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Old Saturday, September 02, 2006
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Mohmmad Ali Jinnah

If Louis Mountbatten, Jawaharlal Nehru or Mahatma Gandhi had been aware in April 1947 of one extraordinary secret, the division threatening India might have been avoided. That secret was sealed onto the gray surface of a piece of a film, a film that could have upset the Indian political equation and would almost certainly have changed the course of Asian History. Yet so precious was the secret that that film harbored that even the British C.I.D., one of the most effective investigative agencies in the world was ignorant of its existence.

The heart of the film was two dark circles no bigger than a pair of Ping Pong balls. Each was surrounded by an irregular white border like the corona of the sun eclipsed by moon. Above them, a galaxy of little white spots stretched up the film’s gray surface towards the top of the thoracic cage. That film was an X-RAY, the X-ray of a pair of human lungs: tuberculosis was devouring the lungs pictured in the X-ray. The lungs depicted on them belonged to the rigid and inflexible man who had frustrated Louis Mountbatten’s effort to preserve India’s unity. Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the one unmovable obstacle between the Viceroy and Indian unity, was living under a sentence of death. [1]

When his friend Dr. Patel revealed this sad news to Jinnah, he received an impassive face of an old man, who was not a normal patient. It hurted when lungs were being eroded with every breath of a cold Indian salty air in Bombay, but something deep in his heart was more painful than this fatal reality that he has been blessed with death ticket by incurable cancer of TB. “Nothing” Jinnah observed his verdict as recorded by Dr Patel in May 1946 at Bombay’s Grand Railroad station, except grave is going to turn me from the task I have been given by Moslems of India at this critical juncture of history.”

So as promised by his friend Dr Patel, no one got any hint about his criticality and pain. He never shared pain; he never showed any ridicule event due to his shaking lungs in public, since his will was unshakeable that commands his posture in great fury of debates with two enemies at same time. “Speed,” Jinnah had told Mountbatten in their maiden discussion of India’s future, was, the essence of the contract.” [1]

It is quite easy to understand the importance of an old man in this constitutional war, who was a man of unassailable personal honesty and financial integrity, his canons were sound law and sound procedures. He never used classic politician’s techniques to win publicity, unlike Ghandhi and Nehru he never visited any jail for any breach of law of land whatever that was. Stanley Wolpert could not find better words to inscribe a historical preface about his quarter century research on one of the greatest men of history than

Few individuals significantly alter the course of history. Fewer still modify the map of the world. Hardly anyone can be credited with creating a nation state. Muhammad Ali Jinnah did all three. ……Quid-I-Azam was one of recent history’s most charismatic leaders….” [2]

Evenly charming personality among women of high prestige in India he never tumbled throughout his life. “Tall and stately,” wrote poetess Sarojini Naidu as she met him first in 1906 on the occasion of his joining Indian National Congress in annual session of Calcutta, “but thin to the point of emaciation, languid and luxurious of habit, Mohammad Ali Jinnah’ s attenuated form is a deceptive sheath of a spirit of exceptional vitality and endurance. Some what formal and fastidious, and little aloof and imperious of manner, the calm hauteur of his accustomed reserve but masks, for those who know him, a naïve and eager humanity, an intuition quick and tender as a woman’s, a humor gay and winning as a child’s –preeminently rational and practical, discreet and dispassionate in his estimate and acceptance of life, the obvious sanity and serenity of his worldly wisdom effectually disguise a shy and splendid idealism which is of the very essence of the man” [3]

Jinnah, due to his personal skills and energy in his words, he was permitted to speak in the council’s meeting in 1912 though he was not the formal member of Muslim League. On pressing demands from Syed Wazir Hussain (1874-1947), permanent secretary of league, he agreed to join Muslim League conditionally. [4] At that time, he was just more than a lawyer, an elected member of the council from Bombay Muslim seat, and there could be no question any hidden agenda that Jinnah could had manipulated.
One cannot negate this fact that in his early political career, he was the preacher of unity among Muslims and Hindus. And he tried for their reconciliation and well he was the only man who succeeded in his efforts to bring two banks of river together, and it is history that this was the first and last attempted effort termed as Lucknow Pact.

An insight reveals that at that time Muslim League was emerging as new political force in India, and it was quite logical for Jinnah to blend these two forces against an alien ruler. And compromise actually made both parties at ease. If for a moment, both nations could had tried a joint venture for independence, things would had been shaped in a different way. But this was the case for Pakistan, since both parties actually failed for any reconciliation and both opted for their own destination. As a matter of fact, Congress shared a big portion in this context without any prejudice of reality as events especially partition of Bengal, Hindi Urdu controversy etc. And as a shrewd lawyer he always believed in a constitutional way to win the game. He warned Ghandi in Khalifaat movement episode about the blood stained consequences for Indians, as he smelled and openly declared that Indian Nation is too naïve for such a movement, whatever the silver linings are observed by the historian, miseries of Muslims simply out numbered them on any rational ground as predicted by Jinnah. It is not the question of being on the side of Muslims or Hidus, it is a simple question of your farsightedness, and Jinnah did what he thought right and what he stood aloof and did not jump into the bandwagon of publicity like Ghandhi. History recorded that Jinnah never made a mistake, a meticulous, analytical and a rational lawyer was getting tough on British day by day.


1. “Freedom at Midnight” by L.Collins and D.Lapierre
2. “Jinnah of Pakistan” by Stanley Wolpert
3. Sarojini Naidu’s title for him in Naidu, “Ambassodor”
4. Sarojini Naidu’s ed M.A.Jinnah: His speeches and wrtitings, 1912-17, p 1


Last edited by Last Island; Monday, October 19, 2009 at 10:48 PM.
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Default Jinnah Continued

When Jinnah disagreed to something, he carried a logical way of thinking behind it and he never went for impulsive decisions in his life and yet only time proved him enormously right. Strong judgment through analytical examination of political scenarios was his hallmark. Replying to Ghandi’s offer to join Congress in movement against British in the wake of Khilafat Movement in 1920 he wisely put pen to paper in his letter,
If by “New Lifeyou mean your method and programme, I am afraid I can not accept them; for I am fully convinced that it must lead to disaster………..and your extreme programme has for the moment struck the imagination mostly of the inexperienced youth and the ignorant and illiterate. All this means complete disorganization and chaos. ………but I for one am convinced that the present policy of Government is the primary cause of it all and unless that cause is removed, the effects must continue. I have no voice or power to remove the cause [very honestly]; but at the same time I do not wish my countrymen to be dragged to the brink of a precipice in order to be shattered.”[1]

Only leader like Jinnah could have shown statesmanship of soaring quality whereas other congress leaders begged third-rate fame from deeply struck masses for their own political means.

As things after a particular event becomes tainted with the shadows of legends and it becomes very difficult to separate the doubtless sands from skeptical marshes of human exaggerations and speculations dig in. Be careful in 1920s there was no question of Pakistan yet and not even a remote possibility of any Pakistan was there in the minds of three players of triangular political chess each of them moving his pawns carefully to save the bacon. So was Jinnah, a flourishing lawyer who was seeking his career in politics in his early forties but not through conventional moves but through his principles.
The Pakistan movement, wrote Wolpert,

“and its singular impact on recent Indian history have tended to obscure Jinnah’s positive contributions to the evolution of parliamentary government in India.”

He actually fought for the justifiable rights of his nation. But he never scarified his principles before the altar of his nation’s interests and he remained a great civilian libertarian, always outspoken in the defense of individual rights and equal justice. And his principles were not at any moment clashed with the teachings of his faith though they might be at difference with a conventional mullah of that time. As he was stunned at the “Fatwa” of leaving India and to move Afghanistan would be a great service to Islam, he resisted to this and religious factions termed him speaker of Government and betrayer to his faith. But there was no question of someone’s faith since Islam portrayed by these so-called Mullahs could be the true Islam? According religious proceedings of that time Islam was only defined through Saying Prayers, Beard, and suppressing woman, and frankly speaking in our times it still stands there.

Whereas Jinnah’s personality is a true picture of a great man whose principles of being Honest, Trustworthy, Brave, Educated, and a Lawful citizen who always spoke not for his nation but for great humanity always according to teachings of Islam.

Sir,”Jinnah insisted, on behalf of readmitting the deported editor of the Bombay Chronicles, B.G.Horniman,

I do maintain, and I have drunk deep at the fountain of constitutional law, that the liberty of the man is the dearest thing in the law of any constitution and it should not be taken away in this fashion………I speak very feelingly, because no man should be deported and certainly not on such fabricated allegations as there, which, to my knowledge, are absolutely false.”[2]

And when he saw that people in the business were not playing fair he instead of distorting his own principles he simply withdrew himself from dirty game of politicians.

  • [1]Saiyid, “Jinnah” pp 264-265
    M.Rafique Afzal, Quid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah: Speeches in the Legislative Assembly of India, 1924-1930 (Lahore: Research Society of Pakistan, 1976), page xxi
To be continued..........


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The situation on Indian opinionated chessboard in late 1920s was a mixture of grave ambivalent ideologies. Jinnah in the heart of his hearts was a nationalist who sincerely believed in Hindu-Muslim union in early 1930s and fighting for the rights of his Muslim nation. Ghandi though claimed to be an Indian was a true Hindu preserving his nation and less popular leaders were unable to decide their ideology in this scenario. There was a stalemate since everyone was pulling the wrong ends of entangled strings of Communal problems, which was further worsening the situation. Skies over world’s richest land where people used to harvest two crops in a year were turning red as Hindus were not conceding the legitimate existence of Muslims and Muslims led by Jinnah were not in any mode to concede their justifiable rights. Jinnah met lot of barriers to this unification that could otherwise had turned this region into a Superpower long before. Muslims and their leaders tried their best to cooperate within the scope of a minority but Hindu majority leaders proved less shrewd to understand the realities as they were bent upon to avenge millennium long slavery of their predecessors through achieving Swaraj that only meant Hindu Rule in India.
In response to Simon Commission Moti Lal made a terrible mistake and Congress bluntly left a scar on the body politics of India by accepting Nehru Report and yet only time will prove that they will have to lick its consequent blood for rest of their lives.

“Motilal Nehru misjudged Jinnah’s resilience, however, by underestimating his powers. It was a fatal error, not only for his report, but for his hopes of retaining India as a united entity.”[7]

In all parties convention on 28 Dec, 1928 at Calcutta Jinnah spoke last time for united India and this can be an eye-opener for them who believed that it were Muslims who manipulated a great conspiracy of partition of Great India:

“I am not speaking as a Musalman but as an Indian………We are all sons of land. We have to live together. We have to work together and whatever our differences may be, let us at any rate agree to differ, but let us part as friends. Believe me there is no progress of India until the Musalmans and Hindus are united, and let no logic, philosophy or squabble stand in the way of coming to compromise and nothing will make me more happy than to see a Hindu-Muslim union.”[8]

What else Hindus could ask for? After 22 years of struggle of Muslim league to work for a united India proved a failure, top brass realized that something was severely misjudged and yet they were not aware of their misjudgment. What else Muslims could think of? There must be something else, Jinnah’s efforts went futile and he was tired of grimy politics of Hindus. He was not sure what to do, he was a practical person and he abandoned his efforts to impart unity between two nations though he never abandoned the fight of justifiable rights of his nation. He was blamed as a partner of British and an Imported leader but he never gave up his principles. Kanji Dwarkadas reported that Ramsay Macdonald tried to win greater cooperation from Jinnah during Round Table Conference by casually remarking to him:

“ In view of the forthcoming changes in India the British Government would be looking for distinguished Indians for appointment as Provincial Governors. The obvious implication of this suggestion was that “Jinnah would have an excellent chance if he proved to be a good boy.” Jinnah at once made it clear to Ramsay MacDonald that his services were not available for sale and firmly rejected the offer, which he believed was nothing less than “ an attempt to bribe him.” [9]

One should wonder that how one could level an allegation of misleading to such a great human being who never gained any material benefit from his party. He was lavish in his dressing but who said it was a treachery to Islam, he traveled in first class since he could afford since he was one of those expensive lawyers who charged their clients every of their minute. Astonishingly Jinnah fought and won World’s most intricate and complicated case with out any fees. If one carefully analyzes the events in chronicle order it becomes obvious that Congress Rule was last nail in the coffin of United India and nevertheless it was a blessing in disguise for a great nation. It will be a sheer waste of words to count the miseries of Muslims inflicted by Congress in unilateral way to wipe out Muslims. And the Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity could not keep himself cool and he declared end of rule as a deliverance day for Muslims.

The Congress has now, you must be aware, killed every hope of Hindu-Muslim settlement in the right royal fashion of Fascism,” said Quid-I-Azam, speaking extempore on the night of December 26, 1938, to his enthusiastic audience, “ The Congress is nothing but a Hindu body. That is the truth and the Congress leaders know it. The presence of few Muslims, the few misled and misguided ones, and the few who are there with ulterior motives, does not, can not, make it a national body. I challenge anybody to deny that Congress is not mainly a Hindu body. I ask, does the Congress represent the Muslims?[10] **

Jinnah and his league has tried once for all the night mare of coalition Government with congress while learning a lot of lessons to reshape their cause and to reorient their direction.

7. Stanely Wolpert, Jinnah of Pakistan, p. 99
8. Saiyid, Jinnah, pp. 432-435
9. Kanji Dwarkadas, Inida’s Fight for Freedom, 1913-1937. p. 385
10. Pirzada, Foundations, Vol II, pp. 304-306

To be concluded..............
__________________________________________________ _____________

And I, Qamar Riaz, on the behalf of my father of the nation, forward the same challenge to those who still believes that Congress was the national representative party and Making of Pakistan was a fabricated story of British, any time at any place.


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I have read ur some previous post regarding the Jinnah
well u clear the concept of mnopoly of jinnah
Well Sir qamer perhaps there are some doubts regarding islamic point of view .
The struggle of Jinnah ,no doubt, Tremendous for the muslim of India
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Post Quaid-e-Azam "through the years"

December 25, 1876 Born at Karachi
1882 Education started at home
1887 Admitted to Sind Madrasatul Islam, Karachi
1892 Married Emibai at the age of 16
Left Karachi for Europe

1893 Joined Lincoln's Inn
Emibai died at home

1895 Became Bar-at-Law
Mother died at Karachi

1896 Returned to Karachi from London
Migrated to Bombay

1897 Enrolled as Advocate in Bombay High Court
1900 Appointed Presidency Magistrate, Bombay
1906 Appointed Personal Secretary to Dadabhoy Naoroji
1909 Father died
Elected to the Supreme Imperial Council uncontested

1910 Elected to the Legislative Assembly, Bombay
1911 Piloted Waqf Alal Aulad Bill -- the only private member's Bill to be passed (in 1913)

1912 Attended All-India Muslim League Council Meeting
1913 Left for England with Gokhale
Founded London Indian Association
Joined All-India Muslim League

1915 Initiated the move for setting up of a League-Congress joint committee
for Hindu-Muslim unity

1916 Presided over the sixteenth Bombay Provincial Conference
Presided over the All-India Muslim League Lucknow session;
Lucknow Pact signed

1917 Became President, Home Rule League, Bombay
Organised "Memorandum of the Nineteen

1918 Married Rattenbai at Calcutta
Foiled the move to set up "Willingdon Memorial" in Bombay. Jinnah's
People's Memorial Hall constructed as a tribute to his services.

1919 Daughter (Dina) born
Resigned from the Imperial Legislative Council as a protest against
Rowlatt Act

1920 Resigned from Home Rule League
Resigned from the Congress on differences with Gandhi

1922 Participated in All Parties Conference in Bombay as one of the three
1923 Elected to the Imperial Legislative Council from Bombay
1924 Presided over the All-India Muslim League session in Lahore
1927 Boycotted the Simon Commission. Presided over a meeting of all the
important Muslim leaders at Delhi
1928 Attended National Convention at Calcutta
1928 Rattenbai died
1929 Jinnah's amendments to Nehru Report rejected
All-India Muslim League rejects Nehru Report at its Delhi session
Jinnah's Fourteen Points

1930 Attended Round Table Conference in London
1931 Stayed on in England; gave up political activities temporarily
1934 Returned to India. Got actively engaged in politics
Again elected to the Central Legislative Assembly
Elected Permanent President of All-India Muslim League
Elected leader of the Independent Party in the Assembly

1935 Government of India Act, 1935 passed
Jinnah-Rajendra Prasad Formula

1936 Constituted All-India Muslim League Central Parliamentary Board to fight
elections under 1935 Act

1937 Provincial elections under 1935 Act
Congress forms ministries in six provinces; Congress raj begins
Jinnah presides over League session at Lucknow.
All-India Muslim League turned into a mass organisation and compete
independence adopted as goal

1938 Presides over Special League Session at Calcutta
Presides over League Session at Patna

1939 Demand Royal Commission to inquire into Muslim grievances under
Congress rule.
Day of Deliverance observed (on exit of Congress Ministries)

1940 Historic Lahore (Pakistan) Resolution passed

1943 Rejected Rajagopalachariya formula
Presided over All-India Muslim League's Karachi session and said: "We
have got millions behind us; we have got our flag and our platform;
and what is more we have now the definite goal of Pakistan." Toured
the subcontinent like a storm

1944 Jinnah-Gandhi talks
1945 Participated in Simla Conference.
Elected to Central Legislative Assembly

1946 January 11, All-India Muslim League sweeps the polls in Muslim
constituencies; Victory Day
April 4, Meeting with Cabinet Mission
April 9, Called a convention of all Muslim members of the Central and
Provincial Assemblies at Delhi
May 16, Cabinet Mission Plan announced
June, League accepts Cabinet Mission Plan. League also accepts Short-Term (Interim Government) Plan
July Conditional acceptance of Cabinet Mission Plan by Congress. Congress rejects Short-Term Plan. Viceroy's volte face on the formation of Interim Government. All-India Muslim League withdraws earlier acceptance, rejects Cabinet Mission Plan and announces boycott of Constituent Assembly. Called upon Members to renounce all British titles and honours in protest against British attitude towards Muslims and decides to launch Direct Action to wrest Pakistan

August 16, Direct Action Day

October 25, All-India Muslim League agrees to participate in the Interim Government

December 2, Reaches London on invitation from Secretary of State

December 6, British Government's clarification upholds League's viewpoint on Cabinet Mission Plan

1947 February 20, Prime Minister Attlee announces that the British would relinquish power in India by June 1948
June 3, Plan envisaging partition of India and establishment of Pakistan announced. Jinnah's historic broadcast accepting the Plan
July, Indian Independence Act passed by British Parliament
August 7, Left Delhi for Karachi by air
August 11, Elected President of Pakistan Constituent Assembly. Presidential address in the Constituent Assembly. Title of "Quaid-e-Azam" conferred on him

August 14, Pakistan comes into being; the Quaid-e-Azam sworn in as the first Gvernor-General

October, Set up headquarters at Lahore to supervise settlement of refugees in Punjab

December 25, First official birthday

1948 July 1, Inaugurated State Bank of Pakistan; gave a call for evolving a new economic system
July 14, Left again for rest at Ziarat

August 14, First Independence Day; last message to the nation

September 11, Returned to Karachi from Ziarat; Breathed his last.
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Post Quaid-e-Azam as a Leader

"A leader of the people is their servant (Prophet Muhammad Peace Be Upon Him)".

The personally of Jinnah mirrored this Hiddah perfectly. He lived and died for his people. He served those whom he led like their true leader - a true servant. He was a leader of a different breed. He did not degrade his people or treat them as rabble. He respected them and in turn received all their love and respect.

It was undoubtedly the Quaid’s great leadership that made a forlorn scattered multitude into a nation. Here are some views of some other persons about MA Jinnah as leader.

"Jinnah is the most important man in Asia because he can sway the battle this way or that way as he chooses. His 100 million Muslims will march to the left, to the right, to the front, to the rear at his binding and nobody else’s - that is the point. If Gandhi goes, there is always Nehru, or Rajagopalchari, or Patel or a dozen others. But if Jinnah goes, who is there?" (Beverly Nichols, British author and reporter, 1943)

"Mr. M A Jinnah himself was more advanced than most of his colleagues of the Muslim League. Indeed he stood head and shoulders above them and had therefore become the indispensable leader and eventually he became the Muslim League." (Nehru, Discovery of India)

from :
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ihs has a spectacular aura aboutihs has a spectacular aura aboutihs has a spectacular aura about

@ qamar sahib
gr8 job sir.. i ll like 2 add another point in it------ really astonishing point
the point is that all the great leaders of the world who commanded respect by their masses used 2 speak the language easily understandable by the masses
QUAID was, is and ( i think) will remain the only exception who used 2 deliver speech in ENGLISH & a great majority of the audience could not understand what he is saying..... but on every pause during his speech, ppl used 2 clap with slogans QUAID E AZAM ZINDABAD
this reflected the TRUST which muslims had in him. I think we ( specially the CSPs) should learn lesson from Quaid & make our character so clear that ppl should consider us as their true well wisher
Pray as everything depends on God, work as everything depends on you
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Post Muhammad Ali JINNAH

Muhammad Ali JINNAH
M. A. Jinnah was a history-making leader who changed the course of history. He possessed a
visionary leadership, commitment to the cause and political mobilization capacity. He was a Charismatic Leader in the real sense of the meaning.
Jinnah played a decisive role in articulating the Muslim demands and pursuing these faced strong
opposition from the Hindus and the British. He started his political career in 1906 by joining the Indian National Congress. He was elected to the Legislative Council in 1909 and in 1913 he also joined the All India Muslim League (AIML). Now he was member of both the political parties.
Having disagreement with Gandhi on the issue of Swaraj (self-rule), complete freedom from the British and on using extra-constitutional means, Jinnah resigned from the Congress in 1920.
His early efforts to promote Hindu-Muslim unity were materialized when THE LUCKNOW PACT (1916) was signed. The Hindus accepted the Muslim demands:
Separate Electorate
One-third Seats in Central Legislature
protection of minority rights
In the Nehru Report, the accepted Muslim rights were ignored. Jinnah retaliated forcefully by presenting 14 Points in 1929. He defined Muslim identity and mobilized them with reference to Islam and convinced others that Muslims are different from the Hindus and the Congress. Islamic principles, concepts and symbols surfaced in his speeches and statements.
Jinnah used the term NATION for the Muslims of India in Feb 1935 (Legislative Assembly). He argued that the combination of religion, culture, race, arts, music and so forth make a minority a SEPARATE ENTITY. In March 1936 Bombay, he stated that the Muslims could arrive at a settlement with Hindus as TWO Nations. In 1937, he asserted that there is also a third party in India, the Muslims. In 1939, he roared that the Muslims and Hindus are two nations and they are going to live as a nation and playing part as a nation:
“We are a nation with our own distinctive culture and civilization,
language and literature, names and nomenclature, sense of
values and proportion, legal laws and moral code, custom and
calendar, history and tradition, aptitudes and ambitions; in
short, we have our own distinctive outlook on life and of life. By
all cannons of international law, we are a nation”

Speeches and statements: 1940-47
Jinnah believed in the force of Islam as he said that Islam is a dynamic force that can unite the Muslims. It can help to overcome the present crisis. It’s a source of inspiration and guidance providing ethical foundation, a framework, social order and civilization. Guidance & inspiration for constitution-making and Governance He also talked of the modern notions of state, constitution, civil and political rights and
democracy. He assured that constitution of Pakistan would be framed by the elected assembly.
Modern democratic and Islamic State He gave assurance of equality of all citizens and rights and freedom to religious minorities in the new state.
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Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah

Father of the Nation Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah's achievement as the founder of Pakistan, dominates everything else he did in his long and crowded public life spanning some 42 years. Yet, by any standard, his was an eventful life, his personality multidimensional and his achievements in other fields were many, if not equally great. Indeed, several were the roles he had played with distinction: at one time or another, he was one of the greatest legal luminaries India had produced during the first half of the century, an `ambassador of Hindu-Muslim unity, a great constitutionalist, a distinguished parliamentarian, a top-notch politician, an indefatigable freedom-fighter, a dynamic Muslim leader, a political strategist and, above all one of the great nation-builders of modern times. What, however, makes him so remarkable is the fact that while similar other leaders assumed the leadership of traditionally well-defined nations and espoused their cause, or led them to freedom, he created a nation out of an inchoate and down-trodeen minority and established a cultural and national home for it. And all that within a decase. For over three decades before the successful culmination in 1947, of the Muslim struggle for freedom in the South-Asian subcontinent, Jinnah had provided political leadership to the Indian Muslims: initially as one of the leaders, but later, since 1947, as the only prominent leader- the Quaid-i-Azam. For over thirty years, he had guided their affairs; he had given expression, coherence and direction to their ligitimate aspirations and cherished dreams; he had formulated these into concerete demands; and, above all, he had striven all the while to get them conceded by both the ruling British and the numerous Hindus the dominant segment of India's population. And for over thirty years he had fought, relentlessly and inexorably, for the inherent rights of the Muslims for an honourable existence in the subcontinent. Indeed, his life story constitutes, as it were, the story of the rebirth of the Muslims of the subcontinent and their spectacular rise to nationhood, phoenixlike.

Early Life
Born on December 25, 1876, in a prominent mercantile family in Karachi and educated at the Sindh Madrassat-ul-Islam and the Christian Mission School at his birth place,Jinnah joined the Lincoln's Inn in 1893 to become the youngest Indian to be called to the Bar, three years later. Starting out in the legal profession withknothing to fall back upon except his native ability and determination, young Jinnah rose to prominence and became Bombay's most successful lawyer, as few did, within a few years. Once he was firmly established in the legal profession, Jinnah formally entered politics in 1905 from the platform of the Indian National Congress. He went to England in that year alongwith Gopal Krishna Gokhale (1866-1915), as a member of a Congress delegation to plead the cause of Indian self-governemnt during the British elections. A year later, he served as Secretary to Dadabhai Noaroji (1825-1917), the then Indian National Congress President, which was considered a great honour for a budding politician. Here, at the Calcutta Congress session (December 1906), he also made his first political speech in support of the resolution on self-government.

Political Career
Three years later, in January 1910, Jinnah was elected to the newly-constituted Imperial Legislative Council. All through his parliamentary career, which spanned some four decades, he was probably the most powerful voice in the cause of Indian freedom and Indian rights. Jinnah, who was also the first Indian to pilot a private member's Bill through the Council, soon became a leader of a group inside the legislature. Mr. Montagu (1879-1924), Secretary of State for India, at the close of the First World War, considered Jinnah "perfect mannered, impressive-looking, armed to the teeth with dialecties..."Jinnah, he felt, "is a very clever man, and it is, of course, an outrage that such a man should have no chance of running the affairs of his own country."

For about three decades since his entry into politics in 1906, Jinnah passionately believed in and assiduously worked for Hindu-Muslim unity. Gokhale, the foremost Hindu leader before Gandhi, had once said of him, "He has the true stuff in him and that freedom from all sectarian prejudice which will make him the best ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity: And, to be sure, he did become the architect of Hindu-Muslim Unity: he was responsible for the Congress-League Pact of 1916, known popularly as Lucknow Pact- the only pact ever signed between the two political organisations, the Congress and the All-India Muslim League, representing, as they did, the two major communities in the subcontinent."

The Congress-League scheme embodied in this pact was to become the basis for the Montagu-Chemlsford Reforms, also known as the Act of 1919. In retrospect, the Lucknow Pact represented a milestone in the evolution of Indian politics. For one thing, it conceded Muslims the right to separate electorate, reservation of seats in the legislatures and weightage in representation both at the Centre and the minority provinces. Thus, their retention was ensured in the next phase of reforms. For another, it represented a tacit recognition of the All-India Muslim League as the representative organisation of the Muslims, thus strengthening the trend towards Muslim individuality in Indian politics. And to Jinnah goes the credit for all this. Thus, by 1917, Jinnah came to be recognised among both Hindus and Muslims as one of India's most outstanding political leaders. Not only was he prominent in the Congress and the Imperial Legislative Council, he was also the President of the All-India Muslim and that of lthe Bombay Branch of the Home Rule League. More important, because of his key-role in the Congress-League entente at Lucknow, he was hailed as the ambassador, as well as the embodiment, of Hindu-Muslim unity.

Constitutional Struggle
In subsequent years, however, he felt dismayed at the injection of violence into politics. Since Jinnah stood for "ordered progress", moderation, gradualism and constitutionalism, he felt that political terrorism was not the pathway to national liberation but, the dark alley to disaster and destruction. Hence, the constitutionalist Jinnah could not possibly, countenance Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi's novel methods of Satyagrah (civil disobedience) and the triple boycott of government-aided schools and colleges, courts and councils and British textiles. Earlier, in October 1920, when Gandhi, having been elected President of the Home Rule League, sought to change its constitution as well as its nomenclature, Jinnah had resigned from the Home Rule League, saying: "Your extreme programme has for the moment struck the imagination mostly of the inexperienced youth and the ignorant and the illiterate. All this means disorganisation and choas". Jinnah did not believe that ends justified the means.

In the ever-growing frustration among the masses caused by colonial rule, there was ample cause for extremism. But, Gandhi's doctrine of non-cooperation, Jinnah felt, even as Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941) did also feel, was at best one of negation and despair: it might lead to the building up of resentment, but nothing constructive. Hence, he opposed tooth and nail the tactics adopted by Gandhi to exploit the Khilafat and wrongful tactics in the Punjab in the early twenties. On the eve of its adoption of the Gandhian programme, Jinnah warned the Nagpur Congress Session (1920): "you are making a declaration (of Swaraj within a year) and committing the Indian National Congress to a programme, which you will not be able to carry out". He felt that there was no short-cut to independence and that Gandhi's extra-constitutional methods could only lead to political terrorism, lawlessness and chaos, without bringing India nearer to the threshold of freedom.

The future course of events was not only to confirm Jinnah's worst fears, but also to prove him right. Although Jinnah left the Congress soon thereafter, he continued his efforts towards bringing about a Hindu-Muslim entente, which he rightly considered "the most vital condition of Swaraj". However, because of the deep distrust between the two communities as evidenced by the country-wide communal riots, and because the Hindus failed to meet the genuine demands of the Muslims, his efforts came to naught. One such effort was the formulation of the Delhi Muslim Proposals in March, 1927. In order to bridge Hindu-Muslim differences on the constitutional plan, these proposals even waived the Muslim right to separate electorate, the most basic Muslim demand since 1906, which though recognised by the congress in the Lucknow Pact, had again become a source of friction between the two communities. surprisingly though, the Nehru Report (1928), which represented the Congress-sponsored proposals for the future constitution of India, negated the minimum Muslim demands embodied in the Delhi Muslim Proposals.

In vain did Jinnah argue at the National convention (1928): "What we want is that Hindus and Mussalmans should march together until our object is achieved...These two communities have got to be reconciled and united and made to feel that their interests are common". The Convention's blank refusal to accept Muslim demands represented the most devastating setback to Jinnah's life-long efforts to bring about Hindu-Muslim unity, it meant "the last straw" for the Muslims, and "the parting of the ways" for him, as he confessed to a Parsee friend at that time. Jinnah's disillusionment at the course of politics in the subcontinent prompted him to migrate and settle down in London in the early thirties. He was, however, to return to India in 1934, at the pleadings of his co-religionists, and assume their leadership. But, the Muslims presented a sad spectacle at that time. They were a mass of disgruntled and demoralised men and women, politically disorganised and destitute of a clear-cut political programme.

Muslim League Reorganized
Thus, the task that awaited Jinnah was anything but easy. The Muslim League was dormant: primary branches it had none; even its provincial organizations were, for the most part, ineffective and only nominally under the control of the central organization. Nor did the central body have any coherent policy of its own till the Bombay session (1936), which Jinnah organized. To make matters worse, the provincial scene presented a sort of a jigsaw puzzle: in the Punjab, Bengal, Sindh, the North West Frontier, Assam, Bihar and the United Provinces, various Muslim leaders had set up their own provincial parties to serve their personal ends. Extremely frustrating as the situation was, the only consultation Jinnah had at this juncture was in Allama Iqbal (1877-1938), the poet-philosopher, who stood steadfast by him and helped to charter the course of Indian politics from behind the scene.

Undismayed by this bleak situation, Jinnah devoted himself with singleness of purpose to organizing the Muslims on one platform. He embarked upon country-wide tours. He pleaded with provincial Muslim leaders to sink their differences and make common cause with the League. He exhorted the Muslim masses to organize themselves and join the League. He gave coherence and direction to Muslim sentiments on the Government of India Act, 1935. He advocated that the Federal Scheme should be scrapped as it was subversive of India's cherished goal of complete responsible Government, while the provincial scheme, which conceded provincial autonomy for the first time, should be worked for what it was worth, despite its certain objectionable features. He also formulated a viable League manifesto for the election scheduled for early 1937. He was, it seemed, struggling against time to make Muslim India a power to be reckoned with.

Despite all the manifold odds stacked against it, the Muslim League won some 108 (about 23 per cent) seats out of a total of 485 Muslim seats in the various legislature. Though not very impressive in itself, the League's partial success assumed added significance in view of the fact that the League won the largest number of Muslim seats and that it was the only all-India party of the Muslims in the country. Thus, the elections represented the first milestone on the long road to putting Muslim India on the map of the subcontinent. Congress in Power With the year 1937 opened the most mementoes decade in modern Indian history. In that year came into force the provincial part of the Government of India Act, 1935, granting autonomy to Indians for the first time, in the provinces.

The Congress, having become the dominant party in Indian politics, came to power in seven provinces exclusively, spurning the League's offer of cooperation, turning its back finally on the coalition idea and excluding Muslims as a political entity from the portals of power. In that year, also, the Muslim League, under Jinnah's dynamic leadership, was reorganized de novo, transformed into a mass organization, and made the spokesman of Indian Muslims as never before. Above all, in that momentous year were initiated certain trends in Indian politics, the crystallization of which in subsequent years made the partition of the subcontinent inevitable. The practical manifestation of the policy of the Congress which took office in July, 1937, in seven out of eleven provinces, convinced Muslims that, in the Congress scheme of things, they could live only on sufferance of Hindus and as "second class" citizens. The Congress provincial governments, it may be remembered, had embarked upon a policy and launched a PROGRAMME in which Muslims felt that their religion, language and culture were not safe. This blatantly aggressive Congress policy was seized upon by Jinnah to awaken the Muslims to a new consciousness, organize them on all-India platform, and make them a power to be reckoned with. He also gave coherence, direction and articulation to their innermost, yet vague, urges and aspirations. Above all, the filled them with his indomitable will, his own unflinching faith in their destiny.
Go confidently in the direction of your dreams. Live the life you have imagined.

Last edited by Andrew Dufresne; Saturday, July 03, 2010 at 05:20 AM. Reason: Kindly avoid using red color
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i have heard about Muhammad Ali Jinnah ,and always try that i got perfect information i read before also about Ali Jinnah but some new words i have got here. . i always try to read about great personalities and Ali Jinnah is one of best personality. so really happy to know about them.
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