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Old Friday, April 22, 2011
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Default PMS Syllabus

The Punjab Public Service Commission has revised the syllabus by re-introducing 29 Optional Subjects for its Combined Competitive Examination for recruitment to the posts of Provincial Management Service. All candidates shall take all Compulsory Subjects and three of the Optional Subjects (not more than one from each group) carrying 200 Marks each. Thus total marks for the said Examination will be 1200 Marks. Detail of Compulsory Subjects and Optional Subjects is as under:-

COMPULSORY SUBJECTS (600 MARKS)

S.No
. SUBJECT MARKS

1. Essay .....................100
2. English ....................100
3. Urdu .......................100
4. Islamic Studies .........100
5. Pakistan Studies .......100
6. General Knowledge ....100


OPTIONAL SUBJECTS (600 MARKS)

GROUP A

1. Commerce................... 200
2. Economics ...................200
3. Business Administration...200
4. Public Administration ......200


GROUP B


5. Agriculture...............200
6. Veterinary Science ...200
7. Botany ...................200
8. Zoology ..................200


GROUP C

09. Mathematics .... .... .... 200
10. Computer Science .. .... 200
11. Statistics .... .... ........ 200
12. Principle of Engineering. 200


GROUP D

13. Physics .. .... 200
14. Chemistry ./.. 200
15. Geology ....... 200
16. Geography ... 200


GROUP E

17. Political Science.. ..,,, 200
18. History .. .. .. .. .,,. .. 200
19. Law .. .. .. .. .. .,,,. .. 200
20. Mass Communication ..200


GROUP F

21. Philosophy ... 200
22. Psychology... 200
23. Sociology .... 200
24. Social Work.. 200


GROUP G

25. English Literature .. 200
26. Urdu ....................200
27. Arabic ..................200
28. Education .........,...200
29. Persian ........,,,,,....200
30. Punjabi .................200


Source: PPSC
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Old Friday, April 22, 2011
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ENGLISH ESSAY

a. Essay
b. Precis
c. Fill In The Blanks
1.With Appropriate Prepositions
2.Adjectives
d. Pair Of Words
e. Idiomatic Phrases
f. Correction Of Grammatical Errors
g. Restructuring Of Sentences
h. Urdu Into English Translation
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ENGLISH

a. Essay
b. Precis
c. Fill In The Blanks
1. With Appropriate Prepositions
2. Adjectives
d. Pair Of Words
e. Idiomatic Phrases
f. Correction Of Grammatical Errors
g. Restructuring Of Sentences
h. Urdu Into English Translation
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ISLAMIC STUDIES

a. Fundamentals Beliefs and Practices of Islam
b. Morality in Islam
1. Relationship of morality and faith
2. Islamic principles and methods of character building
c. Islam and comparative study of other religions.
d. Basic Problems of Human life and their solutions.
c. Social System in Islam
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Old Friday, April 22, 2011
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PAKISTAN STUDIES

a. Ideology Of Pakistan In Historical Prospective, Pakistan Movement
b. Establishment Of Pakistan, Initial Problems, Important Events And Issues
c. Political And Constitutional Development From 1947 To Date
d. Pakistan,s Economy Planning And Economic Development
e. Pakistan,s Foreign Policy And External Affairs
f. Pakistan,s Internal Environment, Demography, Geography, Agriculture, Industry, Health, Education, Public Administration With Special Reference To Punjab Province.
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GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

The Paper Is Intended To Test The Candidates Knowledge Of Current World Affairs And Also Of Broad Facts Of Historical, Political, Geographical And Economic Importance. A Section Will Be Included To Test The Candidates Knowledge And Understanding Of Matters Of Everyday Observation And Experience In The Scientific Aspect Significant Developments I Science And Technology.
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Total Marks: 100

A. Introduction to Accounting, generally accepted accounting principles, accounting cycle, cash book and bank reconciliation statement, work sheet. Depreciation, Financial Statements, financial reporting, cash flow statement, financial analysis,accounting for leasing, contract accounts.

B. Principles of cost account, cost accounting as a tool of management, cost elements. Cost classification, cost accounting cycle, Job order costing, process costing, factory overhead variances, standard costing, and break-even analysis.

SUGGESTED READING
  1. Meigs & Meigs, Accounting
  2. Ghani M.A., Principles of Accounting.
  3. Ghani M.A. Advanced Acounting
  4. Uzair Hussain, Advanced Accounting
  5. Shukla & Grewal, Advanced Accounting.
  6. Nisar ud Din, Cost Accounting
  7. Matg A. Usary, Cost Accounting.
  8. T. Lucey, Cost Accounting.
  9. S. Naqvi Ahmad, Cost Accounting

PAPER-II


GENERAL COMMERCIAL KNOWLEDGE

Total Marks: 100

A. Economic resources of Pakistan. Problems & Development of Industrial Sector, Exports & Imports, Economic Planning & Budgeting.

B. Salient feature of income tax law in Pakistan. Calculation of total income and income tax payable under the head of salary, Income from business & profession and income from house property. First & second schedule of income tax ordinance 2001. Salient features of Sales Tax Act. Registration under Sales Tax Act, Furnishing of Returns Under Sales Tax.

C. Risk management, external audit and submission of audit reports.

D. Various forms of business organization. Sole proprietorship partnership, joint stock Company, their formation & management, capital structure & capital budgeting, business finance, its sources, short term & long term.

E. Role & functions of Commercial Banks & Central Bank, Letter of Credits, Islamic Mode of Finance.

F. Nature of Business Management, Functions of Management, Planning,
Organizing, Staffing, Motivating, Leadership & Controlling, Factory Location,
Layout, Scientific Management.

SUGGESTED READING:
  1. M. Saeed Nasir, Economic Problems of Pakistan.
  2. Kh. Amjad Saeed, Economic Problems of Pakistan.
  3. Govt. of Pakistan, Pakistan Economics Survey, Income Tax Ordinance 2001, Sales Tax Act.
  4. Kh. Amjad Saee, Income Tax Law.
  5. Kh. Amjad Saeed, Auditing.
  6. M. Muazzam Moghal, Income Tax Law.
  7. M. Muazzam Moughal, Sales Tax Law.
  8. Lawrence J. Gitman, Fundamentals of Investment.
  9. Kontz & Weirick, Management.
  10. Stephen B. Robins, Principles of Management.
  11. Owen Richard N. Management Industrial Enterprises.
  12. Adam, Ronald & Ebart, Production & Operation Management.
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ECONOMICS
PAPER - I


Part I
MICROECONOMICS
Total Marks: 100

1. Microeconomics: Meaning of microeconomics. Choice, scarcity and opportunity cost. Production Possibility frontier. Goals of microeconomic policy: efficiency and equity.

2. Market economy: Demand, Supply and Price determination. Individual and
market demand. Changes in demand. Individual and market supply. Changes in supply. Market equilibrium and impact of changes in demand and supply on market equilibrium. Elasticity of Supply and Demand. Point and Arc elasticity. Price, income and cross elasticities. Application of the concept of elasticity.

3. The theory of Consumer Behaviour: Concept of utility and derivation of
Demand curve. Cardinal and ordinal Utility. Consumer’s Surplus. Indifference Curves and their shapes. Marginal rate of substitution and convexity of Indifference Curves. The budget constraint and the equilibrium of the consumer. Income-Consumption and the Engel’s Curve. Price- consumption and Demand curve. Income and Substitution effects of a price change, the Hicksian method and the Slutsky method. Identification of normal goods, inferior goods and Giffen goods.

4. The theory of Production: The concepts of production cost and profit.
Production function. The law of variable proportions. Cost curves in the short run and in the long run. Choice of input mix. The principle of Substitution. Iso- quants, Iso-cost line and the condition for cost minimization. The expansion path and returns to scale. Economies of scale. The very long run and the endogenous technical change.

5. Market structures and behaviour of firms.

Perfectly competitive markets. Assumptions of the model. The supply curve of a firm and an industry in the short run. Short run and the long run equilibrium of the firm and industry. The shape of the long run industry supply curve and the effects of changing technology. The allocative efficiency of perfect competition.

Monopoly: Shape of the demand curve under monopoly. Elasticity of the demand curve and its implication for a monopolist. Short run and long run equilibrium. Price discrimination and its consequences. Analysis of price discrimination between markets. Dumping. Cartels as monopolies. The allocative inefficiency of monopoly. Comparison between perfect competition and monopoly.

Imperfectly competitive market structures: Monopolistic competition. The concept of industry and group. Short run and long run equilibrium of a firm. Excess capacity. Comparison with perfect competition and monopoly.

Oligopoly and its basic dilemma. Duopoly. Models of Non-collusive oligopoly:
Cournot’s duopoly model, Chamberlain’s oligopoly model, Sweezy’s kinked
demand model.

Collusive Oligopoly. Cartels: Joint profit maximization and market sharing cartels. Price leadership models. Mergers.

6. The theory of Factor Pricing: Demand and Supply of inputs. Input demand in the short run and in the long run. The firms demand curve. The firm’s demand curve for a single variable input. The industry’s demand curve for an input. Elasticity of demand for inputs. The supply of inputs. Determination of price, quantity and income of an input. Monopsony.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS:

  1. Lipsey and Chrystal, Economics. 10th edition. Oxford University Press.
  2. Koutsoyiannis, A., Modern Microeconomics, London, Macmillan.
  3. Miller, E. and Maddala, G.S., Microeconomics Theory and Applications, McGraw-Hill International.

PART II
MATHEMATICAL ECONOMICS.

1. Variables, Constants and parameters. Relations and functions. Types of functions: algebraic and non-algebraic. Graphic representation of economic functions. Equations and identities, simultaneous equations. Solution of market models, income determination model and IS-LM analysis.

2. Derivatives and their application in economics. Slope versus elasticity. Price, income and cross elasticities of demand. Income determination, multipliers and comparative statics. Optimization of economic functions. Constrained optimization in economics.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS


  1. Chiang, A.C., Fundamental Methods of Mathematical Economics, McGraq Hill,
  2. Kogakusha, Ltd. Dowling, E.T., Introduction to Mathematical Economics, Schuam’s outlines.

*************************************


PAPER - II

PART I
MACROECONOMICS



Total Marks: 100

1. What is Macroeconomics?:
Major macroeconomic issues. Economic models. Stocks and flows, National income accounting, circular flow of income, real versus nominal GDP, the GDP deflator, the consumer price index, economic growth, actual versus potential output, business cycles and their phases, definition of full employment, unemployment, GDP gap, Inflation.

2. Classical Macroeconomics:
The classical revolution, production, employment, labour demand and labour supply. Equilibrium output and employment. The quantity theory of money. The Cambridge approach to the Quantity theory. Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply in the classical system. The classical theory of rate of interest. Complete classical model and classical dichotomy.

3. The Keynesian Macroeconomics:

Aggregate expenditure and its components. Consumption function and Savings function. Investment and the real rate of interest. The equilibrium GDP in a closed economy simple multiplies. Government spending and
taxes. Tax multiplier. GDP in an open economy. The net export function and the foreign trade multiplier. The augmented saving-investment approach. Fiscal and monetary policies.

4. Investment and its determinants:
Marginal efficiency of capital and optimal capital stock, the marginal efficiency of investment. The stock market and Tobin’s qtheory.
Inventory investment and the accelerator model. The interaction of multiplier and accelerator. The derivation of IS- curve and its slope. Factors that shift the IS- curve.

5. The money market and LM-curve.
Keynes Theory of Liquidity preference. Supply of money. Monetary equilibrium and the rate of interest. Derivation of LM-curve and its slope. Factors that shift the LM-curve. Keynes liquidity tap. Interaction of IS-LM
curves. Adjustment to equilibrium in the IS-LM curve model. The algebra of the IS-LM model.

6. Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply:
Macroeconomic equilibrium in the short run. The effect of aggregate demand and aggregate supply shocks on the price level and GDP. Long run consequences of aggregate demand shocks. Long run aggregate supply curve. Inflationary and recessionary gaps. The theory of fiscal stabilization and its effectiveness. Transmission mechanism. Comparison of the
Classical and Keynesian models and policy conclusions.

7. Inflation and unemployment:

Types of inflation, Supply shock and demand Shock. Inflation as a monetary phenomena. Stagflation. The theory of Philip’s Curve. The short run and the long run Philips curve. The expectations augmented Philip’s curve. Adaptive expectations. Unemployment. Frictional, structural and cyclical unemployment. Okun’s law. Hysteresis and the natural rate hypotheses.

8. Consumption theories and their implications:
Keynesian absolute income hypothesis, Simon Kuznets findings, Duesenbury’s hypothesis, Permanent income hypothesis, life cycle hypothesis, Robert Hall and the Random- walk hypothesis.


RECOMMENDED BOOKS

  1. Lipsey & Chrystal, Economics, Oxford University Press.
  2. Mankiw, G.N., Macroeconomics, Worth Publishers, New York.
  3. Froyen, R.T., Macroeconomics, Theories and Policies, Pearson education.
  4. Glahe, F.R., Macroeconomics, Theory and Policy, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Inc.

PART II
ECONOMICS OF PAKISTAN

1. Economic Development
Economic Development versus Economic Growth. Measurement of economic development. Characteristics of a developing economy. Obstacles to economic development. Determinants or Pre-requisites of economic development. The state of Pakistan’s economy and its comparison with other economies of the world.

2. Strategic Sectors.

Importance and problems of the agricultural, industrial and foreign trade sectors of the economy. WTO and its implications. Foreign direct investment, foreign debt burden anddebt servicing problems of Pakistan.

3. Monetary and Fiscal policies.
The role of monetary and fiscal policies in promoting economic growth and tackling the problems of inflation and unemployment in Pakistan. Deficit financing and the annual budget.


RECOMMENDED BOOKS
  1. Nasir, M.S. and Kamal S. Hyder, Economy of Pakistan.
  2. Zaidi, S. Akbar, Issues of Pakistan’s Economy. Oxford Univ. Press.
  3. Pakistan Economic Survey, Published by the Government of Pakistan.
  4. Todaro. M.P., Economic Development in the third world. Latest edition. Heinemann. London.
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BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION


PAPER-I

MANAGEMENT


Total Marks: 100

1. Management yesterday and today
  • Historical background of Management
  • Managing in the New Era
The Internet, Globalization, Knowledge Management and Collaboration across “boundaries”.

2. Planning: Delivering strategic value, the basic planning process, strategic planning, types of plans and decision making.

3. Organizing: Building a dynamic organization, fundamentals of organizing (differentiation & integration), organization structure (vertical & horizontal). Empowerment (Centralization & Decentralization), Coordination by (Standardization by plan & by adjustment). (Human Resource Management; (HRM); Planning, Recruitment, Selection and Training etc).

4. Leading: Mobilizing People, Human Factors and Motivation, Leading and Managing, Leadership and Followership, Power and Leadership.

5. Controlling: Learning and Changing, Basic Control Process, Control Techniques and IT, Organizing for Innovation (Technology, Job Design & HR Development, Project Implementation and Unleashing Creativity)

RECOMMENDED BOOKS
  1. Management: A Global Perspective 11th Ed. Koontz, Harold & Weihrich, Heinz, McGraw-Hill
  2. Management: 8th Ed. Robbins, Stephen P. & Coulter, Mary, Prentice Hall of India.
  3. Management: Competing in the New Era. 5th Ed. , Bateman, Thomas S. & Snell, Scott A. McGraw-Hill Irwin
***************************************


PAPER-II
Total Marks: 100

Part-I
MARKETING


Marks: 50

1. The Field of Marketing: Marketing Role and what is it all about: Who Performs Marketing Functions, Marketing and Customer Value, Satisfaction and Loyalty, Global Marketing Systems, 4Ps (Product, Price, Place and Promotion).

2. The Marketing Environment and Market Selection: Internal & External Environment, Market Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning, Market Information & Research.

3. Product: Product Planning and Development, Product line and Product mix strategies, Branding, Packaging, Other Product Features and Services Marketing.

4. Price: Price determination (An Ethical Dilemma, Factors Influencing, and Setting Pricing etc.), Pricing Strategies (Price Vs Non Price Competition, Geographic Pricing, Discount & Allowances, Special Pricing Strategies and Situations etc).

5. Place:Middlemen and Distribution Channels, Designing, Selecting and Distribution of Channels, Retailing and Wholesaling.

6. Promotion: Marketing Communications Mix (Personal Selling, Advertising, Sales Promotion and Publicity or Public Relations).

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

  1. Principles of Marketing 6th Ed. Kotler, Philip & Armstrong Gary, Prentice-Hall, International, Inc.
  2. Essentials of Marketing: A Global-Managerial Approach 8th Ed. McCarthy, E. Jerome & Perreault, William D. Irwin McGraw-Hill.
  3. Basic Marketing: A Global Managerial Approach 14th Ed. McCarthy, E. Jerome & Perreault William D. McGraw-Hill Irwin.
  4. Marketing 13th Ed., Stanton William J., Etzel, Michael J. & Walker, Bruce J., McGraw-Hill Irwin.

Part-II
FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT


Marks: 50


1. Understanding Financial Management: An Overview of Financial management, Securities markets and Financial institutions, Concept of Time Value of Money, Valuation of Securities (Stocks and Bonds), Measuring the Risks and Returns.

2. Understanding and Analyzing Financial Statements: IASB (International Accounting Standard Board) Framework and Fundamental Accounting Concepts,Components of Financial Statements (Preparation and Presentation), Financial Statement Analysis and Interpretation.

3. Short term Financial Management Decision (investing & financing): Budgets and Projected Financial Statements, Managing Net Current Assets, Inventory Management, Accounts Receivable Management, Managing Short Term/Spontaneous Finances.

4. Financing Decisions (Long Term): Capital Structure Decisions, Leverage Decision, Cost of Capital Decision, Dividend Decisions.

5. Investing Decisions (Long Term): Capital Investment Decision, Capital Investment Appraisal Techniques, Risk Management in Capital Investment Appraisal.

6. Corporate Financing: Mergers, Acquisitions, Takeovers and Buyouts, Financial Distress and Restricting, Hedging Decision.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS
  1. Principles of Managerial Finance, Lawrence J. Gitman, Pearson Education Asia
  2. Intermediate Financial Management, Eugene F. Brigham Gapenski & Daves, The Dryden Press
  3. Fundamentals of financial Management, James C. Van Horne John M.Wachowicz, Jr., Prentice_Hall International, Inc.
  4. Advanced Corporate Finance (Policies and Strategies), Joseph P. Ogden Frank C. Jen Philip F. O’Connor, Farhan Raza Printers, Islamabad
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Total Marks: 100

1. Public Administration: Definition, Concepts, Approaches and Context

Definitions; Role and Scope of Public Administration in Society; Issues in Public Administration Theory and Practice – Democracy versus Bureaucracy, Politics versus Administration, Efficiency versus Equity; Core Values of Public Administration – Rule of Law, Efficiency, Equity and Fairness, Responsiveness; Traditional Public Administration; New Public Management; New Public Management; New Public Service; Governance Approach to Public Administration; Islamic Concept of Public Administration.

2. Public Organization: Classical and Contemporary Theories and Concepts

Bureaucracy; Scientific Management; The Human Relations; Leadership, Motivation, Network; Governance; Strategic Management; Public Choice; Administrative Culture; Types of Organizational Structure; Organization of Federal, Provincial, and Local Government; Administrative Culture.

3. Public Policy Planning, Implementation and Evaluation

Strategic Planning and Management; Planning Process; Policy Analysis; Policy Implementation; Program Evaluation; Planning Machinery; Role of Donors and International Institutions in Public Polity and Management.

4. Budgeting and Financial Management

The Budget as a Policy Tool; The Budget as a Managerial Tool; Principles of Budgeting, Auditing and Accounting in Government; The Line-Item Budget; The Performance Budget; Program Budgeting; Zero-Base Budgeting; Outcome-Based Budgeting.

5. Managing Human Resources

Spoil versus Merit System in Public Employment; Personnel versus Human Resources Management; Close versus Open System of Public Employment; Functions of Human Resources Management; Challenges of Adopting HRM in Public Sector.

6. Public Management Skills

Communication; Decision Making, Conflict Management; Leading, Administrative Buffering; Managing Change; Managing Diversity; Stress Management; Delegation and Motivation; Creativity and Problem Solving; Issues of Public Management.

7. Governance and Administrative Reforms

Theories of Administrative Reforms; Types of Administrative Reforms – Privatization, Regulation, De-regulation, Decentralization, Business Re-engineering, Quality Assurance.

8. Public Administration and Citizens

Bureaucratic Responsiveness; Representative Bureaucracy; Citizens Engagement in Public Service; The Concept and Approaches to Public Accountability of Public Service; Institutional Framework for Administrative Accountability; Administrative Corruption; Role of Civil Society in Good Governance.

9. Public Administration and Development

Role of Public Administration in Development; Concept of Development Administration; Difference Between Development Administration and Development Management; Changing Role of Public Administration in Development.

PAPER- II
Total Marks: 100

1 - Organizational Structure of Federal Government and Administration

Constitutional Framework for Federal Government; Organization and Functions of Federal Secretariat; Organization and Functions of Federal Agencies Relationship between Ministries and Federal Agencies/Authorities; Inter-ministerial Coordination; Organization and Functions of Regulatory Agencies.

2 - Organization of Provincial and Local Government

Governance Structure of Provincial Administration; Organization of Provincial Secretariat; Organization and Functions of Provincial Authorities and Agencies and their Relationship with Government Departments; Post-devolution Local Governance; Organization and Functions of District Government and Administration; Organization and Structure of City District Government; Issues and Challenges of Local Governance.

3 - Intergovernmental Relationship

Administrative Relationship between Federal Government and Provincial Government; Fiscal Relationship between Federal Government and Provincial Government; Administrative and Fiscal Relationship between Provincial Government and District Government.

4 - The Civil Service

Historical Background of Civil Service, The Structure of civil Service; History of Civil Service Reform; Management of Civil Service; Institutional and Cultural Context of Civil Service; Role of Civil Service in Good Governance, Women and Civil Service.

5 - Public Policy and Planning

Institutional Framework for Policy Coordination and Planning; Policy and Planning Process; Role of Planning Commission in Policy and Planning; Strategic Planning in Federal, Provincial Government and Local Government; Role of International Donors in Policy Formulation; Public Policy and Implementation in Key Sectors (i.e., Health, Education).

6 - Financial Administration

Structure and Functions of Revenue Administration; Budgetary Process in the Federal, Provincial and Local Government; Tax Administration; Accounting and Auditing System; Issue and Challenges of Fiscal Decentralization.

7 - Managing Human Resources

Institutional Framework for Recruitment and Training of Government Employees; Labor Laws; The System of Compensation, and Performance Evaluation of Government Employees; Management of Human Resources in Public Enterprises.

8 - Development Governance and Management

Approaches to Managing Development; History of Development and Public Administration with Particular Reference to Pakistan; Changing Role of Bureaucracy in Development; Role of Civil Society in Development; Role of International Institutions in Development Policy and Management.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

  1. Denhardt, R., Public Administration, Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1995.
  2. David H. Rosenbloom, Public Administration – Understanding Management, Politics and Law in the Public Sector, Second Edition, 1989.
  3. Caiden, Gerald. E, Public Administration. 1982.
  4. Cooper et al, (1998) Public Administration for the Twenty-First Century.
  5. Harmon, Michael M. & Mayer. Richard T, Organization Theory for Public Administration, Little Brown and Company 1986.
  6. Nicholas Henry, Public Administration and Public Affairs, Sixth edition
  7. Shafritz, J. and Hyde, A., Classics of Public Administration, Pacific Grove: Brooks – Cole, 1987.
  8. Candler, R. & Plano, J., (1983) Public Administration Dictionary, John Wiely, New York.
  9. Osbourne, D. and Gaebler, I. (1992) Reinventing Government, Reading, MA: Addison Wesly.
  10. Wilson, J. Q., (1989) Bureaucracy, Basic Books, New York.
  11. Braibanti, Ralph (1987) Evolution of Pakistan’s Administration System. (Jameelur Rehman ed.) Government of Pakistan Public Administration Research Centre.
  12. Khadija Mahbug-ul-Haque (1999) Human Development in South Asia: The Crises of Governance, Oxford University Press, Karachi.
  13. Kennedy, Charles H., (1987) Bureaucracy in Pakistan, Oxford University Press, Bombay, India.
  14. Beckett, Julia & Koenig Heidi O., (2005) Public Administration and Law, M.E. Sharpe, London.
  15. Heady, Ferrel. (2001) Public Administration: A comparative Perspective, 6th ed. Marcel Dekker, New York.
  16. Lane, Jan-Erik (2005) Public Administration and Public Management: The Principle Agent Perspective, Routledge, London.
  17. Hasnat Abdul Hye, (2001) Governance: South Asian Perspective, Oxford University Press, London.
  18. Abdus Samad. (1993) Governance, Economic Policy and Reform in Pakistan: essays in political economy, Vanguard Book, Lahore.
  19. Government and Administration in Pakistan (1987). Jameelur Rehman Khan (Ed.) Pakistan Public Administration Research Centre O & M Division, Cabinet Secretariat.
  20. Sultan Khan. (2006) Public Administration: with special reference to Pakistan. Famous Books, Lahore.
  21. Hoshiar Singh. (1995) Public Administration in India. Sterling Publishers. UK.
  22. Kalyanaraman Srinivasan (1991) Public Administration in Asia, Vol. I, II Ashish Publishing House, New Delhi, India.
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