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Old Thursday, September 26, 2013
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5. Further aspects of the discussion on a journalistic ethic

As shown in the discussion of the ethics of conviction and the ethics of responsibility, empirical studies, with respect to journalistic ethics, are extremely important. Surveys of journalists, for example, can give a picture of journalistic ethics. A survey of German journalists, by Beate Schneider, Klaus Schönbach and Dieter Stürzbecher (1992), showed, for instance, with respect to an evaluation of the legitimacy of controversial research methods that 75% of the journalists polled would use secret government documents; 46% were prepared to pose as an employee in a business or an organisation to access internal information. Nearly 40% would pretend to have opinions or attitudes other than their own in order to gain the trust of an informant. Nearly 30% of journalists were prepared to procure confidential documents by offering money. Nearly 30% were also prepared to pretend to be someone else to acquire information. As was established in Weaver and Wilhoit's 1992 study,
American journalists approve of some of these kinds of research methods considerably more frequently. Thus they were considerably more ready to put informants under pressure (49%) and to publish private documents without permission (47%).

A further problem, which impacts the ethical conduct of journalism to different degrees from country to country, concerns the influence of public relations (PR). Especially in Western countries (North America; Western and Central Europe) it is common to want to influence media coverage through PR - and just as much on the part of the state as on the part of business and other associations or interest groups. There is a wide range of PR initiatives. These include, among other things, running press conferences; confidential passing on of information (leaking); the discrediting of possible rivals; the preparation of press kits containing more or less prefabricated articles and pictures; the bribing of journalists [ Humbert Wolle (1886 - 1940) wrote: "You cannot hope to bribe or twist, thank God! the British journalist. But, seeing what the man will do unbribed, there's no occasion to."] - be it with money, or other gifts (e.g. trips) etc. In every respect, the PR people have the whip hand over the journalists. The former have the time to research the relevant material and to put it together according to their interests.

Furthermore, the PR practitioners know exactly the criteria used to turn information into news. Moreover, the journalists, in every case, are under constant time pressure and therefore tend to be forced to accept public relations output. At the same time, the relationship between PR and journalism does not have to be seen automatically in a negative light, for without the appropriate PR, many issues would not be researched at all. Using PR materials can definitely relieve time constraints faced by journalists. But it is important for journalists to maintain a critical distance from PR output so as to be able to manage the flow of information.

In conclusion, one must refer once again to the basic and self-evident fact that in different countries, different understandings of journalism prevail (e.g. big differences exist in Europe between Germany and Great Britain). It is also important to look at the authority to make the rules within individual media, be they organised by the state, under public law or by the private sector. In other words, it is also a question of internal press freedom - the question as to how far journalists have to take orders from higher ranking people and in which areas they can report independently.

6. Outlook

As late as 1973, the Handbook of Communications (Chicago, Rand McNally) appeared, edited by Ithiel de Sola Pool et al, which contained no articles on the topic of the ethics of communication or the ethics of journalism; not once is the term ethics to be found in the subject index (at best, the article by Marc A. Franklin, a professor of law, on Freedom and Control of communication, touches upon the ethical dimension). The times when this was possible, in a publication aiming to cover the entire breadth of the communications field, are quite clearly over. The debate around the ethics of journalism will not go away, but, in view of dramatic changes in the media sector, will be even more intensively pursued. The changes concern not only technological developments (e.g. the ability to manipulate images at will; development of new media such as multimedia; the speed at which information is transmitted, etc.), but, above all, the globalisation of the communication sector. Conditional upon changes in American media legislation - especially the Telecommunications Reform Act of 1996 - new media giants of previously unimaginable size have come into being in the USA (particularly Time Warner and CNN, as well as Disney and ABC/Capital Cities). The consequence must be that the ethics of journalism can no longer be seen in isolation. It is a matter of the development of a global journalistic ethic, which, in the face of ever spreading commercialisation, is being allowed to combine closely with an ethic of economic activity. In the end, if one wants to avoid regressing to the primitive capitalism of the robber barons, economic activity also requires regulatory norms, which presupposes regular confirmation and feedback through participants in the market. The ethics of related professions, such as public relations, advertising and marketing, also need to be taken into account. Finally, however, it must be a matter of how the self-regulation of journalists - and, related to this, their freedom and ability to criticize in the face of pressure applied by politicians and business, etc. - can be ensured, and this is wrapped up in the ethical debate which is only about ethics at the systemic level, considering the place of the journalist in society.

Incidentally, this collection of essays harks back to important groundwork. In 1989, Communication ethics and global change (New York; Longman), edited by Thomas Cooper et alii, appeared. This publication emphasised that the quest for truth (also called objectivity or precision) represents the central theme of journalistic ethics. As the second thematic area, Cooper stressed "a desire for responsibility among public communicators." This idea includes wanting to serve a just society, in which equality and respect for privacy prevail. At the same time, reporting should not damage innocent people. Finally, as a third element of professionally ethical journalism, freedom of expression is respected. In his foreword George Gerbner writes: "If ethics is a word that makes journalists squirm, international ethics makes them see red. And not without reasons."
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  #42  
Old Saturday, October 19, 2013
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@ comp Engr

kindly ,share following notes on board. It will be more convenient instead of mailing.

Use multi-quote option to reply in a single post. How to Use Quote/Multi-Quote Options?

Onething more, don't post same thing everywhere and avoid to post useless and irrelevent stuff . Stick to the topic.
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  #43  
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Amna View Post
@ comp Engr

kindly ,share following notes on board. It will be more convenient instead of mailing.

Use multi-quote option to reply in a single post. How to Use Quote/Multi-Quote Options?

Onething more, don't post same thing everywhere and avoid to post useless and irrelevent stuff . Stick to the topic.
Amna with due respect let us allow me to respect your post.You are only moderator to manage threads in professional way.

I have already told them with threading that i would share notes on board but i don't know these people always seeking for easy way/shortcut.

i have already shared notes on board that could easy for aspirints.


please kindly you can check my old post (45) regarding above statement.

http://www.cssforum.com.pk/css-optio...oftcopy-5.html
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I have already told them with threading that i would share notes on board but i don't know these people always seeking for easy way/shortcut.
Then you don't have the need to ask about emails . Just redirect them to the above mentioned thread.
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  #45  
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Amna View Post
Then you don't have the need to ask about emails . Just redirect them to the above mentioned thread.
Right i will redirect them with link to reach it.Because its not easy for me to send notes to everyone by email as i sent notes to them by email to many many people.

Thanks

I strongly appreciate you
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  #46  
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Salam

My Dear aspirints.I will not send notes to anyone on email.I want to share with any one css aspirints that could get benefit from this useful notes.Please don't show your email on board.So don't waste your time and copy these notes and study it by heart not by your mind.

Get yourself serious and start preparation for Your CSS.I will keep posting notes.

Please with due respect kindly reach yourself by following given links.

http://www.cssforum.com.pk/css-optio...oftcopy-5.html

http://www.cssforum.com.pk/css-optio...oftcopy-4.html

http://www.cssforum.com.pk/css-optio...oftcopy-3.html

http://www.cssforum.com.pk/css-optio...oftcopy-2.html

http://www.cssforum.com.pk/css-optio...oftcopy-6.html

http://www.cssforum.com.pk/css-optio...oftcopy-7.html

Regards

Zohaib Khan Babar
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  #47  
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Dear brothers and sisters.Here follow the top given link.it will respect your need.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Journalism/Topics
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The Associated Press of Pakistan
________________________________________
Brief History:


The Associated Press of Pakistan started its life in 1947, with the independence of Pakistan. Initially it was run through a trust, but owing to financial problems, it was taken over by the Government through an Ordinance called; "Associated Press of Pakistan (taking over) Ordinance 1961", on 15th June 1961, to put it on a sound financial footing. The journalists were allowed to retain their independent status under this ordinance. They are not regarded as government or semi-government employees. They are governed by Labour Laws as is the case with the newspaper industry in Pakistan. It is administered through the Director General APP, who is appointed by the Government.

Today APP is the nation's premier news agency which comprises highly qualified and professionally competent journalists. APP remains committed to excellent journalistic traditions by objective and accurate reporting. A contradiction of an APP story is a rare phenomenon.

Beginning its life in small buildings in Karachi, Lahore and Rawalpindi, with the reporters relaying on bulky typewriters and noisy teleprinters, the APP, over the years, has grown into a modern news organization.

Computers have replaced typewriters and the Agency's offices are connected through Local, and Wide Area Networks. From a transmission speed of 50 words per minute, it now provides news at a speed of 1200 WPM, most of which is directly fed into the computers of the subscribers simultaneously throughout Pakistan and overseas. APP currently has its own buildings at Islamabad and Lahore.

Role: APP's main role is to report, gather and distribute domestic and foreign news. Besides economic, financial and sports reports, it projects national events. Its charter of functions is to:

- Ensure free and efficient flow of news to people, electronic media including radio and television and newspapers as well as business and non-media subscribers for which they pay a regular monthly subscription to APP - Supply unbiased and reliable news speedily and supply features to newspapers, other national/international news agencies, and national and international radio and television networks with which it has entered into agreements

- Supply correct and reliable economic, financial and commercial services, including national and international rates of commodities to its subscribers; expand and develop news service into the country; - ensure high journalistic standards.
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News

News are agenda

1)Some serious and not so serious defination of news.
2)The evolution of views on what are news.
3)A brief overview of news questions.
4)A couple of news questions
5)A brief discussion of news values(New and old).

News: yesterday,today

1)News exists because people need information about their world.
2)Yesterday:Journalism began as pamphleteering and polemics(revolutionary press in 18th/19th centuries)
3)Today:20th century - the age of industrial journalism
a) News becomes a commodity
b) The public interest fights with private commercial interests.
4)News is now a global business

News: tomorrow

1)The world of news and journalism changing.
a) Digital technology creates new forms of news and new ways of doing journalism.
b) The line between journalists and non-journalists is blurring.
c) The line between news and entertainment has almost disappeared.

5)Professional and accidental:

a)Professional journalists - based in news,organizations or freelancing.
a.1)Are usually paid for defined work in news.
a.2)Usually have some form of training.
a.3)Are expected to abide by an ethical code practice.

b)Accidental journalists
b.1)Usually have no training.
b.2)Have no formal code of ethics

6)News and convergence
a)An expsnding community of reporters
a.1)Citizen journalists
a.2)Bloggers
a.3)Social networking "News"
b)Paltform shift
b.1)News are everywhere now
b.2)News are available 24/7
b.3)The economics of news are changing.

7) News what we say it is
a)The 'old school' view that the editor knows best.
b)News is what the audience wants - and our research tells us what the
audience wants.
c)News is what we can sell - whats profitable.
d)News is anything that the nerworks can cover live

"The public have an insatiable curiousity to know everything.Except what is worth knowing.Journalism,conscious of this,and having tradesman-like habits,suppliers their demands".Oscar wilde

"Journalism is first rough draft of history".phil graham,publisher of the washington post circa 1963.

"Journalism is theater [is what] tv news is" Thomas griffith,Journalist and editor at time

"Journalism is organized gossip." Edward Eggleston,Writer and methodist minister(1837-1902).

News are about social issues.

"The job of the newspaper is to comfort the afflicted and afflict the comfortable." Finleyu peter Dunne(1867-1936)

"News is what somebody somewhere wants to suppress;all the rest is advertising." Alfred Harmsworth - later,Lord Northcliffe

News are entertaining

"People may expect too much of journalism.Not only do they expect it to be entertaining,they expect it to be true." Lewis H Lapham

News are hole filler

"Journalism is the ability to meet the challenge of filling space"

Rebecca west,actress & journalist(1892-1985)

"It is amazing that the amount of news that happens in the world every day
always just exactly fits the newspaper."
Jerry seinfeld

"A news sense is really a sense of what is important,what is vital,what has color and life-What people are interested in.Thats Journalism"
Burton Rascoe

News are based on questions
1)News reporters have six basic jumping off points for their enquiries.
a)Who?
b)What?
c)Where?
d)When?
e)Why?
f)How?

"There can be no higher law in journalism than to tell the truth and to shame the devil - remain detached from the great." walter Lippmann.

News are values

News values - the key ingredient in the mix

1)Public interest
2)Timeless
3)Novelty
4)Conflict
5)Proximity
6)Consequence
7)Public curiosity
8)Celebrity
9)Emotion
10)Comparison
11)Contradiction
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Old Saturday, October 19, 2013
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