.

Lack of technical minded workers coupled with shortage of entrepreneurs is worsening the things. Not only local businessmen but also foreign investors are not ready to set up new industries and make investments. They are reluctant to invest their time and money in the country which is lacking in basic infrastructure and where law and order situation is deteriorating day by day. All these things are acting as repellent for industrialists and in turn industrial development.

Energy crisis is further a bolt from blue for our industry. Our country is starving in electricity, oil and gas which are the most essential requirements to run industry. In spite of having vast resources of gas, oil, coal etc. our country is unable to provide uninterrupted supply of fuel to industry which is creating havoc to this sector.

Last but not the least, economic restrictions imposed by donor countries and lack of effective exploitation of the World Market are also contributing to our industry’s failure.

We are living in a state of lawlessness. The old norms that have held the state together for so long are no longer applicable. The new norms are still embryonic. The transition from agrarian to industrialised nation is marked by transition of cooperative society into competitive society. The social infrastructure needs to accommodate itself to the new requirement. What our government should do at this point is to speed up the development projects and intensify industrialisation. It should try to reduce provincialism and increase nationalism. A good policy for completion of transition of industrialization is required. Here are some suggestions to stabilize our industrial sector:

• Government must unveil a solid industrial policy keeping in view the global requirements.
• Policies must be strictly implemented.
• Industrialists be given loans on easy instalments, so as they could run industries smoothly.
• New markets for the local products be explored and the quality of local products be improved to increase the demand abroad.
• New technical universities and institutions be established for the guidance of the labour and equip them with the modern techniques being used in the industry.
• Means of communication and basic infrastructure required for industry like roads, transportation etc. be improved and enhanced to make the access easy.
• New and emerging entrepreneurs must be encouraged to lead the industrial sector and make investments.
• The crisis of energy must be resolved on priority basis and interrupted supply of energy to industry be ensured.
• Law and order situation be improved to allure the investors to invest their money and time.
• More attentions should be given to increase export.
• Import substitution products be produced to encourage people to use local products.
• Realistic and up-to-date statistics be provided to this sector.


To conclude with, the people of Pakistan perhaps already are aware that the country had the choice of building institutions for development of technology and other industrial infrastructure and/or a strong institution for planning. Pakistan opted assistance from the USA in formulating economic development plans while both India and Korea when offered similar options opted for establishment of institutes of technology on the pattern of Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT. The KIST or Korean Institute of Science and Technology and a chain of IITs or the Indian Institutes of Technology were offered as technical assistance to Korea and India respectively and both countries flourished on the basis of solid and self-reliant foundations provided by the respective institutions. Pakistan has all the resources and a solid base to become an industrialized country. The need of the hour is to turn the policies into action by following the examples of developed countries in letter and spirit.
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Old Monday, July 11, 2011
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Default add these points also

Add an outline of industry of Pakistan before the outline of industrial revolution and in this write a little about Pakistan industry and its number in world.u can write this:
(Pakistan ranks forty-first in the world and fifty-fifth worldwide in factory output.
Pakistan's industrial sector accounts for about 24% of GDP. Cotton textile production and apparel manufacturing are Pakistan's largest industries, accounting for about 66% of the merchandise exports and almost 40% of the employed labour force. Cotton and cotton-based products account for 61% of export earnings of Pakistan. Government policies aim to diversify the country's industrial base and bolster export industries.)
Then add an outline of PITAC and its progress also(PAKISTAN INDUSTRIAL TECHNICAL CENTRE). Some newly facts and figures about industrial revolution.one thing also I will say that when you write in the outline of industrial revolution then write the progress and policies of different govts in their period.
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Add an outline of industry of Pakistan before the outline of industrial revolution and in this write a little about Pakistan industry and its number in world.u can write this:
(Pakistan ranks forty-first in the world and fifty-fifth worldwide in factory output.
Pakistan's industrial sector accounts for about 24% of GDP. Cotton textile production and apparel manufacturing are Pakistan's largest industries, accounting for about 66% of the merchandise exports and almost 40% of the employed labour force. Cotton and cotton-based products account for 61% of export earnings of Pakistan. Government policies aim to diversify the country's industrial base and bolster export industries.)
Then add an outline of PITAC and its progress also(PAKISTAN INDUSTRIAL TECHNICAL CENTRE). Some newly facts and figures about industrial revolution.one thing also I will say that when you write in the outline of industrial revolution then write the progress and policies of different govts in their period.

thnx a lot maria for thorough guidance.......also guide about the language of this essay and its grammatical mistakes...i'l be grtly thnkful to u..
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Old Monday, July 11, 2011
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there was just lack of facts and figures that i told u and the remaining essay and its language was good.it was better from your previous essay attempts.carry on roshan.you improved alot in this essay but again i didn't find even a single quote in your essay
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Dear,
you written expression and description is up to the mark. nut, to the best of my knowledge your essay should have ample sum of facts and figures along with latest targets of Pakistani government. other than this, the provincial share of industrial growth and promotion of industrial education like, NAVTEC,STVATEC should be mentioned.
These are my personal views you may differ from them.
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Old Tuesday, July 12, 2011
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there was just lack of facts and figures that i told u and the remaining essay and its language was good.it was better from your previous essay attempts.carry on roshan.you improved alot in this essay but again i didn't find even a single quote in your essay
thnx alot maria for ur appreciation and encouraging words so nice of ukeep guiding me so that i cud improve more as far as essay writing is concerned and grab gud marks in upcuming xams... ya i realize dat there is lack of facts and figures and quotations in my essay, i'll surely add sum in my cuming essays
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Old Tuesday, July 12, 2011
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Dear,
you written expression and description is up to the mark. nut, to the best of my knowledge your essay should have ample sum of facts and figures along with latest targets of Pakistani government. other than this, the provincial share of industrial growth and promotion of industrial education like, NAVTEC,STVATEC should be mentioned.
These are my personal views you may differ from them.
thnx dear for ur appreciation and suggestion i'll surely add sum more facts and figures to enrich the essay..
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