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Old Wednesday, December 06, 2006
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Default Learning

LEANING IS A key process some would say the key process in human behaviour.IT PERVADES everything that we do and think.IT PLAYS a central role in the language we speak,our customs and our tradition and our persnol goals.so

LEARNING CAN be defind as any relatively permenant changes in behaviour that occures as a result of practice or experiments.THIS defination has thre important elements.

1 LEARNING is a change in behaviour for better or worse.

2 IT IS CHANGE that took place through practice or experience cahnge due to growth or maturation are not learning.

3 BEFORE IT can be called learning the change must be relatively permenant;it must last a fairly long time.


SO WHEN YOU ARE LEARNING this passage you are learning some new thing ,but this learning is the small part of some learning you have done in life,when you got up other morning you will have many other tasks to performs so you began to think about other things ,thinking invoked your attitudes about other peoples or eventsperhaps it caused you to worry about different things,so what you worried about is rooted in your past experiences,or past learning.


CLASSICAL CONDITIONING

CLASSICAL CONDITIONING get its name from the fact that it is the kind of learning situation that existed in the early ''CLASICAL'' EXPERIMENTSof IVAN AND PAVLOV.


what IS CLASSICAL CONDITIONING?WE START WITH SOME EXAMPLES,
PALVOV designed appartuaus that could measure how much dog`s mouth water in response to food or other things in its enviorment.AT THE beginning of this experiments,he noted that no salwa flowed when he rang a bell.HE THEN trained the dog by sounding the bell and shortly afterwards,presenting food.AFTER THE SOUND OF THE bell had been pired with food a few times, he tested the effects of trainning by measuring the amount of SALWA,that flowed when he rang the bell and did not present food.HE FOUND THAT some salwa was produced in response to the bell alone.HE THEN RESUMED the trainning pired presentation of the bell and food a few more times and then tested again with the bell alone.AS TRAINING continued the amount of salwa on test with the bell alone increased.THUS AFTER trainning the dog`s mouth watered salivated whenever the bell was sounded.
THIS IS what was learned;IT IS CONDITIONAL RESPONSE.


Here is another example,STUDENT VOLENTEER were the subjects in this experiment,each student sat in the booth in which brief jet of air could be puffed at his right eye.THE RESPONSE to this puff was a sharp blink of the eyes.ONE-HALF second from each puff,a dim spot of light came on .TESTS SHOWS THAT the beginning of the experiments,the students did not blink in response to the light.THE LIGHT and puff were pired,light followed by puff- a number of times.SOON THE studentsbegan to blink when the light came on befor the puff.THE NUMBERS OF the blink increased when more and more pireing were given.SO THE STUDENDS had learned to blink when the light came on.

WHAT DO the examples of this classical conditioning have in common?IN OTHER WORDS WHAT ARE THE general cahractices of the situatiion in which conditional response are acquired.IN CLASSICAL conditioning two stimuls are presented to the learner.ONE OF THE STIMUL is called the cinditional stimules[CS]. IT IS also known as a netural stimuls because except for an alerting or attentional response the first few times it is presented, it does not evoke the specific response.ALMOST ANY stimulS that is detectable can serve as a CS.the BELL AND the LIGHT were teh CS in these examples.THE OTHER STIMUL is known as the UNCONDITIONAL STIMULS,[US].THIS STIMUL consistantly evokes the response or is realiable followed by one.THE RESPONSE that relaibly followed the unconditional stimuls is known as the unconditional response,[UR].WHAT WERE THE us and ur in the examples?THE TWO stimuls [US] AND [UR] are pired in classical conditioning so that the condition stimuls comes a short time before the unconditional stimul is present.

TO BE CONTINUED

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Old Wednesday, December 06, 2006
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Default Classial Conditioning

THE ACQUSITION OF a condition response is usually gruadual;as more and more trails[CS-US] are given,condition response grow stronger or more likely to occure.


THEORIES ABOUT CLASSICAL CONDITIONINGTHEORIES OF CLASSICAL conditioning try to decribe and give order to the resulte of many and many conditioning experiments that have been done .THESE THEORIES ARE ALSO CONCERNED with the process occuring when a conditioned response is acquired.ONE OLDER THEORY about the nature of classical conditioning is the theory of stimul substitution;


STIMUL SUBSTITUTION


THIS THEORY, which orginated with PALVOV and was influential for many years,relies on the idea that the CS, simply as the result of piring with the US acquires the capacity to substistute for the US in evoking the response.IN OTHER WORDS an assoication and link or bond is formed between the CS AND US so that the CS becomes the equalient of the US IN elicating the response.PALVOV thought this link and assoication is took place in brain.HE THOUGHT two areas of brain ,one for the CS or one for the US became activated during the conditioning procedure and that activation of the US resulted in a reflex.BUT THIS IDEA is not accepted by most learning theorist.A MAJOR diffculty with the theory is that it says the CONDITIONAL RESPONSE should be the same as,to the UNCONDITIONAL RESPONSE .ACCORDING TO the theory that all has happened is that the CS has acquired the ability to evoke the response after conditioning .THE response has not changed the change is in the stimuls that ELICITS it.


INFORMATION AND EXPECTATIONOTHER THEORIES of the conditioning process take the viewpoint that the CS becomes a signal for the US .THUS WHEN the CS is presented, the US is expected, and the learner responds in accordance with this expectation.HOW does the CS become the signal for the US?A NUMBERS of experiment have led to the view that this happen because the US,is a surprising event.THE SURPRISING US induces the learner to look back through recent memory.THE CS is the event found in memory on each trail before the US.NOW WHEN the CS occur the US expected.THE conditioned response is made in anticaption of the US.


EXTINCTION AND SPONTANCE RECOVERY IN CLASSICAL CONDITIONINGIN CLASSICAL CONDITION, extinction occurs when the CS is present alone witout the US for the numbers of trail.WHEN this is done the strength or magnitude of the CR gruadually decrease.FOR EXAMPLE, the numbers of drops of salva decrease over unpaired trails;NOTE THAT the process of extinction is not forgetting.A RESPONE IS SAID TO BE FORGOTTEN OVER TIME WHEN THERE is not explicit procedure involved.JUST AS with the acquisiotion there are several views conserning why the EXTINCTION process works.PALVOV thoght of conditioning in term of opposing tedencies:EXCITATION AND INHABITATION,
during acquistion the excitatory tedency has upper hand ;but during extinction inhabitation build up to supress conditioning responding.THE DECREASE in conditioned response magnitude resulting from extinction need not to be permenent.SUPPOSE, the day after extinction of a salivary conditioned response,a dog is brought back into the labortary and the tone CS IS presented.THE MAGINTUDE of teh dog conditional response will probebly be much greater than it was at the end of the extinction the day before.SUCH AS increase in the magnitude of conditional response after teh period of teh time with no explicit trainning is known as SPOUNTANOUS RECOVERY.THIS PHENOMON SHOWS that the extinction procedure while decreasing the magnitude of the condition response,does not entirely remove the tedency to response to the CS.THAT EXTINCTION does not completely erase conditioning is also shown by the fact that the reconditioning is usually more rapid than was theoriginall conditioning.



STIMUL GENERALIZATION AND DISCRIMINATION IN CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
PALVOV DISCOVERED very early in his work that if he conditioned an animal to salvate at teh sound of the bell,itwould also salvate,though not quite so much, at the sound of the buzzer,in other words, the animal tends to generalize the conditioned response to other stimuls that were somewhat similar to the original conditioned stimuls.SO THE greater the smilirtyi the greater teh generalization among teh conditioned stimuls.DISCRIMINATION IS the process of learning to make one response to one stimuls and a different response to another stimuls.ALTHOUGH MANY kinds of discrimination are possible,a typical discrimination experiments in calssical conditioning involves learning to respond to one stimuls and not ot respond another.WHEN WE learn to rrespond to one stimul and not to reespond to another,the range of stimul that are capable of calling forth a conditioned response is narrowed.IN A SENSE this kind of discrimination is opposite of generalization.


to be continued

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Old Wednesday, December 06, 2006
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Default Operant Conditioning

IN THE LATE NINETEENTH century,psychologhist EDWARD THORNDIKE propsed the law of EFFECT.THE LAW OF effect states that any behaviour that has good conseqence will tend to be repeated, and any behaviour that has bad conseqence will tend to be avioded.IN THE 1930 another psychologhist, B,F, SKINNER, extended his idea and began to study OPERANT CONDITIONING.operant conditioning is a type of LEARNING in which response comes to be controlled by their conseqences.OPERANT response are often new responses.


JUST AS PALVOV fame stem from his experiment with salvating dogs,SKINNER fame stem from his experiments with ANIMAL BOX.SKINNER used a devise called the skinner box to study operant conditioning.A SKINNER BOX is a cage set up so an animal can automatically get the food reward if it makkes a particular kind of response.THE BOX also contain an instrument that record the number of responses an animal makes.


PSYCHOLOGHIST used several key terms to dicuss operant conditioning prinsiples, including REINFORCEMENT AND PUNISHMENT.



REINFORCEMENT

REINFORCEMENT IS delievery of a consequance that increase the likelihood that a response will occurs.POSITIVE reinforcement is the presentation of a stimuls after the response so that the responce will occurs more often.NEGATIVE reinforcement is the removel of a stimul after the response so that the responce will occur more often.IN THIS TERMINALOGHY,positive or negative do`not mean good aor bad.INSTEAD, positive means adding the stimuls and negative means removing the stimuls.



PUNISHMENT

PUNISHMENT IS the delievery of a conseqence that decrease the likelhood that the response will occurs.POSITIVE and NEGATIVE punishment are analogous to positive and negative REINFORCEMENT.POSITIVE PUNISHMENT is the presentation of a stimuls after a response so that the response will occurs less often.NEGATIVE PUNISHMENT is the removel of stimuls after a response so that the response will occures less often.


REINFORCEMENT help to increase the behaviour,while PUNISHMENT helps to decrease a behaviour.


PRIMARY AND SECONDARY REINFORCER AND PUNISHER

REINFORCER and punisher are different types of consequences.

PRIMARY REINFORCER such as food,water, and careess,are naturally satisfying.
PRIMARY PUNISHER, such as pain and freezing temparature, are naturally unpleasent.
SECONDARY REINFORCER such as money,fast cars,and good grades,are satisfying because they ahve becomes assoicated with primary reinforcers.
SECONDARY PUNISHER,such as failing grades and social disapproval, are unpleasent because they have becme assoicated with primary punisher.


IS IT PRIMARY OR SECONDARY


TO DISTINGUISHED BETWEEN PRIMARY OR SECONDARY reinforcer,peoples can ask themselves such questions ?WOULD newborn baby find this stimuls satsifying?if the answer is yes the reinforcer is primary or if the answer is no the reinforcer is secondary.


SHAPING

SHAPING IS ths procedure in which reinforcement is used to guide a response closer and closer to a desired response.

EXAMPLE


LISA WANTS to teach her dog,to bring her the tv remote.so she places the remote in her dog mouth,and then sits down inher favrioute chair.dog does not know what to do with the remote so he just drop it on the floor.SO LISA teaches him by first praising him everytime he accidently walked toward her before dropping the remote.HE LIKES the praise so he walked toword her with the remote for often.THEN SHE praises him only when he brings the remote to close to the chair,when he starts doing this often,she praise him only when he manage to bring the remote right up to her.so she had succede in shaping a response.


REINFORCER SCHEUDALS


A REINFORCER SCHEDUAL is the pattern in which reinforcement is given over time.THIS SCHEDUAL can be continuous and intermittent.IN CONTINUOUS reinforcement,someone provides reinforcement every time a particular rresponse ocures.SUPPOSE LIZA DOG pushes the remote under her chair, if she finds this amusing and pats him everytime he does it,she is providing continuous reinforcement for his behaviour.IN INTERMITTENT, reinforcement someone provides reinforcement on only some of the occiassion on which the response occures.


EXTINCTION

AS IN CALSSICAL CONDITIONING,extinction in operant conditioning is the gruadual disappearence of the response when it stop being reinfoced.IN THE EARILER EXAMPLE LIZA DOG,started to put the remote under her chair regularly because she continuous ly reinforced the behaviour with pats on his head.IF SHE decides that game has gone so far and stop patting him when he does it, he will stop the behaviour,the response will be EXTINGUISHED.


STIMUL DISCRIMINATION,

IF LIZA ENJOY her dog antics with the tv remote only in the morning and not in night when she feels tired,dog will put the remote under her chair during the daytime only,because daylight become the signal that tells dog that his behaviour is reinforced.DAYLIGHT has become the discriminative stimuls.


STIMUL GENERALIZATION,


SUPPOSE HER DOG began to putthe remote under her chair not only during the day but also whenever a bright light was on at night,thinking ahe would probebly pat him.THIS is called the STIMUL GENERALIZATION.

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Old Thursday, December 07, 2006
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Default Impriting

IMPRITING IS THE SPECIAL FORM OF learning in which heredity mechanism determine the time of appeareance and general nature of the behaviour.BUT THE particular enviorment resources at the critical time determine the specific stimuls response connection that is learned.ITS NATURAL basis is unknown.IT HAS become increasingly appearent that the particular connection learned at that time has far reaching conseqences for the individual later pattern of social behaviour as an adult.THE PHENOMENON OF impriting was first described a century ago by the french naturalist,who had noticed that newly hacthed chiks follows the first moving object to which they are exposed,with resulating unmodifibale fixation of this instintive following response.LORENZ,THE FIRST to call this learning ''IMPRITING'' pointed out that it turned to be occur only during a critical time in the social and neurological development of young animals.HE ALSO pointeer to the importance of the ''REALSER'' IN SUCH LEARNING:certain aspects of an animal enviorment tend to ''RELEASE'' a response that is specific to that species.


THEORIES OF LEARNING


HISTORICALLY THEORIES of learning have generally moved from broad attempt to offers an explanation for all the phenomena of learning toward theories which attempt ot give the definate coherence to one particular subset of experimental findings in the field of learning.


HULL FORMAL THEORY OF LEARNING


THE BEST EXAMPLE of this learning is that of CLARK HULL.hull attempted to CONSTRUCT THE theortical system which:COULD account for the vast amont of emprical data that had accumalated;DERIVE many theorim from a relatively small number of the postulate;WAS specific and explict enough to permit direct translation into emprical tests:was open to revion on the basis of the new evidence,empirical proof,and further speculation;had one of its goal qualityfication throgh the use of the mathmatically stated formulas.his theory assumed as


IT ASSUMED THAT what is learned is the connection between a stimuls and response.THIS UNIT of learning an intervenable enviorment is called habit strength.IT IS represented by the symbol H ,in which H, stand for ''HABIT'' and the subscript S AND R arevsimply stands for bthe stimul and the response in question.


REINFORCEMENT IS regarded as necessary condition for the learning.FOR A RESPONSE to the increase in strength ,it must be followed immideatly by a goal substance.IT IS assumed that reinforcer gain their effectiveness by reducing the level of the exicting drive.THUS THIS theory has been called the drive reducation theory.

THE LEARNED connection between a stimuls and response is assumed to increase in magnitude grudually and continuously as a function of the reinforced practice and to represent the relatively permenant changes in behaviour.


PERFORMANCE OF the learned response is measured through its amplitude speed freqency of the occurance and resistance to the exictintion.



SKINNER APPROACH TO LEARNING


THE STRICLY FORMEL deductive system of hell contrast sharply with the approch taken by the B,F,SKINNER.HERE LITTLE use is made of concept representing events and states which are not obseravable and directed manipliable;in fact identification and measurement of hull intervening variable are regarded as unnecessary.for him the basic issue to discover what reinforcer sustain and control responding rather then which stimul evokes it REINFORCEMENT defined not theortically in terms of its drive -reducing properties but empirically reinforcement occurs when probability of response has been increased by the stimuls that has followed it.A REINFORCER is any stimuls which following the response increase its probility of occurance on the next occusion.


WATSON THEORY

BOTH HULL AND skinner approch despense with consciouness thus relay upon extensive use of animals as subjects.IN FACT hull went so far as to suggest that the tedenct to impute motives and reasons to SUBJECT IN conditioning experiments should be overcome by CONCEPTUAL use of robot model to provide the suggested the prophylaxis against anthropormorphic subjectivism.WATSON WAS the precursor of this tridation which as we seen emphatically rejected the techniqes of introspectation.HE FELT that the prevailing study of the structure of experience should be discarded in favour of the study of what organsom and do how they behave.IN PART behaviourism rested upon the foundation of the conditional reflex.IN NITS emphasizes on learning and importance of the enviorment in shaping behaviour it also challenged the concept of ''INSTINCIT''which had dominated american psychologhy in the early 1900. although he was CONNECTIONIST IN HIS CONCEPTION OF WHAT WAS LEARNED,HE DID NOT REFERE TO REINFORCEMENT AS A CONDITIONED FOR LEARNING.according to his views that response which ahve occureds more recently are most likely to occurs when the same stimul is present again.



GUTHRIC THEORY




` LIKE WATSON he emphasized the role of temporal contigity of the stimuls events and its elicited response.HE BELIEVD learning occurs regardless of whether reinforcement is given so long as the conditioned response and stimuls occurs together.WHAT IS learned is based upon the principle of recency;the response will be made and the act repeated.reward act upon only on learning only indirectly,by changing the situation and defining the termination of an act it is not essentional for learning to take place.




THORNDIKE REINFORCEMENT THEORY


WHILE E.L THORNDIKE AGREED with watson that learning involve the grudal stamping in of S.R connection,HE rejected the LAW OF EXERCISE,, in favour of the '' LAW OF EFFECT'' IN explainning how the connection are strenthened.IT IS THE conseqence of the response,the event which follow it,which are considered significant in affecting its probebility of occurance on the next trial.SATISFYING events are held to strengthened S-R connection annoying events to weaken them.PUNISHMENT,by making behaviour more varaiable,would thereby weaken learning.


COGNITIVE THEORY OF LEARNING


THE THEORTICAL approches described above are primarily analytical,stressing as they do units of learning,S,R connections,and decrect effects of reinforcers.THEY ALLOW for great percession in the analaysis of simplified learning situation,but they do not appear to the justice to the complexity involve in human learning,problem solving,reasoning and learning one`s native language.IN SHORT they ignore higher mental process.AN ALTERNATIVE approach is presented by cognitive theories of learning of the gestaultat psychologhist.THE GESTAULT PSYCHOLOGHIST were marily interest in the phenomena of human perception and thus in the experience of the subject as well as in external obserabable condition.HOWEVER, the underling principle of the perception were easily carried over to the cosideration of the learning process.COGNITAVE THEORIES are concerned with the learning of the information and generalization as well as particular response.BECAUSE OF their emphasize on the importance of the whole in shaping the parts and their use of analogies from field theory.



CURRENT TRENDS IN THE THEORIES OF LEARNINGS


THESE THEORIES HAVE generated considerable recerch,as wella sheated controvercy.ATTEMPT to perform critical experiments to prove one theory over another have repetedily failed because of the lach of the specifity of the condition necessary for refution.BECAUSE OF this and because of the vast accumlation of data pertinent to many diffcult problems areas within learning,current approches are genersally less grandoise in scope.PSYCHOLOGHIST no longer argue about how many kinds of learning there really are or whether one formulation can ever encompass all the necessary and sufficien conditions for all case of the learning.RESERCHERS ARE more likely to confine their attention to maniture system generated to answer problems arising from the subset of learning phenomena.AMONG THE MANITURE system making their appearence are mathmaticals models to account for the narrow range of phenomena,such as the work of BUSH,AND MOSTELLER,and statictial learning theories has created the MEDITATIONAL THEORY explaning facts not perdicted by single unit theory.SUCH APPROCHES promises greater percession in relationto a broder range of learning issues then has been possible in the past.


VERBAL LEARNING

IT IS HARDLY necessary to point out the importance of the verbal learning in our every day living.THERE ARE probebly few things we do in the course of the day that have not been influenced strongly by pervious verbal learning.OUR ABILITY to manipulate symbols,as in language, makes it possible for us to learn indirectly many responses that lower animals can learn only by doing if at all.VERBAL LEARNING include any case of learning to respond to or with words.IT COVERS the wide range of learning tasks from that of assoicating two nonsenses syallabus to learning how to solve problem stated in words.FOR THE sake of conveiences verbal problem solving and concept formation which often include learning .


THE EARLIEST such experiments were carried out by the german psychologhist HERMAN EBBINGHAUS and involved the learning of the list of nonsenses syallabus like giz tak baz.HE CHOSE nonsenses syallubas on the theory that he would be ''thus'' be studing ''pure'' learning uncontaminated by any influences from meaning emotional factor or differing past experiences obn the part of the learner.EXPERIMENTS in verbal learning today sometimes use nbonsenses syallabus and sometimes use meaningful materials dependind on the purpose of the experiments.SOME OF the ways in which meaningfulness can affect what is learned and how well it is remembered.


THE VERBAL LEARNING studied in the labortary has usually been verbatim memorization.EXPERIMENTS typically employ the memory drum which allow the experimenter to conbtrol the amount of the rate and exposure of the material to be learned.ONE OF TWO PATTERNS IS usually followed,IN SERIAL LEARNING,the subjedt is shown the series of the words and syallabus one at the time and on sucessive showing must learn as he sees each item to call out or write down the one that is coming next before he sees it.IN PIRED ASSOICATED LEARNING, the list contain several pairs of items.THE pair may appear in the diffcult order on each trial but the subject must learn to anticapte the second member of each pair when the first one appear.


MANY PSYCHOLOGHIST are of the opinion that verbal learning can be explained as a complex form of conditrioning.CONSIDER,FOR EXAMPLE the building of the vacaboloury in the foreign language through the use of the [COLOR="red"]FLASH CARDS[/COLOR].many STUDENTS FIND it effective to perpare cards with the english words on one side and its foreighn equilent on the other.SUCH A card may say house on one side and mkaisen on the other side.LEARNING TO say masion on every times one sees house can be viewd as operant conditioning,in which the correct response is reinforced by the subseqent knowledge and satisfaction of being right


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Old Friday, December 08, 2006
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Default Influence Of Motivation On Learning

THE RELATION BETWEEN motivation and learning has been investigated extensively in animals but less throughly in humans,because of the greatest diffculty of establishing experimental control.


STRENGTH OF MOTIVATION

MOTIVATION IS an intervening variable and hence cannot be observed directly.NOR WE have been able to arrange conditions so that we can be sure the learner is not motivated in any way.BUT EVEN witout precise control it has been possible to observe that the efficiencyof learning,as measured by both quantity and quality,usually improve as the strength of motivation increases.THERE ARE of course situations in which very strong motivation create anxiety over possible failure and thus interfere with learning.


INTENT TO LEARN

ONE OF THE most important motivational factors influencing the learning performance of human subjects is the persence of the conscious intent to learn.IN AN EARLY experiment, subjects were instructed to count the numbers of QUESTIONS,distributed among leeters printed in colour on colored papers.LATER THEY were asked what other letters were present whatcolour they were and on what colour paper they were printed.THEIR inaccurate answers shows that the had learned little if any of the material to which they had been exposed witout instruction to learn.IT WAS also found that the nature or amount of learning were clearly affected by the kind of instructions used.they found that when no specific instruction is given they attain only the general comprehension of the material,but when they given exact instruction about what to learn,their learning become specific to those instructions.


REWARD VS PUNISHMENT,

EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES have shown that the strength and nature of the rewards,or punishment administreted by the teacher influence the learner rate of learning as measured by the sub seqvent performance.THE INDIVIDUAL own evulation of his progress can be rewarding or punishing.IN AN EXPERIMENTS, the subjects,forty college students learned tweo lists of seveenteen nonsenses syallabus by the serial method first all were given fifteen trials on list A with no special instructions,these trials were used as a basis to divide them into two groups of equal learning ability.TO PRODUCE high motivation in the members of one group the experimentar told them that task was really a short intelligence test measuring ability to think in abstract terms and as wella s to memorize.THE REMAINING subject the low motivation group were told to that experimental were investigating the assoicational value of the nonsenses syallabus and was not interested in the subject performance as such.ALL SUBJECTS were given then forteen trial on list Bafter which half of the subjects in each group chosen at random were told that they had done worse than the others and had not even reached the college level on the tests.THE EXPERIMENTER told this failure group that peoples usually learned as many,syallabs as they had in half the time,he asked the questions is anything wrong?do you feel right?NONFAILURE sunbjects on the other hand merely took part in the brief conversation with the experimenter about compus activities.ALL the subjects were then given one more trial,the fifteen on list B and told tto return twenty four hours later,the next day they ewere given more trials on list B after which all failure subjects were told that their performance is excellent.so its mean high motivation subjects as the group did somewhta beeter then the others on both tests.AS AN AID to learning,punishment is more effective when used in combination with reward.WHEN undesireable response is supressed through the punishment,the subject may try some alternative response which if more desireable can then be reinforced by reward.


EXTRINIS AND INTRINIS MOTIVATION,


LABORTARY STUDIES of learning in animals usually have depended upon what is called EXTRINIC MOTIVATION,for example,hunger thurst and escape from electric shock,which acn move the subject to action but which has not inherent relationship to the task to be learned.THIS HAS BEEN necessary with the animal subjects to ensure that they would be active enough to make the response that were to be learned.IT ALSO has the positive advantage of enabling the experimenter to control the factors of motivation for all the subjects to specify what motives are acting and to what degree.WITH HUMAN learning the situation is more complex,the experimenter usually does not have the same control over the subject,his psychologhical needs,and he can never know how far the learning performance is affected by factors he cannot see.REPORTS CARDS,HONOR ROLLS,AND GOLD STAR the examples of EXTRINIC motivations used in the school rooms.IT HAS been found that such devices motivate some childrens more strongly than others,however that both learning and remembering are tend to be better when the motivation is INSTRINISE.


STRESS,

when an individual IS MOTIVATED TO ACHEIVE A CERTAIN LEVEL OF PROFICIENCY in performimg a task,failure or threat of failureproduce stress.WORKING under the pressure of time on undistracting conditions also inducess stress in the learner.THE FURSTRATION increase the length of time required for learning,partly because it increase streotype behaviour.THE DYNIMES of stress evidently involve the complex relation between strength of motivation degree of furstration and personality factors.IN SOME CASES threat of failure motivate the learner to strongly work for sucess.


TRANSFER

THE EFFICIENCY OF practice is often influenced by what we have already learned or have been learning just before.RESULTS FROM various studies indicates that positive transfer will result when the prior task and the present task have the smilliar stimuls response combinations.WHEN THE same stimuls those is used in the prior activity are to be related to different re4sponse in the present activity negative transfer is likely.WHEN TWO learning situations have nothing in common there is no transfer.ALMOST EVERYBODY has had the experience when in an new place of feeling that the place is fimiller.HOW CAN one remember the situation and place one has not been in before?THE PSYCHOLOGHIST have viewd this phenomena,as a case of transfer of a commen elements.many complex situations have something in common this common detail having been experienced before is recognized in new situation.IT IS as important for the students to avoid the conditions that produce negative transfer as to establish the ones that bring positive transfer the baseball coach is trying to stop negative transfer when he forbid his players to play golf during the baseball seasons.


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Old Friday, December 08, 2006
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Default Interference

A VAST AMOUNT OF experimental evidence indicates that learning new things interfere with our memory of what we learned before or what we are going to learn latter.FOR EXAMPLE, you are going at the party where you are introduced to the many new peoples,when the evening is over you will probebly have forgotten the names of the peoples you have met.your memory of the names you heard eariler in the evenng has been interferenced by the names you learned later.TECHANICALLY SPEAKING memory interference resulting from activites that comes later or subseqent to the event you are trying to the remember is called REACTIVE INTERFERENCE.it is called recroative because the interference is with the memory of events that come before the interfering activity.PROATIVE INTERFERENCE,on the other hand is due to the events that came before the to-be remembered information.ALTHOUGH THE retroactive and proactive interference have been shown to be important cause of forgettings.ONE IDEA is that the interferenve disrupt the various kinds of assoication between stimuls and response formed during learning.FOR EXAPLE, in pired learning,peoples learn to form forward assoication between a stimuls and response and backward assoications between stimuls and responses.IF INTERFERENCE produced confusion in what is assoicated with and what,or some experiments indicates actually produce unlearning of the assoication forgetting will be the result.

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