Monday, September 20, 2021
09:29 AM (GMT +5)

Go Back   CSS Forums > CSS Optional subjects > Group VII > Psychology

Reply Share Thread: Submit Thread to Facebook Facebook     Submit Thread to Twitter Twitter     Submit Thread to Google+ Google+    
 
LinkBack Thread Tools Search this Thread
  #21  
Old Thursday, September 26, 2013
Ayesha Suhail's Avatar
Junior Member
 
Join Date: Feb 2011
Location: Pakistan
Posts: 15
Thanks: 26
Thanked 9 Times in 5 Posts
Ayesha Suhail is on a distinguished road
Default

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, abbreviated as DSM-5, is the 2013 update to the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) classification and diagnostic tool.

DSM-5 has discarded the multiaxial system of diagnosis (formerly Axis I, Axis II, Axis III), listing all disorders in Section II. It has replaced Axis IV with significant psychosocial and contextual features and dropped Axis V (Global Assessment of Functioning, known as GAF).

There are three major sections of the DSM-5

Section I.
Introduction and clear information on how to use the DSM.

Section II.
Provides information and categorical diagnoses.

[/B]Section III:

provides self-assessment tools, as well as categories that require more research.
__________________
A life without cause is a life without effect...
Reply With Quote
The Following 3 Users Say Thank You to Ayesha Suhail For This Useful Post:
Arooj Goheer (Monday, January 06, 2014), sadafnoorelahi (Thursday, September 26, 2013), very special 1 (Thursday, September 26, 2013)
  #22  
Old Thursday, September 26, 2013
Senior Member
Medal of Appreciation: Awarded to appreciate member's contribution on forum. (Academic and professional achievements do not make you eligible for this medal) - Issue reason:
 
Join Date: Jul 2013
Location: islamabad
Posts: 279
Thanks: 96
Thanked 167 Times in 120 Posts
sadafnoorelahi will become famous soon enough
Default

kindly could you elaborate a little more about the DSM 5 and its classification.what if you are asked to tell the difference between the classification of DSM IV-TR and DSM 5 ? thanks a lot dear for the provided information.
Reply With Quote
  #23  
Old Monday, September 30, 2013
salmanshahid2002's Avatar
Member
 
Join Date: Nov 2011
Location: Lahore
Posts: 44
Thanks: 17
Thanked 18 Times in 12 Posts
salmanshahid2002 is on a distinguished road
Default What to study under CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM? (topics)

What to study under the main topic of ''CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM'' for PSYCHOLOGY, paper-1?
  1. The Cortex
  2. Projection Areas
  3. Disorders of Projection Areas
  4. Do we really have two Brains?
  5. resting and the action potentials
  6. Synapse and synaptic mechanism
  7. Neurotransmitters and drugs
  8. recovering from brain injuries
Should I study all topics in the list mentioned above?
Please mention irrelevant topics for both papers, if any?
And also guide which topics (under the list) do fall under the outline of Paper 2?
__________________
A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step.
Reply With Quote
  #24  
Old Tuesday, October 01, 2013
Ayesha Suhail's Avatar
Junior Member
 
Join Date: Feb 2011
Location: Pakistan
Posts: 15
Thanks: 26
Thanked 9 Times in 5 Posts
Ayesha Suhail is on a distinguished road
Default

Quote:
Originally Posted by sadafnoorelahi View Post
kindly could you elaborate a little more about the DSM 5 and its classification.what if you are asked to tell the difference between the classification of DSM IV-TR and DSM 5 ? thanks a lot dear for the provided information.
These are the disorders in DSM V
  • Neurodevelopmental disorders
  • Schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders
  • Bipolar and related disorders
  • Depressive disorders
  • Anxiety disorders
  • Obsessive-compulsive and related disorders
  • Trauma- and stressor-related disorders
  • Dissociative disorders
  • Somatic symptom and related disorders
  • Feeding and eating disorders
  • Sleep-wake disorders
  • Sexual dysfunctions
  • Gender dysphoria
  • Disruptive, impulse-control, and conduct disorders
  • Substance-related and addictive disorders
  • Neurocognitive disorders
  • Paraphilic disorders
__________________
A life without cause is a life without effect...
Reply With Quote
  #25  
Old Tuesday, October 01, 2013
Ayesha Suhail's Avatar
Junior Member
 
Join Date: Feb 2011
Location: Pakistan
Posts: 15
Thanks: 26
Thanked 9 Times in 5 Posts
Ayesha Suhail is on a distinguished road
Default

Read them if u want each and every detail of changes made in DSM-V.
These are overall changes made in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-V.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, abbreviated as DSM-5, is the 2013 update to the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) classification and diagnostic tool.
DSM-5 has discarded the multiaxial system of diagnosis (formerly Axis I, Axis II, Axis III), listing all disorders in Section II. It has replaced Axis IV with significant psychosocial and contextual features and dropped Axis V (Global Assessment of Functioning, known as GAF).
The phrase "general medical condition" is replaced in DSM-V with "another medical condition".
There are three major sections of the DSM-5
Section I
It includes introduction and clear information on how to use the DSM.
Section II
It provides information and categorical diagnoses.
Neurodevelopmental disorders
The term "Mental retardation" is replaced with intellectual disability (intellectual developmental disorder).
Communication disorders include language disorders (which combines DSM-IV expressive and mixed expressive receptive disorder, speech sound disorder( a new name for phonological disorder), childhood-onset fluency disorder (a new name for stuttering). It also includes social (pragmatic) communication disorder, a new condition characterized by persistent difficulties in the social uses of verbal and nonverbal communication.
Autism Spectrum disorder is a new DSM-V name that reflects a scientific concensus that four previously separate disorders are actually a single condition with different levels of symptom severity in two core domains. Autism spectrum disorder now incorporates Asperger disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS).
Specific learning disorder combines reading disorder, mathematics disorder, disorder of written expression, and learning disorder not otherwise specified. Because learning deficits in these areas commonly occur together.
Motor disorders include developmental coordination disorder, stereotypic movement disorder, Tourette's disorder, persistent (chronic) motor or vocal tic disorder, provisional tic disorder and other specified and unspecified tic disorders.
Schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders
All subtypes of schizophrenia were deleted (paranoid, disorganized, catatonic, undifferentiated, and residual).
A major mood episode is required for schizoaffective disorder (for a majority of the disorder's duration after criterion A is met).
Criteria for delusional disorder changed, and, in DSM-5, delusional disorder is no longer separate from shared delusional disorder.
In DSM-5, catatonia in all contexts requires 3 of a total of 12 symptoms. Catatonia may be a specifier for depressive, bipolar, and psychotic disorders; part of another medical condition; or an other specified diagnosis.
Bipolar and related disorders
New specifier "with mixed features" can be applied to bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, bipolar disorder NED (previously called "NOS") and MDD
Allows other specified bipolar and related disorder for particular conditions.
Anxiety symptoms are a specifier added to bipolar disorder and to depressive disorders (but are not part of the bipolar diagnostic criteria).
Depressive disorders
The bereavement exclusion in DSM-IV was removed from depressive disorders in DSM-5.
New disruptive mood dysregulation disorder for children up to age 18 years.
Specifiers were added for mixed symptoms and for anxiety, along with guidance to physicians for suicidality.
Anxiety disorders
For the various forms of phobias and anxiety disorders, DSM-5 removes the requirement that the subject (formerly, over 18 years old) "must recognize that their fear and anxiety are excessive or unreasonable". Also, the duration of at least 6 months now applies to everyone (not only to children).
Panic attack became a specifier for all DSM-5 disorders.
Panic disorder and agoraphobia became two separate disorders in DSM-5.
Specific types of phobias became specifiers but are otherwise unchanged.
The generalized specifier for social anxiety disorder (formerly, social phobia) changed in favor of a performance only (i.e., public speaking or performance) specifier.
Separation anxiety disorder and selective mutism are now classified as anxiety disorders (rather than disorders of early onset).
Obsessive-compulsive and related disorders
A new chapter on obsessive-compulsive and related disorders includes four new disorders: excoriation (skin-picking) disorder, hoarding disorder, substance-/medication-induced obsessive-compulsive and related disorder, and obsessive-compulsive and related disorder due to another medical condition.
Trichotillomania (hair-pulling disorder) moved from "impulse-control disorders not elsewhere classified" in DSM-IV, to an obsessive-compulsive disorder in DSM-5.
A specifier was expanded (and added to body dysmorphic disorder and hoarding disorder) to allow for good or fair insight, poor insight, and "absent insight/delusional" (i.e., complete conviction that obsessive-compulsive disorder beliefs are true).
Criteria were added to body dysmorphic disorder to describe repetitive behaviors or mental acts that may arise with perceived defects or flaws in physical appearance.
The DSM-IV specifier “with obsessive-compulsive symptoms” moved from anxiety disorders to this new category for obsessive-compulsive and related disorders.
In DSM-5, other specified obsessive-compulsive and related disorder can include body-focused repetitive behavior disorder (behaviors like nail biting, lip biting, and cheek chewing, other than hair pulling and skin picking), obsessional jealousy, and unspecified obsessive-compulsive and related disorder.
Trauma- and stressor-related disorders
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is now included in a new section titled "Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders."
The PTSD diagnostic clusters were reorganized and expanded from a total of three clusters to four based on the results of confirmatory factor analytic research conducted since the publication of DSM-IV.
Separate criteria were added for children six years old or younger.
For the diagnosis of acute stress disorder and PTSD, the stressor criteria (Criterion A1 in DSM-IV) was modified to some extent, and the requirement for specific subjective emotional reactions (Criterion A2 in DSM-IV) was eliminated because it lacked empirical support for its utility and predictive validity and resulted in certain groups, e.g., military personnel involved in combat, law enforcement officers and other first responders, lacking only the A2 criteria for a PTSD diagnosis because their training prepared them to not react emotionally to traumatic events.
Two new disorders that were formerly subtypes were named: reactive attachment disorder and disinhibited social engagement disorder.
Adjustment disorders were moved to this new section and reconceptualized as stress-response syndromes. DSM-IV subtypes for depressed mood, anxious symptoms, and disturbed conduct are unchanged.
Dissociative disorders
Depersonalization disorder is now called depersonalization/derealization disorder.
Dissociative fugue became a specifier for dissociative amnesia.
In DSM-5, criteria were expanded in dissociative identity disorder to include "possession-form phenomena and functional neurological symptoms" and to say that "transitions in identity may be observable by others or self-reported". Criterion B was also modified for people who can't recall everyday events (not only trauma).
Somatic symptom and related disorders
Somatoform disorders are now called somatic symptom and related disorders. Diagnoses of somatization disorder, hypochondriasis, pain disorder, and undifferentiated somatoform disorder were deleted in DSM-5. In DSM-5, people with chronic pain can be diagnosed with somatic symptom disorder with predominant pain; or psychological factors that affect other medical conditions; or with an adjustment disorder.
Somatization disorder and undifferentiated somatoform disorder were combined to become somatic symptom disorder, a diagnosis which no longer requires a specific number of somatic symptoms.
In DSM-5, somatic symptom and related disorders are defined by positive symptoms, and minimize the use of medically unexplained symptoms except in the cases of conversion disorder and pseudocyesis specifically.
"Psychological factors affecting other medical conditions" (formerly found in the DSM-IV chapter "Other Conditions That May Be a Focus of Clinical Attention") is termed a new mental disorder.
Criteria for conversion disorder (functional neurological symptom disorder) were changed.
Feeding and eating disorders
Criteria for pica and rumination disorder were changed and can now refer to people of any age.
Requirements for bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder were changed from "at least twice weekly for 6 months to at least once weekly over the last 3 months".
Anorexia nervosa no longer has a requirement of amenorrhea and its criteria were changed.
What in DSM-IV was called "feeding disorder of infancy or early childhood" and rarely used, is now called avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder with expanded criteria.
Sleep-wake disorders
"Sleep disorders related to another mental disorder, and sleep disorders related to a general medical condition" were deleted from DSM-IV.
Primary insomnia became insomnia disorder in DSM-5, and narcolepsy is separate from other hypersomnolence.
In DSM-5, there are three breathing-related sleep disorders: obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea, central sleep apnea, and sleep-related hypoventilation.
Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders were expanded to include advanced sleep phase syndrome, irregular sleep-wake type, and non-24-hour sleep-wake type. Jet lag was removed.
Listed under "dyssomnia not otherwise specified" in DSM-IV, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and restless legs syndrome are each a disorder in DSM-5.
Sexual dysfunctions
DSM-5 has sex-specific sexual dysfunctions.
For females, sexual desire and arousal disorders are combined into female sexual interest/arousal disorder.
DSM-5 sexual dysfunctions (except substance-/medication-induced sexual dysfunction) now require a duration of approximately 6 months and more exact severity criteria.
New in DSM-5 is genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder which combines vaginismus and dyspareunia from DSM-IV.
Sexual aversion disorder was deleted.
DSM-5 subtypes for all disorders includes only "lifelong versus acquired" and "generalized versus situational" (one subtype was deleted from DSM-IV).
In DSM-5, two subtypes were deleted: "sexual dysfunction due to a general medical condition" and "due to psychological versus combined factors".
Gender dysphoria
DSM-IV gender identity disorder is similar to, but not the same as, gender dysphoria in DSM-5. Separate criteria for children, adolescents and adults that are appropriate for varying developmental states are added.
Subtypes of gender identity disorder based on sexual orientation were deleted.
Among other wording changes, criterion A and criterion B (cross-gender identification, and aversion toward one’s gender) were combined. Along with these changes comes the creation of a separate gender dysphoria in children as well as one for adults and adolescents. The grouping has been moved out of the sexual disorders category and into its own. The name change was made in part due to stigmatization of the term "disorder" and the relatively common use of "gender dysphoria" in the GID literature and among specialists in the area. The creation of a specific diagnosis for children reflects the lesser ability of children to have insight into what they are experiencing and ability to express it in the event that they have insight.
Disruptive, impulse-control, and conduct disorders
Some of these disorders were formerly part of the chapter on early diagnosis, oppositional defiant disorder; conduct disorder; and disruptive behavior disorder not otherwise specified became other specified and unspecified disruptive disorder, impulse-control disorder, and conduct disorders. Intermittent explosive disorder, pyromania, and kleptomania moved to this chapter from the DSM-IV chapter "Impulse-Control Disorders Not Otherwise Specified".
Antisocial personality disorder is listed here and in the chapter on personality (neurocognitive) disorders (but ADHD is listed under neurodevelopmental disorders).
Symptoms for oppositional defiant disorder are of three types: angry/irritable mood, argumentative/defiant behavior, and vindictiveness. The conduct disorder exclusion is deleted. The criteria were also changed with a note on frequency requirements and a measure of severity.
Criteria for conduct disorder are unchanged for the most part from DSM-IV. A specifier was added for people with limited "prosocial emotion".
People over the disorder's minimum age of 6 may be diagnosed with intermittent explosive disorder without outbursts of physical aggression. Criteria were added for frequency and to specify "impulsive and/or anger based in nature, and must cause marked distress, cause impairment in occupational or interpersonal functioning, or be associated with negative financial or legal consequences".
Substance-related and addictive disorders
Gambling disorder and tobacco use disorder are new.
Substance abuse and substance dependence have been combined into single substance use disorders specific to each substance of abuse within a new "addictions and related disorders" category."Recurrent legal problems" was deleted and "craving or a strong desire or urge to use a substance" was added to the criteria. The threshold of the number of criteria that must be met was changed. Severity from mild to severe is based on the number of criteria endorsed.
Criteria for cannabis and caffeine withdrawal were added.
New specifiers were added for early and sustained remission along with new specifiers for "in a controlled environment" and "on maintenance therapy".
Neurocognitive disorders
Dementia and amnestic disorder became major or mild neurocognitive disorder.
DSM-5 has a new list of neurocognitive domains. "New separate criteria are now presented" for major or mild NCD due to various conditions. Substance/medication-induced NCD and unspecified NCD are new diagnoses.
Paraphilic disorders
New specifiers "in a controlled environment" and "in remission" were added to criteria for all paraphilic disorders.
Distinguishes between paraphilic behaviors, or paraphilias, and paraphilic disorders. All criteria sets were changed to add the word disorder to all of the paraphilias, for example, pedophilia is now pedophilic disorder. There is no change in the basic diagnostic structure since DSM-III-R; however, people now must meet both qualitative (criterion A) and negative consequences (criterion B) criteria to be diagnosed with a paraphilic disorder. Otherwise they have a paraphilia (and no diagnosis).
Section III
It includes emerging measures and models. It provides self-assessment tools, as well as categories that require more research. An alternative hybrid dimensional-categorical model for personality disorders is included to stimulate further research on this modified classification system.
These conditions and criteria are set forth to encourage future research and are not meant for clinical use.
Attenuated psychosis syndrome
Depressive episodes with short-duration hypomania
Persistent complex bereavement disorder
Caffeine use disorder
Internet gaming disorder
Neurobehavioral disorder associated with prenatal alcohol exposure
Suicidal behavior disorder
Non-suicidal self-injury
__________________
A life without cause is a life without effect...
Reply With Quote
The Following 2 Users Say Thank You to Ayesha Suhail For This Useful Post:
Arooj Goheer (Monday, January 06, 2014), very special 1 (Tuesday, November 12, 2013)
  #26  
Old Tuesday, October 01, 2013
nisma khan's Avatar
Member
 
Join Date: Aug 2013
Posts: 68
Thanks: 67
Thanked 62 Times in 35 Posts
nisma khan is on a distinguished road
Default

Quote:
Originally Posted by salmanshahid2002 View Post
What to study under the main topic of ''CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM'' for PSYCHOLOGY, paper-1?
  1. The Cortex
  2. Projection Areas
  3. Disorders of Projection Areas
  4. Do we really have two Brains?
  5. resting and the action potentials
  6. Synapse and synaptic mechanism
  7. Neurotransmitters and drugs
  8. recovering from brain injuries
Should I study all topics in the list mentioned above?
Please mention irrelevant topics for both papers, if any?
And also guide which topics (under the list) do fall under the outline of Paper 2?
You should go through these topics but they r not much important, a general overview of brain is enough along with somatic and autonomic nervous system

Quote:
Originally Posted by very special 1 View Post
AOA

with tough topics of school of thought ........ i dont know why i cant summerize them well.

all the best

regards
School of thought needs a frequent visit otherwise they r hard to grasp.

Quote:
Originally Posted by nudret sultan baloch View Post
mey ney to aubi just islamiat aur pak study half tyaar ki hey aur aap log to revision pey b pohnch geyhen
Speed up .try to cover optinals first.try to study 2 subject a day .little time is left but still its enough
Reply With Quote
  #27  
Old Wednesday, October 02, 2013
Junior Member
 
Join Date: Sep 2013
Posts: 7
Thanks: 0
Thanked 4 Times in 4 Posts
Rimal Iman is on a distinguished road
Default

i think we also cover past paper quesstions that will b very helpful
Reply With Quote
  #28  
Old Thursday, October 03, 2013
very special 1's Avatar
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Dec 2010
Location: dream land,where eagles live
Posts: 441
Thanks: 484
Thanked 286 Times in 195 Posts
very special 1 has a spectacular aura aboutvery special 1 has a spectacular aura aboutvery special 1 has a spectacular aura about
Default

Central nervous system consist of

Brain
spinal cord

Synaptic neuro transmitter all are not under central nervous system.
__________________
attitude makes the difference!
Reply With Quote
  #29  
Old Thursday, October 03, 2013
nisma khan's Avatar
Member
 
Join Date: Aug 2013
Posts: 68
Thanks: 67
Thanked 62 Times in 35 Posts
nisma khan is on a distinguished road
Default

Synaptic transmission come under peripheral nervous system, then under somatic nervous system
Reply With Quote
  #30  
Old Friday, October 04, 2013
salmanshahid2002's Avatar
Member
 
Join Date: Nov 2011
Location: Lahore
Posts: 44
Thanks: 17
Thanked 18 Times in 12 Posts
salmanshahid2002 is on a distinguished road
Default

thanks very special 1.
please provide the complete name of the author of the RAKSHANDAs book, its publisher and also its edition as
I want to consider this book being written in urdu.
Feldman has written books on psychology with different titles, which one
are you following?

please provide complete name of the author of the RAKSHANDAs book, its publisher and also its edition as
I want to consider this book being written in urdu.
Feldman has written books on psychology with different titles, which one
are you following?
__________________
A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step.
Reply With Quote
Reply

Thread Tools Search this Thread
Search this Thread:

Advanced Search

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off
Trackbacks are On
Pingbacks are On
Refbacks are On


Similar Threads
Thread Thread Starter Forum Replies Last Post
Psychology, By David G. Myers, 6th Edition sarfrazmayo Psychology 24 Sunday, July 20, 2014 03:47 PM
Psychology Q. No. 1 sarfrazmayo Psychology 0 Wednesday, November 21, 2012 06:12 AM
Psychology Sureshlasi Psychology 4 Friday, July 13, 2007 04:06 AM
What is Psychology? Miss_Naqvi Psychology 7 Friday, November 17, 2006 02:31 PM


CSS Forum on Facebook Follow CSS Forum on Twitter

Disclaimer: All messages made available as part of this discussion group (including any bulletin boards and chat rooms) and any opinions, advice, statements or other information contained in any messages posted or transmitted by any third party are the responsibility of the author of that message and not of CSSForum.com.pk (unless CSSForum.com.pk is specifically identified as the author of the message). The fact that a particular message is posted on or transmitted using this web site does not mean that CSSForum has endorsed that message in any way or verified the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any message. We encourage visitors to the forum to report any objectionable message in site feedback. This forum is not monitored 24/7.

Sponsors: ArgusVision   vBulletin, Copyright ©2000 - 2021, Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd.