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Old Friday, December 14, 2012
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Default The ummayad rulers:

Al-Walid ibn Abd al-MaliK or Al-Walid I (668 – 23 February 715) was an Umayyad Caliph(honestly an umayyad king or ruler)who ruled from 705 to his death in 715. His reign saw the greatest expansion of the Caliphate, as successful campaigns were undertaken in Transoxiana, Sindh, Hispania and against the Byzantines.

He was born to Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan and his wife who was from the central Arabian region Najd. Walid continued the expansion of the Islamic empire that was sparked by his father, and was an effective ruler. His father Abd al-Malik had taken the oath of allegiance for Walid during his lifetime. As such the succession of Walid was not contested. His reign was marked by endless successions of conquests east and west, and historians consider his reign as the apex of Islamic power.


Walid continued the Islamic conquests and took the early Islamic empire to its farthest extents. Then, in 711, Muslim armies crossed the Strait of Gibraltar(Named After Tariq Ibn Zayd) and began to conquer the Iberian Peninsula using North African Berber armies. By 716, the Visigoths of Iberia had been defeated and Iberia was under Muslim control. This would be the farthest extent of Islamic control of Europe (in 736, they were stopped in their expansion into Europe south of Tours, France). In the east, Islamic armies made it as far as the Indus River in 712—under Walid, the Caliphate stretched from the Iberian Peninsula to India. Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf continued to play a crucial role in the organization and selection of military commanders in the East, serving as virtual viceroy there.

Walid paid great attention to the expansion of an organized military, building the strongest navy in the Umayyad era, it was this tactic that supported the ultimate expansion to Iberia. His reign is considered as the apex of Islamic power.

Walid also began the first great building projects of Islam, the most famous of which is the mosque at Damascus. The long history of Islamic architecture really begins with Walid. This is also the period, however, in which Islamic court culture begins to germinate. With the caliph as a patron, artists and writers begin to develop a new, partly secular culture based on Islamic ideas.

It was also Walid that coupled Islamicization with Arabicization. Conversion was not forced on conquered peoples; however, since non-believers had to pay an extra tax, many people did convert for religious and non-religious reasons. This created several problems, particularly since Islam was so closely connected with being Arab. Being Arab, of course, was more than an ethnic identity, it was a tribal identity based on kinship and descent. As more and more Muslims were non-Arabs, the status of Arabs and their culture became threatened. In particular, large numbers of Coptic-speaking (Egypt) and Persian-speaking Muslims threatened the primacy of the very language that Islam is based on. In part to alleviate that threat, Walid instituted Arabic as the only official language of the empire. He decreed that all administration was to be done only in Arabic. It was this move that cemented the primacy of Arabic language and culture in the Islamic world.

Like his father, Walid continued to allow Hajjaj(Killer of Abdullah bin Zubair) free rein, and his trust in Hajjaj paid off with the successful conquests of Transoxiana and Sindh. Musa ibn Nusayr and his retainer Tariq ibn Ziyad conquered Al-Andalus. Hajjaj was responsible for picking the generals who led the successful eastern campaigns, and was well known from his own successful campaign against Ibn Zubayr during the reign of Walid's father. Others, such as Walid's brother Salamah, advanced against the Byzantines and into Adharbayjan.

Valladolid is an industrial city and it is a municipality in north-central Spain, upon the Rio Pisuerga and within the Ribera del Duero region. It is the capital of the province of Valladolid and of the autonomous community of Castile and León, therefore is part of the historical region of Castile. The name "Valladolid" is linked with the Arabic name for the city بلد الوليد meaning The City of Al- Walid,but a more likely suggestion is a conjunction of the Latin: VALLIS, "Valley", and Celtic: TOLITUM, "place of confluence of waters",and indeed their inhabitants are still called by the archaic form closer to its possible original name,"Vallisoletanian" .

Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari describes how Qutayba ibn Muslim, Khurasan's governor, led forces extending the caliphate to the east. Qutayba campaigned in most, if not all, years of this reign, conquering Samarkand, advancing into Farghana and sending envoys to China. (v. 23)

Al-Tabari records how Hajjaj tortured Yazid ibn al-Muhallab. Yazid escaped and made his way to Walid's brother Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik who granted him refuge. Hajjaj pressed Walid about this and Walid commanded Sulayman to send him Yazid in chains. Sulayman had his own son approach Walid chained to Yazid and speak in favour of Yazid's safety. Walid accepted this and told Hajjaj to desist. (v. 23, p. 156f).

Walid himself continued the effective rule that was characteristic of his father, he developed a welfare system, built hospitals, educational institutions and measures for the appreciation of art.

In 691, Caliph Abd al-Malik ordered that the Dome of the Rock be built on the site where the Prophet Muhammad begun his journey to heaven (Meraj) on the Temple Mount. About a decade afterward, Walid ordered the building of Al-Aqsa Mosque. It was under the rule of Walid and his father Abd al-Malik that Christians and Jews were granted the official title of "Peoples of the Book" to underline the common monotheistic roots they shared with Islam.

Walid himself was an enthusiast of architecture and he repaired and refurbished Masjid al Nabawi in Medina. He also improved mountain passes and wells in Hijaz (al-Tabari v. 23, p. 144). In addition, he renovated the Christian Basilica of St. John the Baptist to build a great mosque, now known as the Great Mosque of Damascus or simply the Umayyad Mosque. The mosque holds a shrine which is said to contain the head of John the Baptist, honoured as a prophet by Muslims and Christians alike (John the Baptist is considered a Prophet of Islam and is known as Yahya). The head was supposedly found during the excavations for the building of the mosque. The tomb of Salahuddin stands in a small garden adjoining the north wall of the mosque.

He was also known for his own personal piety, and many stories tell of his continual reciting of the Qur'an and the large feasts he hosted for those fasting during Ramadan. He was married to Umm Banin bint Abdul Aziz ibn Marwan ibn Hakam.

Walid was succeeded by his brother Sulaiman and was buried in Bab al-Saghir cemetery in Damascus. His grave is still present to this date.
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Default Muawiyya bin abu sufyan(r.a)-the first ummayad ruler

Muawiyah I (R.A); 602 – 9 May 680) was the the first(or the second ruler after uthma(R.A)) of the Umayyad Dynasty. After the conquest of Mecca by the Muslims, Muawiyah's family converted to Islam. Muawiyah is brother-in-law to Muhammad who married his sister Ramlah bint Abi-Sufyan in 1AH. Muawiyah (R.A)became a scribe for Muhammad(SALLA' ALLAH ALAI'H WA AALIHI WASSALAM), and during the first and second caliphates of Abu Bakr and Umar, fought with the Muslims against the Byzantines in Syria.

When his elder brother Yazid (Governor of Syria) died of the plague, Umar ibn al-Khattab (R.A) then appointed Muawiyah(R.A) as Governor of Syria in 640 CE. However when Ali(KARAMULLAH WAJ'H)was appointed the fourth and final Rashidun Caliph, he expelled Muawiyah(R.A) from the Governorship. Muawiyah refused to obey Ali(R.A), and had some level of support from the Syrians in his rebelliousness, amongst whom he was a popular leader.Ali(R.A) called for military action against Muawiyah(R.A), but the reaction of the political classes in Medina was not encouraging, and thus Ali deferred. Eventually Ali marched on Damascus and fought Muawiyah's supporters at the inconclusive Battle of Siffin (657 CE).

Ali's(KARAMULLAH WAJ'H) son Hasan ibn Ali signed a truce and retired to private life in Medina. Muawiyah(R.A) thus established the Umayyad Caliphate, which was to be a hereditary dynasty,and governed from Damascus in Syria instead of Medina in Arabia.

As Caliph, Muawiyah(R.A) developed a navy in the Levant(modern syria) and used it to wage a war against the Byzantine Empire in the Aegean Sea and the Sea of Marmara. The Caliphate conquered several territories including Cyzicus which were subsequently used as Naval bases. The war ended in an unsuccessful siege of Constantinople.

Muawiyah I(R.A) is a reviled figure in Shia Islam for several reasons. Firstly, because of his involvement in the Battle of Siffin against Ali(KARAMULLAH WAJ'H), whom the Shia Muslims believe was Muhammad's(SALLA' ALLAH ALAI'H WA AALIHI WASSALAM) true successor secondly, for the breaking of the treaty he made with Hasan ibn Ali(R.A), after the death of Hassan ibn Ali(R.A), one of broken terms being appointing his son Yazid as his successor; thirdly, on account of his responsibility for the killing of Hasan ibn Ali(R.A) by alluring his wife Ja'dah binte Ash'as to poison him; and fourthly by distorting Islam to match his unislamic rule and fifthly, for the deaths of various Companions of Muhammad(SALLA' ALLAH ALAI'H WA AALIHI WASSALAM).

Early life

Muawiyah bin Abi-Sufyan(R.A) was born in Hejaz (602 CE) into the Banu Umayya sub-clan of the Banu Abd-Shams clan of the Quraysh tribe. The Quraysh controlled the city of Mecca (in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia) and the Banu Abd-Shams were among the most influential of its citizens. Muawiyah(R.A) and the rest of his family were staunch opponents of the Muslims before the ascendancy of Muhammad(SALLA' ALLAH ALAI'H WA AALIHI WASSALAM). Along with his two older brothers Yazid and Utbah, Muawiyah(R.A) was one of the members of the hunting party of his maternal uncle Waleed bin Utbah that pursued Prophet Muhammad(SALLA' ALLAH ALAI'H WA AALIHI WASSALAM) during the hijrah (migration), when the Holy Prophet and Abu Bakr (R.A)were hiding in Ghar al-Thawr (Cave of the Bull).

In 630, Muhammad(SALLA' ALLAH ALAI'H WA AALIHI WASSALAM) and his followers conquered Mecca, and most of the Meccans, including the Abd-Shams clan, formally submitted to Muhammad(SALLA' ALLAH ALAI'H WA AALIHI WASSALAM) and accepted Islam. Muawiyah(R.A), along with his father Abu Sufyan, became Muslims at the conquest of Mecca when further resistance to Muslims became an impossibility.Some scholars hold the view that Muawiyah(R.A) was the second of the two to convert, with Abu Sufyan(R.A) convincing him to do it.

Muhammad (SALLA' ALLAH ALAI'H WA AALIHI WASSALAM)welcomed his former opponents, enrolled them in his army and gave them important posts in what was to become the Caliphate. After the Prophet Muhammad's(SALLA' ALLAH ALAI'H WA AALIHI WASSALAM) death (632) Muawiyah (R.A)served in the Islamic army sent against the Byzantine forces in Syria. He held a high rank in the army led by his brother Yazid ibn Abu Sufyan.Governor of Syria

Caliph Umar(R.A) had appointed Muawiyah Ibn Abu Sufyan(R.A) as governor of Syria. In the year 640, Umar(R.A) appointed Muawiyah(R.A) as governor of Syria when his brother died in an outbreak of plague. Muawiyah gradually gained mastery over the other areas of Syria, instilling remarkable personal loyalty among his troops and the people of the region. By 647, Muawiyah(R.A) had built a Syrian army strong enough to repel a Byzantine attack and, in subsequent years, to take the offensive against the Byzantines in campaigns that resulted in the capture of Cyprus (649) and Rhodes (654) and a devastating defeat of the Byzantine navy off the coast of Lycia (655). At the same time, Muawiyah(R.A) periodically dispatched land expeditions into Anatolia.

According to the chronicler Theophanes the Confessor, Muawiyah I(R.A), after capturing Rhodes sold the remains of the Colossus of Rhodes to a traveling salesman from Edessa. The buyer had the statue broken down, and transported the bronze scrap on the backs of 900 camels to his home. Pieces continued to turn up for sale for years, after being found along the caravan route.

All these campaigns came to a halt with the accession of Ali(KARAMULLAH WAJ'H) to the caliphate, when a new and decisive phase of Muawiyah's career began.

Conflict with Ali(KARAMULLAH WAJ'H)

Muawiyah(R.A) fought a protracted campaign against Ali(KARAMULLAH WAJ'H), allegedly seeking justice for the assassinated caliph Uthman Ibn Affan. Aisha(R.A) (Aisha bint Abu Bakr) (Muhammad's widow), Talhah(R.A) (Talha ibn Ubayd-Allah) and Al-Zubayr (R.A)(Abu ‘Abd Allah Zubayr ibn al-Awwam) were all in agreement with Muawiyah that those who assassinated Uthman should be brought to justice. However, Ali(KARAMULLAH WAJ'H) claimed that he was not able to apprehend and punish Uthman's (R.A)murderers fearing rebel infiltration of the Muslim ranks. This resulted in Muawiyah(R.A) refusing to acknowledge Ali's caliphate.

Muawiyah did not participate in the campaign by Aisha(R.A), Talhah (R.A)and Al-Zubayr(R.A) against Ali that ended in the Battle of the Camel.The city of Basrah went over to them but they were defeated in battle by Ali. Talhah and Al-Zubayr were killed. Ali pardoned Aisha(R.A) and had her escorted back to Medina.

Ali then turned towards Syria, where Muawiyah (R.A)was in open opposition. He marched to the Euphrates and engaged Muawiyah's(R.A) troops at the famous Battle of Siffin (657). Accounts of the clash vary – however, it would seem that neither side had won a victory, since the Syrians called for arbitration to settle the matter, arguing that continuing civil war would embolden the Byzantines.There are several conflicting accounts of the arbitrations. One account suggests that Muawiyyah’s(R.A) army were ordered to adorn the tips of their swords with pages from the Quran in an attempt to confuse the army of Ali (KARAMULLAH WAJ'H)and prevent them from winning the battle. As a result, the army of Ali(KARAMULLAH WAJ'H) ceased fighting so as not to bring harm to the Quran. Muawiyah(R.A) proposed a cease-fire which Ali(KARAMULLAH WAJ'H) agreed to and it was decided to end the conflict through peaceful talks.

In the meantime, dissension broke out in Ali's camp where some of his former supporters, later known as Kharijites, felt that Ali (KARAMULLAH WAJ'H)had betrayed them by entering into negotiations. Ali set out to quell the Kharijites. At about the same time, unrest was brewing in Egypt. The governor of Egypt, Qais, was recalled, and Ali had him replaced with Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr(R.A) (the brother of Aisha and the son of Islam's first caliph Abu Bakr(R.A)). Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr's rule resulted in widespread rebellion in Egypt. Muawiyah (R.A)ordered 'Amr ibn al-'As to invade Egypt and 'Amr did so successfully.

When Alī (KARAMULLAH WAJ'H)was assassinated in 661, Muawiyah(R.A), as commander of the largest force in the Muslim Empire, had the strongest claim to the Caliphate. Ali's son Hasan ibn Ali signed a truce and retired to private life in Medina.

Muawiyah (R.A)said later: "I never fought against Ali(KARAMULLAH WAJ'H), only about Uthman's
(R.A) death".That was attested by Al-Sharif al-Radi in his book, he said:
In the war... When we met people of Al-Sham, it seemed that our God is one, our prophet is the same, our calling is the same, and no one is more of a believer than the other about believing in Allah, or the prophet. The misunderstandings were about Uthman's blood, and we have nothing to do with it.

In the year 661, Muawiyah(R.A) was crowned as caliph at a ceremony in Jerusalem.Muawiyah governed the geographically and politically disparate Caliphate, which now spread from Egypt in the west to Iran in the east, by strengthening the power of his allies in the newly conquered territories. Prominent positions in the emerging governmental structures were held by Christians, some of whom belonged to families that had served in Byzantine governments. The employment of Christians was part of a broader policy of religious tolerance that was necessitated by the presence of large Christian populations in the conquered provinces, especially in Syria itself. This policy also boosted his popularity and solidified Syria as his power base.

In a manner similar to Byzantine administrative practices, Muawiyah(R.A) instituted several bureaucracies, called divans, to aid him in the governance and the centralization of the Caliphate and the empire. Early Arabic sources credit two diwans in particular to Muawiyah(R.A) : the Diwan al-Khatam (Chancellery) and the Barid (Postal Service), both of which greatly improved communications within the empire.

According to Arab historian Ibn Kathir-a prominant sunni scholar

At the height of tension when fighting was about to erupt at Siffin between Imam Ali(KARAMULLAH WAJ'H) and Muawiyah(R.A), Muawiyah was informed that the Byzantine Emperor raised a very large army and was drawing very close to the borders of the Muslim state. He wrote to him, giving him a very clear warning, 'By God, if you do not stop your designs and go back to your place, I will end my dispute with my cousin and will drive you out of the entire land you rule, until I make the earth too tight for you.' The Byzantine Emperor was scared off and abandoned his plans

However, other scholars contend that he simply placated the Byzantine emperor with offers of land, gold, and slaves.

Muawiyah (R.A)died on May 6, 680, allegedly from a stroke brought on by his weight. He was succeeded by his son Yazid I. Muawiyah(R.A) had held the expanding empire together by force of his personality, through personal allegiances, in the style of a traditional Arab sheikh. However Muawiyah's(R.A) attempt to start a dynasty failed because both Yazid and then his grandson Muawiya II died prematurely. The caliphate eventually went to Marwan I a descendant of another branch of Muawiyah's clan.Muawiyah and Mawalis

In accordance with the ways of Empire, Muawiyah(R.A) favoured his Arab subjects over non-Arab Muslims (the Mawalis) - the discriminatory treatment of non-Arab Muslims by the victorious Umayyad forces are documented by both Sunni and Shia sources as in the example below concerning Muawiyah's commands to his governor Ziyad ibn Abih.Appearance and habits

Shia Muslims and both several pro-Ali Sunni imams like Imam Nasa'i and more anti-Shia Sunni imams like Bukhari and Muslim, were of the opinion that Mu'awiya was lazy, gluttonous, and obese to the point of not even being able to ride a horse. Nisa'i and Sahih Muslim narrate a Sahih hadith, wherein the Prophet Muhammad summoned Mu'awiya who snubbed him and continued eating his meal - Muhammad then cursed Mu'awiya(R.A) with the words: "May Allah never fill his belly!" Nisa'i was not the only Sunni scholar who accepted this hadith - there were many others, the foremost being the imams Bukhari and imam Muslim who compiled the Sahih of Muslim.It has been argued that in the Arabic culture and language the expression is a colloquialism which means a wish that the person's belly be so full of blessings of Allah (in the form of food) that his belly cannot take anymore, or that he wishes the persons blessings to be without an end. This is similar to the English saying of a father saying to his son in a soccer match to "Break a leg". However, the two pre-eminent Masters of Sunni Hadith, Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim, have rejected absolutely the latter apology for Mu'awiya, and Imam Muslim indeed places the Hadith-e-Muawiya(R.A) in the Chapter of those Cursed by Mohammad.[33] Further, the Imam Nisa'i was murdered when he recited this Hadith in the presence of pro-Muawiya Arab-speaking Syrians as it was perceived as a curse of Mu'awiya, which debases the unreferenced suggestion that the term was a form of praise and not condemnation.Shias often question why there are no reliable precise accounts of Mu'awiya actually participating in any battles after his conversion to Islam - no names of enemies he personally defeated in combat are known.
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Default Yazeed bin muawiyya,the second umayyd ruller:


Yazīd ibn Mu'awiyya ibn abi sufiyan(23 July 647 – 14 November 683), commonly known as Yazid I, was the third Caliph(honestly speaking a king or the first crown prince in Islam) of the Umayyad Caliphate (and the first one through inheritance). Yazid was the Caliph as appointed by his father Muawiyah I(r.a) and ruled for three years from 680 CE until his death in 683 CE.Oath of Allegiance of Yazid

Upon succession, Yazid asked Governors of all provinces to take an oath of allegiance to him. The necessary oath was secured from all parts of the country. Husayn ibn Ali(R.A) (grandson of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(SALLA' ALLAH ALA'IH WA AALIHI WASALM)) and Abdullah ibn Zubayr refused to declare allegiance. Yazid sent Marwan, a soldier in his army, to assist in this task.

Husayn ibn Ali(R.A) and Ibn az-Zubair(R.A):

Husayn ibn Ali(R.A), along with many other prominent Muslims, not only disapproved of Yazid's nomination for caliph but declared it against the spirit of Islam. While the nomination issue was deliberated upon in Medina, Abdullah ibn Zubair (R.A)went with Husayn(R.A) to Mecca because some prominent Muslims thought that Mecca would be the best base for launching a campaign to build up public opinion against Yazid's nomination. However, before any significant work could be done in this regard, Muawiyah died and Yazid took over the reins of government.[citation needed]

Kufa, a garrison town in what is now Iraq, had been Caliph Alī's capital and many of his supporters lived there. Husayn ibn Ali received letters from Kufa expressing its offer of support if he claimed the caliphate. As he prepared for the journey to Kufa, Abdullah ibn Umar and Abdullah ibn Abbas(R.A) argued against his plan and, if he was determined to proceed to Kufa, asked him to leave women and children in Mecca, but Husayn ignored their suggestions. On the way to Kufa, Husayn received the report of Muslim ibn Aqeel's(R.A) death at the hands of Yazid's men and that the Kufans had changed their loyalties to Yazid, pledging support to him against Husain(R.A) and his followers.

Ubayd-Allah ibn Ziyad, governor of Basrah, executed one of Husayn's(R.A) messengers and warned the citizens to avoid the insurgency. He sent a message to Husayn, at instruction of Yazid, stating "You can neither go to Kufa nor return to Mecca, but you can go anywhere else you want." Despite this warning, Husayn continued towards Kufa and during the trip, he and many members of his family were killed or captured at the Battle of Karbala.

Many Sahaba, the most prominent being Abdullah ibn Zubayr(R.A), refused to give their oath of allegiance to Yazid as they saw it as usurpation of power and not the proper way of choosing a Caliph by the Shura.

Abdullah launched an insurgency in the Hejaz. Yazid sent armies against him in 683. After the Battle of al-Harrah, Medina was recaptured and Mecca was besieged. During the siege, the Ka‘bah was damaged. The siege ended when Yazid died suddenly in 683 CE.


During the caliphate of Yazid, Muslims suffered several military setbacks. In 682 AD Yazid restored Uqba ibn Nafi as the governor of North Africa and Uqba won battles against the Berbers and Byzantines.Uqba then marched westward towards Tangier and then marched eastwards the Atlas Mountains.With cavalry numbering about 300, he proceeded towards Biskra where he was ambushed by a Berber force . Uqba and all his men died fighting and the Berbers launched a counter-attack and drove Muslims from North Africa.This was a major setback for the Muslims as lost supremacy at sea and had to abandon the islands of Rhodes and Crete.


Yazid was killed by his own horse after it lost control, his remains were never confirmed to have been found. Yazid died at the age of 38 after ruling for three years and was succeeded by his son Muawiyah II. Yazid was buried in Damascus. Although it is thought that his grave no longer exists, few believe that it is located in a small street near Umayyad Mosque without any mark or distinction, as is customary in Islamic tradition.

Yazid and Mohammed's(SALLA' ALLAH ALA'IH WA AALIHI WASALM) prophesy

In the chapter, Qital e Rome of Sahih Muslim, the Holy Prophet(SALLA' ALLAH ALA'IH WA AALIHI WASALM) said that the first army who will attack Constantinople will enter in Paradise. The saying was known to muslim. Under the rule of his father Amir Muawiya(R.A). Army was made ready to attack Constantinople under the command of Amir Yazid bin Muawiya. A numbers of companions presented their services for the army. Abu Ayub Ansari(R.A) at his old age also participated despite his illness and age factor. He among many other notables such as Abdullah bin Omer, Hussain bin Numayr fought under the command of Amir Yazid.

Other Islamic scholars point out that in the original literary source of Prophet Muhammad's tradition which was from Sahih Bukhari (Sahih Muslim author Muslim bin Al-Hajjaj's teacher), Prophet Muhammad(SALLA' ALLAH ALA'IH WA AALIHI WASALM) made two consecutive statements:
"The army from my people who will first perform jihad through water has made Paradise obligatory for itself."

Alluding to the above sahih hadith, the very first jihad ("endeavour") of a Muslim army via the sea was in 647 CE, in an amphibious landing of additional troops in sea vessels that assisted the main ground army in the second Muslim military invasion of Tripoli, Libya. This conquest of Tripoli and the subsequent expansion into Libya was personally organized and led by Abdullah bin Saad bin Abi Sarh, launched from the coastal city of Barca, Cyrenaica; notable sahabah Abdullah ibn Zubayr and Uqbah bin Nafi participated in this military campaign. In quick succesion, Abdullah ibn Zubayr then went on to defeat Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Exarch Gregory the Patrician in the Battle of Sufetula to capture the city of Sbeitla, Tunisia. Chronologically, the very first Muslim navy was the Egyptian Muslim naval fleet, founded in Egypt by Abdullah bin Saad bin Abi Sarh in 645 CE; in December 644 CE, Abdullah bin Saad bin Abi Sarh had been appointed Governor of Egypt by his foster-brother, the new caliph Uthman bin al-Affan al-Umawwi. The second Muslim naval fleet was the Syrian Muslim naval fleet, founded in 647 CE by Syria's governor Muawiyah bin Abu Sufyan (later Caliph Muawiyah I(r.a)), whose first launch resulted in the capture of Cyprus in 649 CE; although, Muawiyah did not personally lead this naval campaign.

And the following:
"The first army amongst my followers who will invade Caesar's City will be forgiven their sins."

Technically, the location of the subject of this sahih hadith of Prophet Muhammad is the city of Homs (Emesa), Syria. Before its capture in Muharram 15 AH (March 636 CE) by the Muslim forces sent by Caliph Umar bin al-Khattab, Homs (Emesa), Syria was the headquarters of Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Emperor Heraclius (i.e. Caesar or Qaisar). The Muslim army that captured in quick succession the Eastern Roman Empire’s cities (Tiberias, Baalbek, and Homs), was led by Abu Ubaydah bin al-Jarrah al-Thaqafi (father of the Karbala & Madinah avenger Mukhtar al-Thaqafi); some notable sahabah who participated in these military campaigns were Miqdad bin al-Aswad al-Kindi, Bilal bin Rabah, and most prominently, Khalid bin al-Waleed. Consequently, the first army to invade “Caesar’s City” was led by Abu Ubaydah bin al-Jarrah al-Thaqafi; if "Caesar's City" meant a city named after a Caesar, then Constantinople or Qustuntunia (named after its founder, Roman Emperor Constantine the Great) still would not qualify, as the very first city (not town or village) which was invaded by a Muslim army that was named after a Roman emperor was Tiberias (in honour of Tiberius Caesar). Tiberias surrendered to Abu Ubaydah's army in Zulhijjah 13 AH (January 635 CE)

Furthermore, Abbasid historiographers of standard Islamic history unanimously recorded the following summary about the armed expeditions to Christian Byzantium during Muawiyah I's Caliphate:
First invasion of Muawiyah I's Caliphate on "Caesar's City" was in 42 AH led by Abdullah bin Artaat. The second invasion was in 43 AH led by Busr bin Artaat.
Third invasion was in 44 AH led by Abdul Rahman bin Khalid bin Waleed. The fourth invasion was in 46 AH led by Malik bin Abdul Rahman and Abdul Rahman bin Khalid bin Waleed.
Fifth invasion was in 47 AH led by Malik bin Hubaira and Abdul Rahman bin Qaiymi. The sixth and seventh invasion were in 49 AH, both led by Sufyan bin Awf. The eighth invasion was in 50 AH led by Yazid bin Muawiyah.
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Kindly mention source of this information.
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Old Monday, December 17, 2012
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Sir.about which reference do u claim for a source,plz mention it in some detail,then i will post you a link or statement thereof about that source.
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Originally Posted by Shooting Star View Post
Kindly mention source of this information.

it may be the personal contribution of mr. Hafeezullah. i dont think that it is necessary for members to mention sources of their notes. they are sharing their notes, they must be appreciated for this.
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Default Muawiyah ibn Yazid

Mu'awiya ibn Yazid (28 March 661 – January/February 684) was an Umayyad ruler and is popular as a the Umayyad caliph.Politically,he was not a caliph but a king or the second crown prince in Islam) for about four months after the death of his father Yazid. The empire he inherited was in a state of disarray with Abdullah bin Zubayr(may Allah be pleased with him) claiming to be the true caliph and holding the Hijaz as well as other areas.

Muawiya II was born on 28 March 661 and was the son of Yazid I of the Umayyad dynasty and on his mother's side a descendent of the Quraysh tribe in the Hejaz. His mother's father, Abu Hashim ibn Utbah ibn Rabi'ah was appointed Governor of Basra and his mother married Yazid I in 660. Mu'awiya was the eldest son to be born, out of six brothers and many (uncounted) daughters. When Mu'awiya I became Caliph in 661, it is said that on his day of accession he heard the news that his son had given birth to a son. The account is related in Al Nasab (890-949) in his History of the Wars.

At the same time as the birth (of Mua'wiya II), his grandfather had met with the Islamic Elders (i.e. the Shura) and when he heard that he had a grandson he said, "Surely this is a blessing from God and a sure sign, if there is any, that I am the true Caliph. For I shall establish a dynasty that shall be well-remembered. My son shall follow me, and his son shall follow him." And the child was named Mua'wiya in his honour.

According to al-Tabari, Muawiya II was 13 years old when he died. This means Muawiya must have been born in 671 when Yazid I his father was 25 years old.
Lewis Joseph in his article "Islamic Historiography during the Umayyad period 661-750", nevertheless argues that this was a later tradition created at a time when the Umayyad dynasty was facing extinction.

Mu'awiya was the first prince of the Umayyads to grow up entirely at the court of the Caliph, being kept there to protect him from potential assassins. He was the first to be given private scholars and teachers as is recorded in Al-Habah (854-905)'s Court of the Righteous Caliphs.
It is said, by many sources, that the first who was given scholars and teachers of his own was Mu'awiya bin Yazid, grandson of that Mu'awiya who turned the Successors of the Prophet into a dynasty of despots. For as is related by the scholars of the past, the previous Caliphs had learnt with the companions as equals in the schools of the faith.
The fact that Mu'awiya was not sent to Mecca and Medina was also unpopular with Muslims. This growing unpopularity became worse with the campaigns against Husayn ibn Ali and Ibn al-Zubair(may Allah be pleased with them). The latter war, leading to the capture of Medina and the siege of Mecca, was even more unpopular. Fortunately for the Arab Empire, Yazid I died soon afterwards in 683 and his son succeeded him.

The accession of Mu'awiya II was met first with indifference and trepidation by Muslims, for they didn't know anything about him as he had been kept away in the home of the Caliphs. Yet, when Mu'awiya declared that a truce would be made, it was met with almost universal acclamation, for it had ended the war in the Holy Places. Mu'awiya II declared that the war in Medina and Mecca had been foolish and blasphemous and that the damage to the Ka'aba was sacrilege. He is said to have declared:
For this is the City of God, of both East and the West. For when there is war here, there are earthquakes in heaven, and the angels scatter for protection. I shall not have blood shed here and there shall be no war. We shall become friends and allies again, and the community of the faithful shall be restored.
These words made him popular with those Muslims tired by war, even some supporting Ibn al-Zubayr(may Allah be pleased with him). But the followers of Ibn al-Zubayr(may Allah be pleased with him) urged the rebel to break the truce and declare war, stating that the Caliph was a beardless boy and a coward, afraid to fight, and so easy to defeat. Yet the truce held officially for many months, though there was sporadic fighting in Mecca.

In the primary sources and modern histories, Mu'awiya II's reign is usually passed over quickly. The ruler is portrayed as being good-natured. He is said to have been opposed to many of his father's positions and declared upon news of his father's death, that this is the news he dreaded for now he was Caliph and did not wish to be. Mu'awiya was even prepared to summon the Shura and call on them to choose a Caliph of their own, and thus restore the non-hereditary traditions of the Caliphate. Many stories have been written in the sources of Mu'awiya's weak but good-willed nature, not all of them true.

The marriage of Mu'awiya was deemed contentious and problematic. His grandfather Mu'awiya I wished him to marry into another tribe and thus strengthen the power of the dynasty. This, Mu'awiya did but his wife died in 677. He then married again in 678 and 680, having two wives but he divorced both by 682 for providing no children. Yazid now forced him to marry a fourth wife in 683, a foreign princess, to extend the power of the Caliphate. It is said that Mu'awiya despised this woman, and as soon as Yazid had died, she was divorced.

Traditionally, Mu'awiya is shown to have had no interest in politics, perhaps with justification. He is said to have claimed that only by mistake of the hereditary principle was he Caliph and under no other means would he have ever been chosen. Yet it is said that his courtiers persuaded him to remain Caliph as he was kind and would do some virtuous deeds. Some say they did this to prolong their own power or because it was ungrateful for Mu'awiya to give back the power given to him by God.
Once a truce had been made in 683, Mu'awiya turned to domestic affairs. He did not involve himself for many months with Zubayr(may Allah be pleased with him), even when fighting continued and when the truce had obviously been broken in all but name. Mu'awiyya passed three laws which he said were necessary. Firstly, he said that the rights of women should be protected, secondly that no man should be put to death because of a crime, and thirdly that the charity tax should be made compulsory. These laws were removed once he had died.
According to al-Tabari, Muawiya II reigned only 40 days before he died.

By the beginning of 684, the problem of Ibn al-Zubayr(may Allah be pleased with him)for him had worsened, and Mu'awiya was forced to turn his attention back to southern Arabia. He rejected any attempts to launch an attack, declaring that Medina and Mecca were sacred.
Instead he sent an embassy to Ibn al-Zubayr(may Allah be pleased with him) and declared that as he himself had no son, that Ibn al-Zubayr(may Allah be pleased with him) could be his heir. Zubayr(may Allah be pleased with him) rejected this for he knew that Mu'awiya was young and could have many children. "I shall not be a nursemaid", Ibn al-Zubayr is said to have answered.
The embassy was imprisoned and Ibn al-Zubayr continued the conflict. According to Al Nasab (890-949):
When news of this came, Mu'awiya wept openly. "Oh, that there should be peace in the Holy Places, in the East and the West, and in Heaven! I shall not be remembered as a Caliph with blood on my hands. I shall not preside over civil war!"
He died a few weeks after abdication.

Shia historians believes that Mu'awiyya abdicated by saying that he could "smell the blood of Ahl ul-Bayt" from the throne due to his father's killing of Husayn ibn Ali(may Allah be pleased with him) and imprisonment of the female family members and children from Husayn's(may Allah be pleased with him) camp only four years prior. Most shia' historians believe Husayn's(may Allah be pleased with him) killing to be a major cause of the numerous uprisings against the dynasty.

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