Thursday, December 08, 2022
12:05 AM (GMT +5)

Go Back   CSS Forums > CSS Optional subjects > Group III > Public Administration

Reply Share Thread: Submit Thread to Facebook Facebook     Submit Thread to Twitter Twitter     Submit Thread to Google+ Google+    
 
LinkBack Thread Tools Search this Thread
  #1  
Old Friday, August 10, 2012
rose_pak's Avatar
40th CTP (IRS)
CSP Medal: Awarded to those Members of the forum who are serving CSP Officers - Issue reason: CE 2011 - Merit 176Medal of Appreciation: Awarded to appreciate member's contribution on forum. (Academic and professional achievements do not make you eligible for this medal) - Issue reason:
 
Join Date: Nov 2009
Location: Islamabad,
Posts: 521
Thanks: 453
Thanked 851 Times in 301 Posts
rose_pak is a jewel in the roughrose_pak is a jewel in the roughrose_pak is a jewel in the roughrose_pak is a jewel in the rough
Default Public Administration Notes by Shakeel Babar

Public Administration is a bit technical subject but not difficult. You can score good if you are well prepared, especially in context of current happenings with the bureaucracy. It means you will have to be abreast with current affairs, rather public administration current affairs, apart from studying good material.

For attempting Public administration paper do not forget to quote its theorists, experts and bureaucrats in support of your argument. This is the key to score high in this paper. Additionally, in each question you attempt show that you understand public administration as servant of public not the master.


There are some books available in the market. People suggest Dr. Sultan's books for Public Administration and Personnel Administration. However, I have never been satisfied with his books. Second option is Dr. Najia Younus. I haven't studied her book but heard about it being good. You may check this. Thirdly Virtual University Notes of public administration has been very effective.

The notes I am going to post below are made from Dr. Sutlan, Virtual University and some of my MBA notes. I hope they would help you in preparation.
__________________
Ahmad Shakeel Babar
.
"If you really want to achieve something the whole universe conspires for you to get your dream realized."
Reply With Quote
The Following 13 Users Say Thank You to rose_pak For This Useful Post:
alirazakh (Sunday, August 17, 2014), Austere (Sunday, August 12, 2012), hzk17 (Thursday, February 01, 2018), imranazeem (Monday, February 23, 2015), Jamal Usama (Thursday, June 30, 2022), MoonSaghar (Tuesday, January 15, 2013), Muhammad Jawad Dal (Saturday, August 01, 2015), naveed khan (Wednesday, September 26, 2012), Peerhamza (Wednesday, October 28, 2015), salmanubaid (Thursday, June 05, 2014), student (Saturday, August 18, 2012), Taimoor Gondal (Saturday, August 11, 2012), Tayyab Imdad Seastani (Sunday, August 18, 2019)
  #2  
Old Friday, August 10, 2012
rose_pak's Avatar
40th CTP (IRS)
CSP Medal: Awarded to those Members of the forum who are serving CSP Officers - Issue reason: CE 2011 - Merit 176Medal of Appreciation: Awarded to appreciate member's contribution on forum. (Academic and professional achievements do not make you eligible for this medal) - Issue reason:
 
Join Date: Nov 2009
Location: Islamabad,
Posts: 521
Thanks: 453
Thanked 851 Times in 301 Posts
rose_pak is a jewel in the roughrose_pak is a jewel in the roughrose_pak is a jewel in the roughrose_pak is a jewel in the rough
Default

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

“It is a detailed and systematic application of law.” Woodrow Wilson

“To carry out the directives of the politicians” Herbert Simson

“It includes all three branches” Prof Pfiffner



SCOPE

• Deference of Opinion on definition due to vastness

Scope as a discipline

1. Managerial View

a. Public administration is made up of managerial skills
b. Henri Fayol (5 functions – POCSC - Planning; Organizing; Coordination; Staffing; Communication)
c. Management of 3 Ms
d. Luther Gulick (POSDCORB - Planning; Organizing; Staffing; Directing; Coordination and Communication; Reporting; Budgeting)

2. Subject Matter View
a. POSDCORB is criticized; it overlooks other things
b. Many other fields – law and order, health, education
c. Public Ad is an instrument having two blades – POSDCORB and Subject matter
d. Administrative Theory (Walker)
i. Study of structure, organization, functions and problems of public authority
e. Applied Administration
i. Political
ii. Judicial
iii. Economic
iv. ……
3. Scope varies as per expectations (public) and declarations (state); all state activities


SCIENCE or ART

“Science is investigation and observation, followed by tabulation, classification and analysis.”
• Scientific theory (FW Taylor)
• POSDCORB
• It is a body of systematized knowledge derived from observation and experience
• Scientific method of study is applicable
• More and more accurate predictions
• If it is not science today, will be tomorrow
As an Art
• Running the administration
• Act of doing things

IMPORTANCE OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

• As a specialized subject of Study
o Governmental problems
o In social perspectives, impact of gov’t policies
o Used in developing countries
o Teachings in colleges
• As an practice
o Public development
o Visible face of the government (W.W)
• Basis of government
• Instrument of providing services
• Instrument of implementing policies
• A stabilizing force in the society

Democratic Values
• Liberty
• Individualism
• Equality

Another View
• Constitutional Supremacy
• Rule of Law
• Representative Government
__________________
Ahmad Shakeel Babar
.
"If you really want to achieve something the whole universe conspires for you to get your dream realized."
Reply With Quote
The Following 7 Users Say Thank You to rose_pak For This Useful Post:
alirazakh (Sunday, August 17, 2014), Austere (Sunday, August 12, 2012), Miss Ayaz (Sunday, August 12, 2012), MoonSaghar (Tuesday, January 15, 2013), salmanubaid (Thursday, June 05, 2014), student (Saturday, August 18, 2012), Syed Imran Ali (Monday, October 01, 2012)
  #3  
Old Friday, August 10, 2012
rose_pak's Avatar
40th CTP (IRS)
CSP Medal: Awarded to those Members of the forum who are serving CSP Officers - Issue reason: CE 2011 - Merit 176Medal of Appreciation: Awarded to appreciate member's contribution on forum. (Academic and professional achievements do not make you eligible for this medal) - Issue reason:
 
Join Date: Nov 2009
Location: Islamabad,
Posts: 521
Thanks: 453
Thanked 851 Times in 301 Posts
rose_pak is a jewel in the roughrose_pak is a jewel in the roughrose_pak is a jewel in the roughrose_pak is a jewel in the rough
Default

EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION


Public administration as practice

• Egyptian Pyramids – 1500 BC
• Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa

As Subject Matter

• After 1914
• More welfare function of state
• In result of mark imperfections after industrialization
• In the aftermath of 1929 Great Recession
• To achieve efficiency and productivity as private sector

CLASSICAL SCHOOL


1. Woodrow Wilson – “The Study of Administration” 1887 (efficiency and productivity) – dichotomy between politics and public ad due to corruption and private sector

2. LD White – “Introduction to the study of Public Administration” 1927 – dichotomy but values
Scientific Management

3. F W Taylor – “Father of Scientific Management” 1930 - Shoveling experiment – human cooperation; supervision; right person for the right job

a. Assumptions
i. Human is a rational economic animal
ii. People respond as individual, not as group
iii. Human as machine

b. Based on
i. Standard mechanism
ii. Economic motivation
iii. Manager to supervise
iv. Worker to do what is told

c. Weaknesses
i. Money is not for all
ii. Human are not machine

d. Conclusion of experiment
i. Scientific measures
ii. Harmony between supervisor and employee
iii. Achieving cooperation is imperative for productivity
iv. Worker should work for maximum productivity (Piece rate)
v. Right man for the right job

4. Gant – task/ planning; human cooperation; Gant chart; PERT

5. Frank and Gilbreth – time and motion study

6. Max Weber

a. Hierarchy of authority
i. Traditional
ii. Charismatic
iii. Rational/legal
b. Impersonality
c. Written rules
d. Promotion on performance
e. Specialization

7. Henri Fayol “ Father of Modern Management”

a. Book “Industrial and General Management”
b. Fourteen Principal of General Management
i. Division of Work
ii. Unity of Command
iii. Unity of Direction
iv. Discipline
v. Authority
vi. Remuneration
vii. Team Work
viii. Line of Authority (Scalar Chain)
ix. Job security
x. Centralization
xi. Order
xii. Equity
xiii. Initiative – Keenness to work
xiv. Sub ordination of individual interests to the organizational

Features of Classic School

• Materialism – piece rate
• Efficiency and productivity
• Emphasis on Material and method rather than human being
• Administration is apolitical and technical

.
__________________
Ahmad Shakeel Babar
.
"If you really want to achieve something the whole universe conspires for you to get your dream realized."
Reply With Quote
The Following 6 Users Say Thank You to rose_pak For This Useful Post:
adeel abdullah (Saturday, August 03, 2013), alirazakh (Sunday, August 17, 2014), Austere (Sunday, August 12, 2012), MoonSaghar (Tuesday, January 15, 2013), salmanubaid (Thursday, June 05, 2014), student (Saturday, August 18, 2012)
  #4  
Old Friday, August 10, 2012
rose_pak's Avatar
40th CTP (IRS)
CSP Medal: Awarded to those Members of the forum who are serving CSP Officers - Issue reason: CE 2011 - Merit 176Medal of Appreciation: Awarded to appreciate member's contribution on forum. (Academic and professional achievements do not make you eligible for this medal) - Issue reason:
 
Join Date: Nov 2009
Location: Islamabad,
Posts: 521
Thanks: 453
Thanked 851 Times in 301 Posts
rose_pak is a jewel in the roughrose_pak is a jewel in the roughrose_pak is a jewel in the roughrose_pak is a jewel in the rough
Default

HUMAN RELATIONS SCHOOL


• Good results due to classical school however 1929 Depression came
• Scholars to find causes of depression
• Human Relations Movement in 1930s

1. Hawthorne Studies by Elton Mayo

a. Two groups – control and test; both were given same physical conditions; physical conditions of test groups were changed; to the amusement of the experimenters, the results were same; so they concluded that some extraneous factors also are important.

b. Extraneous factors – employees were treated as special; group competition and attention of management

c. The result:
i. Treat as special – encouragement
ii. Group cohesiveness
iii. Interpersonal relations of the supervisor

2. Chester I Bernard “The Functions of Executive”

a. Human behavior is important
b. The ultimate source of authority is subordinate
c. There are three zone of employee cooperation
i. Zone of Acceptance
ii. Zone of indifference
iii. Zone of Rejection
d. A manger should always work to increase zone of acceptation, though cooperation, interdepartmental instructions and cross trainings

3. Herbert A Simon

a. Emphasize on Human behavior with special reference to Decision Making – he was a Nobel laureate
b. He said, the decisions are not always made on rational (step by step) grounds, rather manger use cognitive (judgment) skills. So all decisions (Actions) are backed by conscious or unconscious experience.
c. So the org are not mechanical, rather employee conscious effects
d. Informal, interpersonal relations and group dynamics are important

BEHAVIOURAL SCHOOL

• Commonality with Human Relations School
o Motivation of employee
o Individual and group behavior
o Communication
• However HRS emphasized on group whereas BS emphasized on individual behavior
• Managers need to understand the behavior.

1. Ibrahim Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

a. Basic Needs
b. Safety Needs
c. Sense of Belongingness – tribes, association
d. Ego-Status Needs
e. Self Actualization

2. Doglous McGreggor

a. Two assumptions
b. Theory X – negative – dislike work; avoid responsibility; need supervision
c. Theory Y – positive

SYSTEM SCHOOL

• Organization is a unified system of interrelated parts to achieve certain goals and objective
• This concept is borrowed from biological sciences by social sciences
• Subsystems; Synergy; open or close org; feedback’

POWER AND POLITICS SCHOOL


Power: Ability to influence
Politics: it is about controlling and distributing the resources
.
__________________
Ahmad Shakeel Babar
.
"If you really want to achieve something the whole universe conspires for you to get your dream realized."
Reply With Quote
The Following 7 Users Say Thank You to rose_pak For This Useful Post:
adeel abdullah (Saturday, August 03, 2013), Austere (Sunday, August 12, 2012), Diya Roshni (Saturday, May 16, 2015), MoonSaghar (Tuesday, January 15, 2013), naveed khan (Wednesday, September 26, 2012), rashidrhb (Saturday, August 11, 2012), salmanubaid (Thursday, June 05, 2014)
  #5  
Old Friday, August 10, 2012
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jun 2011
Location: Digri, Mirpurkhas
Posts: 273
Thanks: 65
Thanked 184 Times in 114 Posts
shakeel ghori is on a distinguished road
Default

Indeed, it is an outstanding contribution by you for those who have opted this subject. Please do tell me the best books for this subject. I will be grate to you..

Regards

Last edited by Shooting Star; Saturday, August 11, 2012 at 12:15 AM. Reason: quote removed
Reply With Quote
  #6  
Old Friday, August 10, 2012
shah's Avatar
Senior Member
 
Join Date: May 2012
Location: Lahore,Multan and Islamabad
Posts: 416
Thanks: 23
Thanked 470 Times in 277 Posts
shah has a spectacular aura aboutshah has a spectacular aura aboutshah has a spectacular aura about
Default

@ rose_pak

dude good work but bro number of schools is less or post of schools is in process ?

Quote:
Originally Posted by shakeel ghori View Post
Indeed, it is an outstanding contribution by you for those who have opted this subject. Please do tell me the best books for this subject. I will be grate to you..

Regards
everyone has his own choice regarding book according to perceiving skills and writing style but i prefer sultan khan with carvan publishers book of p.ad which is small in size and covers the remaining parts

Last edited by Shooting Star; Saturday, August 11, 2012 at 12:16 AM. Reason: Quote removed/Merged
Reply With Quote
The Following 2 Users Say Thank You to shah For This Useful Post:
MoonSaghar (Tuesday, January 15, 2013), shakeel ghori (Saturday, August 11, 2012)
  #7  
Old Sunday, August 12, 2012
rose_pak's Avatar
40th CTP (IRS)
CSP Medal: Awarded to those Members of the forum who are serving CSP Officers - Issue reason: CE 2011 - Merit 176Medal of Appreciation: Awarded to appreciate member's contribution on forum. (Academic and professional achievements do not make you eligible for this medal) - Issue reason:
 
Join Date: Nov 2009
Location: Islamabad,
Posts: 521
Thanks: 453
Thanked 851 Times in 301 Posts
rose_pak is a jewel in the roughrose_pak is a jewel in the roughrose_pak is a jewel in the roughrose_pak is a jewel in the rough
Default

Quote:
Originally Posted by shakeel ghori View Post
Indeed, it is an outstanding contribution by you for those who have opted this subject. Please do tell me the best books for this subject. I will be grate to you..

Regards
As I noted above,

1. Public Administration by Dr Sultan
2. Personnel Administration by Dr. Sultan
3. Virtual University Notes of Public Administration


Some one told me that Dr. Najia's book is better than Dr. Sultan's. You may check both.

Quote:
Originally Posted by shah View Post
@ rose_pak

dude good work but bro number of schools is less or post of schools is in process ?

There are five major approaches/schools in public administration.
1) Classical/Mehanical
2) Scientific
3) Human Relation
4) Behavioral
5) System
6) Power and Politics

I have notes a little bit about everyone of them.
__________________
Ahmad Shakeel Babar
.
"If you really want to achieve something the whole universe conspires for you to get your dream realized."
Reply With Quote
The Following 3 Users Say Thank You to rose_pak For This Useful Post:
Diya Roshni (Saturday, May 16, 2015), M A Wahid (Tuesday, August 21, 2012), MoonSaghar (Tuesday, January 15, 2013)
  #8  
Old Sunday, August 12, 2012
shah's Avatar
Senior Member
 
Join Date: May 2012
Location: Lahore,Multan and Islamabad
Posts: 416
Thanks: 23
Thanked 470 Times in 277 Posts
shah has a spectacular aura aboutshah has a spectacular aura aboutshah has a spectacular aura about
Default

Quote:
Originally Posted by rose_pak View Post
There are five major approaches/schools in public administration.
1) Classical/Mehanical
2) Scientific
3) Human Relation
4) Behavioral
5) System
6) Power and Politics

I have notes a little bit about everyone of them.
bro what about mathematical school or business school or empirical school of public administration, these are also major schools and are considered as schools .
Reply With Quote
  #9  
Old Wednesday, June 25, 2014
Junior Member
 
Join Date: Mar 2014
Posts: 9
Thanks: 3
Thanked 0 Times in 0 Posts
SIDRA SIDDIQUE is on a distinguished road
Default re continue ur notes

you must re-continue ur efforts in sharing ur notes as it will immensly help the aspirants
Reply With Quote
  #10  
Old Sunday, August 17, 2014
alirazakh's Avatar
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jun 2011
Location: No man's land
Posts: 308
Thanks: 104
Thanked 138 Times in 98 Posts
alirazakh is on a distinguished road
Default Continue

Your endeavours are priceless; please keep up.
__________________
Our life, our decisions; no complaints, no regrets.(self)
Reply With Quote
The Following User Says Thank You to alirazakh For This Useful Post:
parwarsha (Monday, November 24, 2014)
Reply

Thread Tools Search this Thread
Search this Thread:

Advanced Search

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off
Trackbacks are On
Pingbacks are On
Refbacks are On


Similar Threads
Thread Thread Starter Forum Replies Last Post
Public Administration 2000 Argus CSS 2000 Papers 2 Tuesday, January 13, 2015 12:13 AM
National Education Policy 2009 Raja Bahar Pakistan Affairs 0 Sunday, June 10, 2012 07:32 PM
Repeated Questions of Forestry Last Island Forestry 0 Saturday, December 03, 2011 07:24 PM
Help in public Finance required Islaw Khan Topics and Notes 4 Saturday, April 18, 2009 10:56 AM


CSS Forum on Facebook Follow CSS Forum on Twitter

Disclaimer: All messages made available as part of this discussion group (including any bulletin boards and chat rooms) and any opinions, advice, statements or other information contained in any messages posted or transmitted by any third party are the responsibility of the author of that message and not of CSSForum.com.pk (unless CSSForum.com.pk is specifically identified as the author of the message). The fact that a particular message is posted on or transmitted using this web site does not mean that CSSForum has endorsed that message in any way or verified the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any message. We encourage visitors to the forum to report any objectionable message in site feedback. This forum is not monitored 24/7.

Sponsors: ArgusVision   vBulletin, Copyright ©2000 - 2022, Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd.