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Old Monday, August 19, 2013
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Press laws in Pakistan
The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan provides for its citizens, fundamental rights, one of which pertains specifically to the Press, Article 19, Freedom of Speech:
Every citizen shall have the right to freedom of speech and expression, and there shall be freedom of the press, subject to any reasonable restrictions imposed by law in the interest of the glory of Islam or the integrity, security or defense of Pakistan or any part thereof, friendly relations with foreign states, public order, decency or morality, or in relation to contempt of court, commission of or incitement to an offense.
The Constitution of Pakistan, then, guarantees the freedom of expression and freedom of the press, subject to reasonable restrictions that may be imposed by law. It is the responsibility of the judiciary to determine the scope and parameters of the permissible freedoms and the extent of restrictions placed on their enjoyment. The judiciary can play a full and effective role only if it is free and independent of any
and every kind or form of control or influence. Although the judiciary has generally been supportive of the freedom of expression and information, and sought to strengthen the mass media, the courts are subject to pressure from the executive branch because the president controls the appointment, transfer, and tenure of judges.
State Press Relation
The press has traditionally experienced the often harsh effects of Pakistan’s political instability. When partition resulted in the establishment of Pakistan as an independent homeland for the Muslims, the Muslim League as a political party struggled with the tasks of leading the new country into stable
statehood. Factionalism, however, quickly contributed to instability, internal strife, incompetence, and corruption. The press at this point was largely a remnant of the Muslim press present during the struggle for independence, and it was seen as aggravating the problems being faced by keeping these issues out in front of the people. Thus, the government began its long history of attempting to control the press through arrests, the banning of certain publications, and other punitive measures.
Ayub Khan’s Era
Between 1948 and 1956, political turbulence intensified with the assassination of the country’s first Prime Minister, Quaid-i-Millat Liaquat Ali Khan, in 1951 and the dissolution of the Constituent Assembly in 1954. However, by 1956, the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan was enforced; it contained an article specifically devoted to freedom of speech. The 1956 Constitution lasted less than three years when it was abrogated by the imposition of martial law in October 1958. A new enforcement of the
constitution in 1962 occurred with the removal of martial law by President Ayub Khan. Although this constitution continued the recognition of an initial concept of freedom of expression, in reality, a military ruler imposed the constitution, and it contained no separate chapter on fundamental rights. The press and the public commented on the implications of living under a constitution devoid of mention of such basic rights, which resulted in Constitutional Amendment No. 1 to the 1962 Constitution.
General Yahya’s Regime
However, in 1963, just one year after the adoption of the new constitution, the Press and Publications Ordinance (PPO) came into being. This ordinance contained the harshest of laws curtailing freedom of expression and the progressive development of the media and leading to the March 1969 relinquishing of power by President Ayub Khan to General Yahya Khan who imposed martial law. General Khan relied heavily on one of the measures of this ordinance, the system of press advice given out by the Ministry of
Information and Broadcasting in order to avoid publication of news and reports deemed unsuitable for public consumption. It was also during this period that newspapers and magazines known for their independent and progressive views were first taken over by the government. Eventually the National Press Trust, created in 1964, took over these journals and acted as a front to control a section of the press.
In 1960, the Western Pakistan Maintenance of Public Order Ordinance was promulgated. On the outside, the aim was to consolidate into one law different provisions for preventive detention of persons and control of persons and publications for reasons connected with the maintenance of public order. The real aim was to refine and reinforce the mechanism of repression. With amendments in 1963 and 1964, this law empowered the government to ban the printing of publications, to enter and search premises, and to prohibit import of newspapers, among other measures. These powers have been used by succeeding government’s right up until the government of Musharraf.
In 1961, the government also took over the principal news agency of the country, the APP, arguing that administrative and financial breakdown justified such a move. Instead of allowing private enterprise to improve the quality of the news agency, the government saw this as an opportunity to control what news would be supplied to the print media, to radio, and to the outside world.
In spite of such repressive times, the press took a bold stand in providing alternative sources of news through an independent press. It was also during this time that the Press and Publications Ordinance collected under one law a number of excessive regulatory measures and punitive concepts that had
previously existed in different laws and were now applied heavily to control the press. This press law (PPO) endured for 25 years before being repealed in September 1988.

Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto’s Era
In December 1971, when the break-up of Pakistan and the birth of Bangladesh occurred, General Yahya Khan handed over power to Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto as President and Pakistan’s first civilian Chief Martial Law dministrator who continued to use martial law up to April 1972 when an interim constitution was adopted, prior to the enactment of a new constitution by the National Assembly in August 1973. Bhutto, however, reacting to criticism by various members of the press, imprisoned editors and publishers on the
pretext of national security. The next five years, from 1972 to 1977, represented the beginnings of democracy; however, they were marred by repressive actions toward the press. The new constitution, although formulated on the principles of democracy, human rights, and freedom of speech, did not deliver on these promises. The PPO remained, as did the National Press Trust. Furthermore, through coercion and manipulation, the
government insured that the only other news agency in the country (aside from the government-owned APP), the Pakistan Press International (PPI), was brought under its authority.
General Zia’s Era
In 1977, General Zia ul Haq ousted Bhutto from the prime minister position and once again imposed martial law under which abuse of journalists became public rather than covert. Journalists were flogged in public at Zia’s whim. Although martial law usually ends with a Supreme Court-imposed deadline by
which elections must be held, Zia was given no such deadline, and his time in office up to August 1988 had a deleterious effect on the mass media. Not one single law or regulation of any progressive character was created during Zia’s rule. The only positive outcome of Zia’s rule was the restoration of the news
agency PPI to its original shareholders. Since then PPI provides a valuable alternative news source to the government-controlled APP. In 1985, Prime Minister Mohammad Khan Junejo was elected to the National Assembly, based on nonparty elections, and lifted martial law in December 1985. Even though Junejo was a more democratic political figure, the PPO remained in place under him, and he relied on the old media laws. However, in May 1988 President General Zia ul Haq dissolved the National Assembly and dismissed the Government of Prime Minister Junejo, replacing them with a cabinet of his own and no prime minister. This arrangement only lasted 11 weeks as Haq was killed in a suspicious plane crash in August 1988.
This incident resulted in the Chairman of the Senate, Mr. Ghulam Ishaq Khan, succeeding to the office of President as per the constitution. A caretaker government provided transition to a full-fledged democracy, which included repealing the press law that had coerced the media for so long. A new law, known as the Registration of Printing Presses and Publications Ordinance came into effect in 1988. A key change in this law made it mandatory for the District Magistrate to issue a receipt to an applicant for the issuance of a declaration for the keeping of a printing press or the publication of a journal to provide the applicant with proof that would help avoid government interference.
The most significant change made in the press law of 1988 was the removal of power from the government and the right of an applicant to be heard in person by the authority before any punitive action
was taken, like the closure of a press. Appeals were also now allowed. In addition, newspapers were no longer obligated to publish in full the press notes issued by the government.
For a variety of reasons, the press law of 1988 continued to be re-promulgated as an ordinance through 1997, even though the Supreme Court ruled such re-promulgation unconstitutional. One key reason for
this was the recurring demands by representative bodies of the press to revise the 1988 law even further to remove any executive power to control the press.
Benazir’s Regime
The November 1988 elections saw Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, the first Muslim woman prime minister of the world, assume office. She brought with her a new phase of liberalism toward the mass media laws and regulations. For example, Bhutto’s government allowed government-controlled radio and television to provide daily and well-balanced coverage of the speeches and statements of its opposition in news bulletins and current affairs programs. Because the print media reaches such a small percentage of the population, this change had a significant impact on the pubic, but was returned to the old, one-sided coverage after only four months because of pressure on Bhutto by her party, the Pakistan People’s Party.
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The independent press grew stronger during this phase; the Urdu press and the English press, as well as the regional language press, such as Sindh language newspapers, showed a new energy in reporting the news and in analyzing the issues of the day. In addition, new technology and use of computers and desktop publishing allowed a more timely and in-depth reporting of the news. Bhutto also ended the manipulative government practice of using newsprint as a means of controlling the press. Specifically, the Ministry of Information no longer required issuance of permits to import newsprint and allowed a free and open system of importing newsprint at market prices. In 1990, President Ishaq Khan dismissed Bhutto’s government, charging them with misconduct, and declared a state of emergency. Bhutto and her party lost the October elections, and the new Prime Minister, Nawaz Sharif, took over. For reasons not apparent to the public, Sharif restored the issuance of permits system for news-print import. The charges against Bhutto were resolved, and after a bitter campaign, the PPP was returned to power in October 1993, and Bhutto was again named prime minister. She was ousted again in 1996 amid charges of corruption, a caretaker government was installed, and Sharif defeated Bhutto in the February 1997 elections.
[B]Sharif’s Period[/B]
In Sharif’s two and one-half years in power, he used many heavy-handed methods to deal with journalists who dared to criticize his government. He put tremendous pressure on independent journalists, using both covert and overt means of retribution. His Pakistan Muslim League party (PML) achieved a landslide electoral victory in the National Assembly, which made Sharif believe he had been given a heavy mandate to rule the country as he saw fit. He was able to cast aside all democratic checks on his power, except for the press. In the end, the press survived whereas Sharif did not. The press, in fact, through its wide reporting of Sharif’s abuse of power, prepared the Pakistani people for General Pervez Musharraf’s military coup on October 12, 1999.
Musharraf’s Regime
In May 2000 Musharraf’s regime was strengthened by a unanimous decision by the Supreme Court to validate the October 1999 coup as having been necessary; at the same time the Court announced that the Chief Executive should name a date not later than 90 days before the expiry of the three-year period from October 12, 1999 for the holding of elections to the National Assembly, the provincial assemblies, and the Senate.
In Pakistan today a cooperative effort appears to be underway between Musharraf’s government and the journalism community. In general, musharraf’s administration seems to follow a more liberal policy towards the press with fewer restrictions and much less manipulation. However, reports vary widely.
Whereas the Pakistan Press Foundation (PPF) reported continued harassment of and dangers to journalists, some journalists currently working for Pakistani newspapers offer another version of the situation. A. R. Khaliq, assistant editor for Business Recorder, reported that the press, by and large, is not
faced with any coercion or abuse under Musharraf.
Summary
Pakistan’s turbulent history, coupled with its ongoing political and economic crises, places the press in the position of informing the citizenry while also providing a check on the powers in office. Since its founding in 1947, Pakistan has suffered three periods of martial law and two military dictatorships, yet the press endures. The freedoms that insure the existence of the press are contained in Pakistan’s constitution, which remained suspended in 2002, and yet the press endures and continues to safeguard
those freedoms. Over the years members of the press have been arrested and jailed, have had their offices raided and ransacked, have been publicly flogged, and severely censored. Yet the press endures and has a
stronger voice today than ever before, and yet as recently as 1999, Pakistan’s largest and most influential newspaper, Jang, was raided because it was too critical of the government. Watch groups around the world characterize Pakistan as a partly free nation, and efforts appear to be moving in a positive and democratic direction.
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CONTEMPT OF COURT
Definitions of Contempt of court

• Any act that is meant to embarrass, hinder or obstruct a court in the administration of justice
• The willful and intentional failure to comply with a court order, judgment, injunction, or decree by a party to the action, which may be punishable in a variety of ways, and in some instances, incarceration.
• The willful failure to obey a court order, or disrespectful or unacceptable behavior in the presence of the court.
• A finding by a judge that a person has violated a court order or is guilty of conduct before the court calculated to disrupt the proceedings of the court.
• Any act involving disrespect to the court or failure to obey its rules or orders.
• Interfering with the administration of justice or ignoring the rules of the court. Showing unwarranted disrespect for the court, refusing to testify in court or failing to obey a court order are the most common types of contempt of court.
• Any act which is calculated to embarrass, hinder, or obstruct the court in administration of justice, or which is calculated to lessen its authority or its dignity.
• Disregard for the authority of the court, including committing disorderly behavior in court, improper conduct intended to influence the course of justice, or bringing the administration of justice into disrepute.
• This is a charge that a judge can lay if someone interferes with the work of the court or ignores the rules of court.
• The punishable act of showing disrespect for the authority of dignity of a court.
• A person may be found in contempt of court if the person fails to do something that the court ordered that person to do, or if that person does something in court that the court orders the person no to do.
• Contempt of court can occur in multiple scenarios. A direct contempt occurs in the view and presence of the court and disturbs the court proceedings. A constructive contempt is the failure of a party to obey a court order, decree, or judgment.
• Failure to show respect for an order of a court.
• disrespect for the rules of a court of law
• Willful disobedience of a judge's command or of an official court order.
Article: 204 of constitution of Islamic republic of Pakistan, 1973
Deals with “Contempt of Court”
(1) In this Article, "Court" means the Supreme Court or High Court.
(2) A Court shall have power to punish any person who,-
(a) Abuses, interferes with or obstructs the process of the Court in any way or disobeys any order of the Court;
(b) Scandalizes the Court or otherwise does anything which tends to bring the Court or a Judge of the Court into hatred, ridicule or contempt;
(c) Does anything which tends to prejudice the determination of a matter pending before the Court; or
(d) does any other thing which, by law, constitutes contempt of the Court.
(3) The exercise of the power conferred on a Court by this Article may be regulated by law (Contempt of
Court Ordinance, 1998) and, subject to law, by rules made by the Court.

Types of Contempt Of Court
1) Academic critique Academic critique means an article written by a lawyer or a person holding an academic post containing a critical analysis of a judgment pertaining to a pending criminal case on the basis of legal criteria or
desiderata.
2) Civil contempt
Civil contempt means the willful flouting or disregard of -
(i) An order, whether interim or final, a judgment or decree of a court;
(ii) A writ or order issued by a court in the exercise of its constitutional jurisdiction;
(iii) An undertaking given to, and recorded by, a court;
(iv) The process of a court Procedure in cases of contempt in the face of the court.-
(1) In the case of a contempt committed in the face of the court, if the accused, persists in disorderly conduct, the court may direct that he leaves the court room, and, failing compliance, may further direct that he be physically removed from the court room.
(2) In all cases of contempt in the face of the court, the judge shall pass an order in open court recording separately what was said or done by the accused person and what was observed by the judge and shall, if he is not the Chief Justice, refer the matter to the Chief Justice, and, if he is the Chief Justice, to the senior most available judge of a the court, who shall either hear and decide the matter himself or refer it to some other judge for disposal; Provided that it shall not be necessary for the matter to be so referred if the accused person requests in writing that it be decided by the judge before whom the contempt, or alleged contempt, was committed.
3) Criminal contempt Criminal contempt means the doing of any act with intent to, or having the effect of, obstructing the administration of justice
Criminal contempt when committed
A criminal contempt shall be deemed to have been committed if a person:
(a) Attempts to influence a witness by intimidation or improper inducement, not to give evidence, or not to tell the truth in any legal proceeding;
(b) Offers an improper inducement, or attempts to intimidate a judge, in order to secure a favorable verdict in any legal proceedings;
(c) commits any other act with intent to divert the course of justice.
Who may move superior court to punish contemnor for criminal contempt?
In the case of a criminal contempt a superior court may take action;
(i) Suo Motu (superior court itself if satisfied that criminal contempt has actually been committed by the contemnor), or
(ii) On the initiative of any person connected with the proceedings in which the alleged contempt has been committed, or
(iii) On the application of the law officer of a provincial or the federal government.
4) Judicial contempt
Judicial contempt means the scandalisation of a court and includes personalized criticism of a judge while holding office; Personalized criticism means a criticism of a judge or a judgment in which improper motives are imputed Personalized criticism personalized criticism of a specific judge, or judges, may constitute judicial contempt except if made in good faith.
Suit for defamation a judge who has been criticized by some contemnor also has a right to file a suit for defamation against that contemnor.
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1- Role of Muslim Press during Pakistan Movement.
2- Communication (Process and barriers)
3- Functions and Purposes of Editorial.
4- Advertising (positive and Negative aspects)
5- Public Relations and its role in modern societies.
6- Yellow journalism in Pakistani Media (Biasnes and political leaning)
7- How Pakistani Media distorts media laws and ethics?
8- Social media as social mobilizer.
9- Role of media in upcoming elections.
10- Telecasting of foreign dramas on Pakistani channels is destroying our culture. Do you agree?
11- Discuss different techniques of propaganda.
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Evolution Of Print Journalism
• In the 10th century handmade press was first established. Book printing was started in 15th & 16th Century in Europe.
• The emergence of Print Media created doubts in the minds of the rulers and they took it as a threat against their rule. The rulers presumed that people would become aware of their rights and they will challenge the authority. So most of the rulers in Europe took it as a revolt and declared capital punishment for the persons involved in Mass Media. In 1663, the last capital
punishment was given to a publisher because he published a book of an anonymous writer. This book contained the idea that rulers are accountable for their deeds and decisions to the masses and if any ruler does not feel himself accountable then masses have the right to overthrow his rule. This was the last capital punishment that was awarded in the history of
England.
• Print media could not get its full growth till the 18th century as illiteracy was the major problem in all the societies and most of the newspapers were read by the elite class because state was not responsible for the education of the masses and elites had a privilege to get private education from the arranged tutors.
• The first newspaper which was in printed form published in 1642 in England. The first magazine of the world published in 1704 in London with the first issue of a small periodical called The “Review”.
• In the sub-continent East India Company started the first newspaper in 1780, some papers that were in English language and mostly read by the employees of the East-India company. In 1757 when East India Company conquered Bengal, there were one lac informal institutions
that were either run by Hindu Pandits or Muslim Ulamas. So publishing papers entirely in English language means that they ignored the factor of local educated people. Later on the English papers started to publish in Madras, Bombay and Calcutta because East India Company offices were in all these cities. So, it proved that publish of this paper was entirely for Company employees and not for the local Indians.
• In 1822, first Urdu paper named Jam-e-Jahanuma whose editor Munshi Sada Sikh emerged and English rulers took it as a threat against them and they started to think to impose press laws to outclass local papers. Therefore, in1823 Press Act came to suppress Urdu press and it was made compulsory that the name of the Editor, Publisher and Owner along with the
address should be on the first page of the newspaper .So that the government can recognize the authority of these papers. It was named as Press & Publication Ordinance (PPO). So, the era before the division of India was a tough one for the mass communication as many press owners and editors faced punishments several times under this Ordinance.
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Development in Magazine Journalism

• The world magazine entered the English in the late 1500s.
• The term of magazine originally from the Arabic “makhasin” which mean “storehouse”. The term magazine refers in ancient times to a place containing a collection of different items, usually military stores. Still this word describes many kind of military stores.
• In 1700s early print periodicals called magazine.
• Magazine depended on technological developments in moveable type, press, printing, and paper as a book and newspaper
• Magazines are unique medium in print media.
• Magazine was originally established in London, when the British expanded magazine began to prosper to United States in eighteen century.
• Magazine was a serious and respected medium serving millions of readers in the end of nineteenth century.
• During the early twentieth century, magazines played an important role in exposing unacceptable social conditions and stimulating social reforms. Between the two world wars, before television became a household medium, they were one of the major mass media advertising nationally distributed products.
• After World War 2 the growth of television had a significant impact on the magazine industry. Large-circulation general magazines were severely hurt financially, but new kinds of magazines
were founded and the industry thrives today.
• Magazines have always served specific functions in society that differ from those either newspaper or books. Furthermore, those who subscribe to and read magazines constitute a distinct segment of U.S society. Magazines’ functions and audiences have a long and colorful history and although magazines have change greatly in recent times, at lest some remain
remarkably as they were from their beginnings.
• The first magazine was “The Review” published in 1704 as a small weekly periodical and founder of the first magazine was “Daniel Defoe”. Policies of this magazine were against the Crown and Church .The first editor had been arrested earlier because of his critical writings denouncing certain policies of the Church of England.
• The first magazine published in Sub-Continent was Jam-e-Jaha Numa.
• Magazine was born as an instrument of politics.
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Magazine

and types of magazine
s

Magazine
A magazine is a periodical publication containing a wide variety of articles on various subjects.

Periodical
A periodical is a regular issue from a press; it could be a magazine or a review.
Journal
A journal is a professional periodical.
Historical perspective

The term Magazine was first used in 1731 in the title of “Gentleman’s Magazine” which was founded in London; however, magazine in its very early form was available to general public since 1646. In 1691 The Complete Library appeared on the scene which is taken as the first magazine that broke away from book information. The first essay-type periodical was Tattler and the first magazine published from USA was Andrew Branford’s American Magazine.
Magazine Journalism after Independence

Major contribution of periodicals in the history of Pakistan had been in the area of literature. Quite a huge number of literary journals and magazines of high quality were published in the early years of our independence which resulted into this mindset of the readers that a periodical is a literary journal, which is altogether wrong. Since independence different magazines and periodicals have been published and are still being published. These magazines and periodicals can be classified into different categories:
Literary Magazine
A literary magazine is a periodical devoted to literature. It usually covers poetry, short stories, essays on different topics, critical reviews of different books, interviews of different poets and authors, letters and a lot of other related stuff.
Some famous literary magazines that were published but have now vanished from the scene are: Sawera, Naqsh, Naya Daur, Naya adab, Urdu adab, etc. After 60s one by one they vanished and digest magazines took their place. Most of the critics blame radio, TV and newspapers for this. Television and radio are providing entertainment and information in the form of dramas, songs (poetry), discussions etc. and therefore people don’t bother to buy and read these magazines.
Another reason is the lack of availability of good piece of writings and the cheap entertainment available in the form of digests.

Religious Magazine

Religious magazine is a magazine devoted to some specific religion. It is usually aimed at preaching some particular religion though religious poetry, religious scholars’ articles and interviews, answering people’s different questions and queries regarding that religion, historical incidents, comparative analysis with other religions etc.
In 19th century when journalism was taking its shape in sub-continent the most popular periodicals were religious magazines. Hindus, Muslims and Christian missionaries were publishing their magazines and propagating their religions.
Different organizations, sects and people belonging to different religions are publishing their magazines in Pakistan but they are not so popular any more because electronic media particularly private Islamic and other channels are also doing the job in a bit different and to an extent popular way which has ultimately reduced the demand for religious magazines.

Film Magazine

Film magazines provide both information as well as entertainment to the readers. They are considered as the most popular periodicals worldwide. They provide an update to public on the upcoming new local and international movies, interviews and pictures of their favorite starts, some spicy news about the actors and actresses, and a lot of other stuff of public interest.
In Pakistan, film magazines have become less popular over the time which is considered as the outcome of over all downfall of Pakistan Film Industry. Till 1970, app.110 films were released per year and now it is 20-25.
Similarly, number of cinema houses in the country till 1970 was 850 and now it is about 350. This gradual decline of film industry has disturbed the circulation of film magazine in the country resulting into the lesser number of publications available. Another reason is the coverage of film and entertainment media by newspapers. Newspapers are now providing such an extensive coverage to entertainment industry particularly films that people don’t really feel like buying film magazines any more.

Sports Magazine

As the name indicates, sports magazine cover sports and sports persons. They provide information to sports fans about the international and national sports events and sports persons and also give pictorial coverage to mega sports events to meet the public demands.

Political Magazine

Magazines providing an insight and update on different political events nationally and internationally, political updates, news, interviews of famous politicians, political parties’ activities and their affairs, political scandals, public opinion regarding the popularity of different parties and politicians are called Political magazines. In 7th and 8th decade of 20th century we had some really popular political magz but now they are not that popular any more and their circulation has also decreased to a great extent. The major reason of their decline is newspapers; newspapers are now so deeply and thoroughly covering political news and other related things in the form of editorials, features and columns that people are no more interested in spending extra money on reading political magazines because they can read and get all the required information from newspapers. Some of the very famous political magazines that once we had were: Lail-o-nahar, Al-fateh etc.

Women’s Magazine
Before partition, sub-continent had some very popular women’s magazines like Ismat, which was published from Delhi. After independence, in 1960s other then independent women magz, all national dailies also started publishing women’s periodicals.A women’s magazine has everything of women’s interest which could be beauty tips, articles on women issues, their poetry and other writings, interviews of successful women, etc.

Children’s Magazine
Phool was one of the most popular children’s magazine of sub-continent before independence. Khilona from Delhi was another one that continued publishing even after partition. In Pakistan, daily newspapers are also publishing children’s special periodicals in which they mostly cover children’s drawings, pictures, poems, shot stories, cartoons and other stuff of their interest.

Fashion Magazine

They are also called society magazines as they inform people about the new trends of the society in different ways. A special feature of these fashion magz is their quality of Photo Journalism, which is very high. They are usually liked by people but their circulation is not that high in the country which is due to their expensive nature.

Digest Magazine
Reader’s Digest is the first digest in the history of digest magazines. Digest magazine is a magazine that provides a digestible material to its readers. In Pakistan 80-85 digest magazines are available for light reading. They usually cover translations of short stories and novels from other languages mostly English,mythological stories, local stories, fiction etc. Digest magazines have now become the most popular and affordable type of magazine in Pakistan.

In-house Journal

The journals published by different organizations to provide information to their client and employees regarding their services, policies and other related information. In Pakistan, different government, semigovernment and private organizations are publishing in-house journals. They can be divided into different sub-categories; newsletter is one of the most popular of its types
.
Research Journal

Research journals are usually published on quarterly basis. They cover and publish latest research usually in the form of research papers, sometimes on different topics and sometime in a specific area. Almost all universities and higher education institutions publish these research journals on regular basis because they are now considered as a symbol of progress and knowledge. Students also give them more importance over their academic books. Some other professional journals like medical journals, architectural journals and magazines, IT journals etc. are also being published in Pakistan.

Necessities/ requirements/qualities of Magazine Journalism
The editor of a periodical or a magazine should be a reputable person in his field in terms of his contacts e.g. an editor of a literary journal must be aware of all the important persons of the field and should have a friendly relation with them because they are the biggest source of information to his magazine.

Photo Journalism:
Another important thing is high quality photo journalism. Whatever category a magazine falls in its pictorial coverage of events, incidents and personalities has always been a major reason of popularity among its readers. A magazine with low quality photo journalism cannot establish its identity and position, neither in the market nor in the eyes of its readers. Life Magazine, a magazine of international repute was purely based on Photo Journalism and is considered as a fine example for others. It not only established its own identity through its pictures but also helped in establishing a standard guideline for other magazines.
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Old Monday, August 26, 2013
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Default zohaib babar

Salam

My Dear aspirints.I will not send notes to anyone on email.I want to share with any one css aspirints that could get benefit from this useful notes.Please don't show your email on board.So don't waste your time and copy these notes and study it by heart not by your mind.

Get yourself serious and start preparation for CSS.Minimum give 8 hours for Your CSS study.I will keep posting notes.

Iam wandered that whenever i get log on to css forum,some people still don't plan for css study,They still ask from people about
their selection of optional subjects,Or about recommendation of books of different subjects.Its not a way to get in css and print it in your that i will do CSS in 3 months.No brothers or sisters.I daily give 10 hours..

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Zohaib Khan Babar
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Old Tuesday, August 27, 2013
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Give 3 hours for every subjects for preparation.Always fix specific target for your preparation of every subjects,also try to remember/Revise topics after 2 or 3 days.

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Zohaib Khan Babar
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Old Thursday, August 29, 2013
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kindly publish notes on evolution of muslim press in subcontinent with specific reference to 4 political personalities(zafar ali khan,hasrat mohani,azad and maulaa muhamad ali jauhar)
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