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  #21  
Old Monday, June 15, 2009
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@ amubarak

I have also opted Psychology, and will appear in 2010.
I will be very thankful if you also share your knowledge with me.
my e-mail is babarjsm@gmail.com
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  #22  
Old Monday, July 06, 2009
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Default Geography Tips by Amubarak

Hi Amubarak
U scored too good in this ,Could u pls tel what books u prepared from and any related info.thanks
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Old Friday, July 10, 2009
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hello!!

well plzz suggest me some book on geography..
and what to do for good markssssssss in geography!!
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  #24  
Old Wednesday, July 15, 2009
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Thumbs up Geography books

@ neelumgulchaudhry
I,my being the masters with geography would suggest you the following books:
Physical Geography by Iftikhar Akram Ch.
Jahangir Exam Cram Series,Top 20Qs
Physical Geo by de.Blij
Human Geo by de.Blij
(if I be honest,the former two books thoroughly covers the syllabi of CSS goegraphy n the latter two books would substantiate your knowledge)
In my humble opinion,drawing of maps and diagrams where requires n provision of data in tabular form is the key to get v good scores in geography.
Good luck to you...

regards,
IBRm
DMG(37th common)
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  #25  
Old Saturday, August 22, 2009
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@ Neelamgulchaudhry and Shenell

Please review the following for geogrpahy books:

http://www.cssforum.com.pk/111819-post1.html

@ bambam222

For opting psychology, it varies from person to person. There are people who have no academic background in psychology and score really good and vice versa. Infact there is no hard and fast rule that one can only opt for a subject with academic back ground, specially in social sciences.

Last edited by Princess Royal; Thursday, June 10, 2010 at 05:50 PM.
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  #26  
Old Saturday, August 22, 2009
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@amubarak

Thanks for your response can you please send me the notes as well at saelali@ymail.com
One more questions i was going through past papers; in the LEARNING TOPIC from paper-1 some questions ask about learning theories. Can you please name these. As in the books that u mentioned i am unable to find things such as learning theories.
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  #27  
Old Tuesday, August 25, 2009
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hello,
thanks for sharing the tips.
i actually want to ask about the islamiat paper.I recently bought the book islami nazaria hayat by khursheed ahmad.but after reading the questions of past papers ,i got confused.i have some questions for you...
did you prepare notes of islamiat from this book?
did u learn the isalamit or just clear the concept in mind?
did u consult any other book?
i want to prepare for islamiat till 15 september so please guise me in this regard.

thanks.
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  #28  
Old Tuesday, August 25, 2009
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Default Theories Of Learning

@bambam222
you are right. It is not written in Morgan, Zimbardio, Feldman, Morris, Hillguard's, and not even Weiton. I have searched these theories from internet. I hope, it will be helpful for you.


THEORIES OF LEARNING

Early in the 20th century, some psychologists believed that it might be possible to develop a single, general theory that could explain all instances of learning. For instance, the so-called one-factor theory proposed that reinforcement was the single factor that controlled whether learning would or would not occur. However, latent learning and similar phenomena contradicted this theory by showing that learning could occur without reinforcement.

In recent years, psychologists have abandoned attempts to develop a single, all-purpose theory of learning. Instead, they have developed smaller and more specialized theories. Some theories focus on classical conditioning, some on operant conditioning, some on observational learning, and some on other specific forms of learning. The major debates in learning theory concern which theories best describe these more specific areas of learning.

In studying learning, psychologists follow two main theoretical approaches: the behavioral approach and the cognitive approach. Recall that learning is acquiring knowledge or developing the ability to perform new behaviors. Behavioral psychologists focus on the change that takes place in an individual’s behavior. Cognitive psychologists prefer to study the change in an individual’s knowledge, emphasizing mental processes such as thinking, memory, and problem solving. Many psychologists combine elements of both approaches to explain learning.

A. The Behavioral Approach

The term behaviorism was first used by John B. Watson in the early 1910s. Later, B. F. Skinner expanded and popularized the behavioral approach. The essential characteristic of the behavioral approach to learning is that events in the environment are understood to predict a person’s behavior, not thoughts, feelings, or other events that take place inside the person. Strict behaviorists believe that it is dangerous and unscientific to treat thoughts and feelings as the causes of a person’s behavior, because no one can see another person’s thoughts or feelings. Behaviorists maintain that human learning can be explained by examining the stimuli, reinforcers, and punishments that a person experiences. According to behaviorists, reinforcement and punishment, along with other basic principles such as generalization and discrimination, can explain even the most advanced types of human learning, such as learning to read or to solve complex problems.

B. The Cognitive Approach

Unlike behaviorists, cognitive psychologists believe that it is essential to study an individual’s thoughts and expectations in order to understand the learning process. In 1930 American psychologist Edward C. Tolman investigated cognitive processes in learning by studying how rats learn their way through a maze. He found evidence that rats formed a “cognitive map” (a mental map) of the maze early in the experiment, but did not display their learning until they received reinforcement for completing the maze—a phenomenon he termed latent learning. Tolman’s experiment suggested that learning is more than just the strengthening of responses through reinforcement.

Modern cognitive psychologists believe that learning involves complex mental processes, including memory, attention, language, concept formation, and problem solving. They study how people process information and form mental representations of people, objects, and events.

C. Evaluation of the Two Approaches

During the first half of the 20th century, behaviorism was the dominant theoretical approach in the field of learning. Since the 1950s, however, cognitive psychology has steadily gained in popularity, and now more psychologists favor a cognitive approach than a strict behavioral approach. Cognitive psychologists and behaviorists will continue to debate the merits of their different positions, but in many ways these two approaches have different strengths that complement each other. With its emphasis on memory and complex thought processes, the cognitive approach appears well suited for investigating the most sophisticated types of human learning, such as reasoning, problem solving, and creativity. The behavioral approach, which emphasizes basic principles of conditioning, reinforcement, and punishment, can provide explanations of why people behave the way they do and how they choose between different possible courses of action.
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  #29  
Old Tuesday, August 25, 2009
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Default psychology notes

Hi amubarak
thx for ur kind support and advice
will u plz send me psychology notes.
i have no background for psychology but i ve come to know its a scoring subject.
ma e-mail address is sheetal.harris@gmail.com, will b thankful to u.
regards.
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Default Want Help And Suggestions Regarding css2010

Dear sir i want your help regarding css2010 i have not enough knowledge becoz i am out of field since last 3 years and i am working in pharmaceutical company can you plz guide me and give me some useful suggestions
please?
Regards
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