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Old Wednesday, July 18, 2012
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Default Pakistan Affairs Notes by Shakeel Babar

Dear Aspirants!

Notes play a crucial role in CSS exam preparation and its final outcome. However, the notes are not to be crammed rather only revised. To use these notes, please study the standard books and than go through the notes, otherwise you will be taking a high risk.

I had prepared following notes for Pak Affairs during my preparation for CE 2011. I am going to post them all here. There are some parts for which I did not prepare notes rather copied from any source (Academy, internet etc). So, with due credit and thanks, am posting Pak Affair notes here.

Books for Pak Affairs:

1. Ikram Rabbani (Only first 4 chapters)
2. The struggle for Pakistan by I H Qureshi
3. Political History of Pakistan by Hameed Yousuf
4. Current Issues from the newspapers


Pakistan Affairs Notes by Shakeel Babar
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EVOLUTION OF MUSLIM NATIONALISM
• Arab traders’ honesty
• Kiring Noor, the first Indian national to embrace Islam
• Sarqafi, Governor of Oman under Hazrat Umer (634 – 644), invaded sea ports near Bombay without his permission

SINDH DAR UL ISLAM

• Gifts and women from Ceylon
• Pirates attack
• Al Malik bin Abdul Malik as a Ummayyad Caliph
• Hijaj Bin Yousaf
• Muhammad Bin Qasim  Syrian soldiers  Entered from Makran
• Raja Dahir killed near Mehran (Indus) in June 712
• Rani Bai, Raja’s wife, challenged MBQ with 15,000 soldiers and defeated. She burnt herself

MBQ REFORMS

• 12 Dirham tax
• No social caste system
• Established Sadru Imam Al ajal for Islamic laws interpretation
• Suleman bin Abdul Malik called MBQ back and perished him in 715

SPREAD OF ISALM IN OTHER PARTS OF INDIA
• MBQ  712
• Mehmud Gahznavi – 2nd expediter – 17 attacks between 1000 to 1026
o Ghaznavid period ended in 1185 with death of Khusru Malik
• Ghuri period (1185 – 1192)  expanded to Bengal and Bihar
• Dehli Sultanate (1192 – 1526)  Muslim sufis
• Mughal era (1526 – 1857)  Muslims sufis
• Muslim sufis
o Shaikh Ismail in Ghaznavi period
o Ali Makhdom Hajveri came Lahore in 1035, Bahud Din Zakaria, Shaikh Fareed Dud Din, Khawaja Bukhtiar Kaki, Nazam Ud Din Olia, Mujadid Alaf Sani, Hazrat Shahi Wali Ullah , Muin ud Din Chishty

IMPACT OF ISLAM
• Cultural Influence
o Caste system
o Urdu and Hindi came into being
o Islamic way of construction
• Religious Influence
o Shankarachariya (Organizer of modern Hinduism) influenced by Islam
o Ramananda, Ghuru Nanik and Chaitanya were Hindu prominent leaders influenced by Islam

HINDU REACTION

I. Bagti Movement
• Started in 14th century
• Objective to check the popularity of Islam
• No difference between Ram and Raheem, Parn and Quran, Kasshi and Kahba
• Bagt Kabir, Ramananda, Guru Nanak and Dadu were prominent leaders

II. Din-E-Ilahi (1582)
• Akbar introduced in desire to win the collaboration of Rajput chiefs
• Marriages with Hindu girls
• Elevation of Hindu to imp positions
• Under Din e Elahi
o Worship of sun
o Jizya and pilgrimage tax abolished
o Akbar as shadow of god on earth
o Cow slaughter and Azan prohibited
o No child named as Muhammad
• Hazrat Mujadid Alaf Sani opposed Din e Elahi
• Muslims lost their hegemony
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HAZRAT MUJADID ALAF SANI (June 1564 – Dec 1626)

• Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi
• Father name  Sheikh Abdul Ahad
• Went to Delhi at age of 36
• Disciple of Khawaja Baqi Billah

Social Conditions during his time
• Populace belief in Karamat
• Ulema refer to Jurisprudence rather than Quran
• Akbar’s anti Islamic look
• Hindu cultural domination
• Bakhti Movement
• Wahdat al Wajood theory

Mujadid’s efforts
1. Jehad against Din-i-Ilahi
2. Theory of Wahdat-ul-Sahood
a. Countering Wahdat-ul-Wajood
3. Refusal to prostate – society purification
a. Jehangir imprisoned him in Gawaliar for three years
4. Preaching in fort of Gawaliar
5. Preparation of Disciples
6. Maktaba-e-Imam-e-Rabbani
a. Letters to important nobles and leaders
b. Abdur Rahim, Khan e Azam Mirza Aziz, Mufti Sardar Jehan
7. Books
a. Isbat ul Nabuwwat
b. Risla e Nabuwwat
i. Need & importance of Prophethood
c. Maktubat e Imam e Rabbai
d. Toheed e Shaheedi
i. Islamic philosophy
8. Two nation theory
a. First stone of two nation theory – first founder of Pakistan
9. Influence over Jehangir – Khutba; Cow Slaughter;

Shaikh imprisoned
• Asaf Jah, Jehangeer’s PM Shaikh summoned No prostration jailed
• After 3 years of imprisonment, Jehangeer released him giving him 10000 rupees
• He stayed 3 years in Jehangeer courts
“When seen in the perspective of history, whether accepted by Sufis or not, it is in the rejection of monism that Sheikh’s claim for being the Mujadad of his age.” IH Qureshi
“Sheikh Ahmad, an individual from Sirhind, rich in knowledge and vigorous in action. I associated him for few days and found marvelous things in his spiritual life. He will turn into a light which will illuminate the world.” Khawaja Bakhtiar Kaki quoted by S M Ikram
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HAZRAT SHAH WALI ULLAH MOHADITH DELVI (1703 DELHI - 1762)

• Father of Modern Muslim India
• Real name Qutabuddin
• Born at Delhi son of Shah Abdur Rahim (Fatwa e Alamgeeri) – scholar of Fiqa and Islamic jurisprudence
• Got knowledge of Fiqah, Ahadith, Tafsir and Hikmat  completed study in 15 year of age
• Went to Arabia for higher education and came back in July 1732
• He taught at Madrasa Rahimia for 12 years
• Aim  Revive the past glory of Muslims and purify the society inwardly

Conditions
• Incapable successor of Aurangzeb
• Un-Islamic trends,
• Muslim life honour property not secured,
• Shia-Suni conflicts,
• Marhats and Sikhs challengers

SHAH’S EFFORTS


1. Religious work
a. Translation of Holy Quran in Persian – 1738
b. Commentary on Hadith collection of Imam Muttah in Arabic and persian
c. Urged Muslims to follow Holy prophet & abandon un-Islamic trends
d. Trained students in different Islamic knowledge
e. Recommended application of Ijtehad
f. Initiated Tatbiq  liberal element
g. Balance b/w four schools –
h. Removed misunderstanding b/w Shai & Sunni – Khilafat-al-Khulafa
2. Political work
a. Marathas were threatening the Muslim empire
b. Wrote letters to seek help from Muslim nobles against Sikhs  won over Najib ud Dola, Shuja ud Daula
c. Ahmad Shah Abdali  defeated Sikhs at the Third battle of Panipat in 1761
3. Social work
a. Strongly opposed integration of Islamic culture in subcontinent
b. Concept of reorientation of Muslim society
i. Basic social justice
ii. Removing social inequalities
iii.
c. Concept of economy
i. Production of wealth
ii. Consumption of wealth
iii. Distribution of wealth
iv. Exchange of wealth
4. Literary work
a. Izalat-al-Akifa
b. Khalifa-al-Khulafa
c. Al-Insaf-fi-Bayan-Sababa-al-Ikhtilaf
d. Master piece of literature 1738
e. Commentary on Hadith Imam Muttah
f. Quranic translation in Persian
g. Alfauz-ul-Qabir Fi-Usool-e-Tafseer
h. Hujjat-ul-Balagha – about decay, Ijtehad, Mujjad and Ruler

“I was informed through Ilham that I would have to undertake this responsibility. The time has come when every injunction of the Sharia and instruction of Islam should be presented to the world in a rational manner.” Quoted by SM Ikram
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SYED AHMAD SHAHEED BARELVI (1786 – 1831)

• Inheretor of mantle of Shah Abdul Aziz
• Birth at Rai Barally in 1786
• Father Shah Illam Ullah
• Inspired by Shah Abdul Aziz
• 1810 – joined Nawab Ameer Khan as Sawar
• 1818 – wrote Seerat-e-Mustaqeem

Condition
• Punjab ruled by Ranjit Singh who mutilated Muslims
• NWFP by Sikhs

Objective
• Purification of Muslim society and destruction of British power through armed struggle – Establishment of a state based on Islamic principles

Jehad Movement
• HQ at Nowshehra in Dec 1826
• Battles
1. OKARA 1826
2. HAZRO 1827
3. Yar Muhammad Conspiracy
 He joined Mujahideen in Pesh, force arouse to 80,000
 Tried to poision Syed Ahmad
 Killed by Mujahideen in 1829
4. BATTLE FOR PESHAWAR
 Ranjit Singh saved Peshawar and gave to Sultan Muhammad
5. HAZARA II 1830
 Sikh were attacked, Sultan M arrested
• Declaration of Khilafat (1830)
1. Sultan M pardoned & withdrew from Pesh
• BALAKOT BATTLE 1831
1. Sikh attacked, Syed Ahmad killed

Causes of Failure
1. Western generals Vantura and Elite in Ranjit’s army – training & modern war strategy
2. Outdated weapons of Mujahideen
3. Financial sources of Ranjit Singh
4. Misudnderstaning created by Ranjit Singh
5. Ranjit attracted Pathans by bribing who did spy, revolt & slaughtered Mujahideen
6. No support for poors – Zakat collection
7. Islamic laws during war – compulsory girls & widow marriage
8. Severe punishment
9. Pathans were against Wahabisim

“The movement led by Brelvi was a precursor for later Muslim national movements of the subcontinent.” Dr. Sachin Sen
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FARAIZI MOVEMENT

Wide scale ignorance of Muslims resulted in Hindu emergence in 19th century.
Haji Shariat Ullah (1781 - 1840)
Left for Arabia in 1799  influenced by MBA Wahab  started Faraizi Movement – stress on Faraiz - when back  denied concept of Peer-Mureed  opposed Zamindar levied taxes  Harassed by them  left Najabari  Death in Faridpur

Dudu Mian

(Mohsan Ud Din Ahmad)  divided Bangal into circles and appointed Khalifa  opposed tax of Durga and land  Khas Mehal occupied on his direction  established his own state  harassed by Zamindars thorough false charges  died in Sep 1824

TITU MIR (1782-1831)

Nisar Ali (Titu Mir) born in Bengal Visited Makkah in 1819 and influenced by Syed Ahmed Barelvi.  On arrival back, he started preaching He made a fort in Narkalberia, asked followers not to give beard tax (Kishan Rai) Kishan attacked but defeated  183 British army attacked Narkalberia and killed Titu Mir.

Organization:
1. Security of Peassantory – Lathibardar  Political branch
2. Social Justice – Punchayat  Religious branch

Doctrine: 4 steps
1. Tauba
2. Fraiz
3. Tuheed
4. Dar-ul-Arab

Khalafat System:
1. Ustaad
2. Uprasta – Advisor to Ustaad
3. Superintendent Khalifa – 10 G K
4. Gaon Khalifa – 500 families
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ALIGARH MOVEMENT

The War of Independence 1857 ended in disaster for the Muslims. The British chose to believe that the Muslims were responsible for the anti-British uprising; therefore they made them the subject of ruthless punishments and merciless vengeance. The British had always looked upon the Muslims as their adversaries because they had ousted them from power. With the rebellion of 1857, this feeling was intensified and every attempt was made to ruin and suppress the Muslims forever. Their efforts resulted in the liquidation of the Mughal rule and the Sub-continent came directly under the British crown.
After dislodging the Muslim rulers from the throne, the new rulers, the British, implemented a new educational policy with drastic changes. The policy banned Arabic, Persian and religious education in schools and made English not only the medium of instruction but also the official language in 1835. This spawned a negative attitude amongst the Muslims towards everything modern and western, and a disinclination to make use of the opportunities available under the new regime. This tendency, had it continued for long, would have proven disastrous for the Muslim community.

Seeing this atmosphere of despair and despondency, Sir Syed launched his attempts to revive the spirit of progress within the Muslim community of India. He was convinced that the Muslims in their attempt to regenerate themselves, had failed to realize the fact that mankind had entered a very important phase of its existence, i.e., an era of science and learning. He knew that the realization of the very fact was the source of progress and prosperity for the British. Therefore, modern education became the pivot of his movement for regeneration of the Indian Muslims. He tried to transform the Muslim outlook from a medieval one to a modern one.

Sir Syed Ahmad Khan (17 Oct, 1817 – 27 Mar 1898)

• Got knowledge from Farid ud Din (maternal-grandfather – Ex Mughal PM)
• Got knowledge of Quran, Arabic, Persian, History, Maths and Medicine

Joined gov’t in 1839 – after father’s death – in a clerical job  1841 – promoted as Sub-Judge  1846 – transferred to Delhi  Chief judge in 1846  was offered an estate for services rendered to British during war 1857 but he rejected  1877 – member of imperial council  1886 – University of Edinburgh – LL.D degree 1888 – Knighthood

Educational Aspect of Aligarh Movement

Objective:

1. Modern education for Muslims to compete Hindus
2. Cooperation with the British government

1. Schools
• Muradabad (1859)
• Ghazipur (1863)
2. Scientific society at Gahazipur (1864)
• (to translate modern work from English to urdu and Persian)
• 1866 – Society published Aligarh Gazette (to arouse sentiments of goodwill & friendship)
• Muhammadan Educational Conference
• Established in 1866  held public meetings, discussed modern education techniques  Nawab Mohsan al Malik, Vaqar ul Malik, Maulana Shibli and Maulana Hali as members
3. Muhammadan Educational Conference
• Established in 1866  held public meetings, discussed modern education techniques  Nawab Mohsan al Malik, Vaqar ul Malik, Maulana Shibli and Maulana Hali as members
1869 – went to England, studied education system of Oxford & Cambridge
4. Anjuman-i-Taraqi-i-Musalmanan-i-Hind (1870)
• to impart modern knowledge to Muslims
5. Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College
On pattern of Oxford  Fund raising committee formed 24th May, 1874, MAO High school established  1877 – got status of college  western, eastern and Islamic education  1920 – status of University

Political Aspects of Aligarh Movement

1. Muslims should avoid active politics
2. Sir Syed wrote “Risala-i-Asbab-Baghawqat-i-Hind

Causes of WOI 1857

1. Non representation of Indian in legislative councils
2. Conversion of Indian into Christianity
3. Mismanagement of Indian army
4. Ill advised measure of gov’t
• Consequence: Indian membership in Act 1861
3. 1866 – Sir Syed formed British India Association at Aligarh – to express grievances of Indians to gov’t
4. wrote Loyal Muhammadans of India
5. Indian Patriotic Association 1888 – forum for those who did not join Congress
6. Muhammadan Political Association 1903 – Against Hindu Revivalist movements
a. Arya Smaj – Hindustan 1977
b. B G Tilak – Cow Slaughter
c. Shudhi -
d. Shangtahn -


Religious Services of Aligarh Movement

1. Wrote “Essay on the Life of Muhammad & Rebattle” in response to William Muire’s objectionable remarks in “Life of Muhammad”
2. Philosophical commentary “Tabaeen-al-Kalam” on bible – point out similarities
3. Influenced by MBA Wahab and Shah Ismail Shaheed – having positive attitude towards religion

Social services of Aligarh Movement


1. “Tahzib-ul-Akhlaq”  criticized conservative way of life and advised to adopt new trend
2. Established Orphanage houses
3. Founded Anjuman-i-Tariki-i-Urdu  protecting Urdu
4. Ahkam-i-Taham-i-Ahle-Kitab  Muslims can eat with Christians
Pioneer of two nation theory
• Advocate of Hindu Muslim unity
• Urdu Hindi controversy 1867 in Banaras, changed his views
• Shakespeare dialogue

Features of Aligarh

• Western & Eastern Education
• Islamic Education
• Residential College
• European and Indian staff
• Non-Muslim students
• Loyalist Disposition

Aligarh Movement after Sir Syed’s death

1. 1889 – Sir Syed proposed a trustee bill  Sir Syed as Sec. of the trust & Syed Mahmud (son) as joint sec.
2. After Sir Syed’s death (1898), Syed Mahmud as Sec.  was a weak manager  resigned
3. Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk as new sec  devoted  deposited six lac Rs to gov’t  handled the conflict b/t two groups – Sahibzada Aftab Khan (in favor of European staff) & Muhammad Ali Johar  Died in 1907
4. Nwab Vaqar ul Malik took over tussle on European staff arouse  Nawab resigned in 1912 – health
5. Nwab Muhammad Ishaq Khan  deposited 20 lac for status of University  1919- college student played role in Tehrik e Khilafat
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TEHRIK-I-DEOBAND (Apr 1866)

• Aligarh movement was cooperating with British
• Christians working to convert Muslims into Christianity
• Apr 1866 – Madrasah established at Deoband  2nd to Al Azhar Cairo
Founder  Haji M. Abid floated the idea  Collection of fund  Managing committee – Maulana M Qasim , Maulana Fazl ur Rehman, Maulana Zulfiqar, Maulana M Yaqoob  Maulana Shabir A Usmani taught
• Maulana M Qasim first principal  worked devotedly  Madrasah came to known as “Qasim al Uloom I Deoband”
• Madrasah followed Madrasah I Rahimia (Shah wali Ullah’s father) and British education system
• Produced  Shah Abdur Rahim, Ashraf Ali Thanvi, Rashid Ahmad Ganghoi, Maulana Mehmood ul Hassan

Political Services of Deoband

• Jamiat Ulama I Islam Thanvi group  lead by Ashraf Ali Thanvi, Shabir Ahmad Usmani  Muslim league
• Jamiat-ul-Ulema-i-Hind  Madni group  lead by Maulana Hussain Madani, Mufti Kafayat Ullah influenced by Abu-ul-Kalam Azad  Congress

Educational Services of Deoband

• A great religious Madrasah  2nd to Al Azhar
• Principals  Maulana M Qasim (1880)  Rashid Ahmad Ganghoi  Sheikh ul Hind M. Mehmood Ul Hassan.

Deoband and Aligarh

• Policy towards British
• Political role of Muslims
• Emphasizing area of education

Rapprochement with Aligarh

• Jamiat-ul-Ansar (1906) at Deoband  Sahibzada Aftab A Khan attended the meeting  Swap of education – religious and western
• Jamiat-i-Milia (1920)
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NADVA-TUL-ULEMA OF LUCKNOW (1894)

• Aligarh  acquisition of western education
• Deoband  religious education
• Need for balanced school
• Committee was formed in 1892  Nadva-tul-Ulema established in 1894  functioned in 1898
• Founder  Maulana Abdul Ghafoor  Shibli Naumani and Mau. Abdul Haq chalked out a liberal program

Objective

• Promoting religious knowledge, moral uplift and social regeneration of Muslims, Work to remove secretarial differences
• British gov’t opposed the idea (Anthony MacDonal expressed it as a political institute)

Nadva-tul-Ulema & Shibli Nohmani


• Shibli influenced by Maulana M Farooq – opposing Sir Syed while his father influenced by Sir Syed
• Joined Aligarh as A Prof of Arabic in 1883  Impressed Sir Syed  Asset to Aligarh  some serious differences  Man of arrogance and sensitive  resigned in 1904
• Associated with Nadva  used his expreince to bring reform  gave training in writing (Syed Suleman Nadvi, Abu-al-Kalam Aza)
• Established academy”Dar-ul-Musanifin”
• Differences arouse  resigned
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ANJUMAN-I-HIMAYAT-I-ISLAM LAHORE (Sep 1884)

• Sikh raj in Punjab  Muslims backwardness
• 250 Muslims established for educational guidance  influenced by Aligarh
• Founder  Khalifa Hameed-ud-Din first president  Dr. M Nazir & Munshi Abdur Rehim
• Muthi bar atta scheme for funding

Objective

• politically Establishing educational institute
• Counter Christian missionaries
• Orphanage houses
• Stable Muslim society
• Preserve Muslim culture
• Organize Muslims

Educational Services

• Established several primary schools on Aligarh pattern  15 schools by 1894
• Madrasa tul Muslimin (Islamia High School Sheranwala Gate) in 1889
• Islamia College for women Lahore in 1938
• Islamia College Railway road, Islamia College civil lines, Islamia College cant, Hamayat I Islam Law College & Center for adult education Lahore

Political Services

Students of Islamia College Railqway road  body guard of the Quaid  role in 1940 resolution  MSF led by Hamid Nizami
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