Sunday, January 29, 2023
07:57 PM (GMT +5)

Go Back   CSS Forums > CSS Optional subjects > Group VII > Journalism & Mass Communication

Journalism & Mass Communication Notes and Topics on Journalism

Reply Share Thread: Submit Thread to Facebook Facebook     Submit Thread to Twitter Twitter     Submit Thread to Google+ Google+    
 
LinkBack Thread Tools Search this Thread
  #11  
Old Tuesday, September 24, 2013
DevotedStudent's Avatar
Junior Member
 
Join Date: Sep 2013
Location: Dreamland
Posts: 5
Thanks: 3
Thanked 0 Times in 0 Posts
DevotedStudent is on a distinguished road
Default New here

I just joined this prestigious forum, one of my optional is Journalism too. Plz tell me how much time requires for journalism. Thx in advance.
__________________
Jab ap ko Zikar-e-Khuda Sun'na acha lagne lage to jan lo k
Ap ko ALLAH sa aur ALLAH ko ap sa Mohabbat ho gai hai
Reply With Quote
  #12  
Old Tuesday, September 24, 2013
comp Engr's Avatar
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jul 2007
Posts: 531
Thanks: 604
Thanked 267 Times in 198 Posts
comp Engr will become famous soon enough
Default zohaib babar

Quote:
Originally Posted by DevotedStudent View Post
I just joined this prestigious forum, one of my optional is Journalism too. Plz tell me how much time requires for journalism. Thx in advance.
If you give 3 hours on daily basis to journalism,then within two months you can easily prepare journalism.
__________________
God has sent us to do something special,Life is once for all but not to be Repeated by a pendulum.
Reply With Quote
The Following User Says Thank You to comp Engr For This Useful Post:
DevotedStudent (Wednesday, September 25, 2013)
  #13  
Old Tuesday, September 24, 2013
Qurban Ali Qureshi's Avatar
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Mar 2013
Posts: 205
Thanks: 89
Thanked 81 Times in 54 Posts
Qurban Ali Qureshi is on a distinguished road
Default

zohaib babarn i am also a software engineer . what do you say about my approach of solving questions?

Q.8: Press freedom and responsibility go hand in hand in a democratic society. Comment. CE-2013

outline:
- Press freedom
- press responsibility
- democratic society
- press freedom and responsibility in a democratic society
-conclusion

Press freedom:
Press freedom means freedom of expression i.e. freedom of thinking, writing ,speech and transmission of the information. Freedom of press ensures freedom of thinking and acting without any restrictions and pressures. The word "press " not merely means newspapers but also the broadcasting media like Radio and T.V too.

Press responsibility:
There are two major responsibilities of press
1- To make ensure the flow of true, accurate and factual information for the masses about the social, political and economical issues.
2-To act as the "watchdog" by keeping eyes on the government official and institutions ,and other people in power.

democratic society:
A democratic society is one in which people have the right to elect the their leaders of their choices. These leaders makes the government. These leaders work on the behalf of the people. This democratic society is free from the fears, harassment, and discrimination. In this society the media or press is free and law enforcement agencies are in power and judiciary is effective to make justice. This society give the protections to its people under the law and constitutions.

-Press freedom and responsibility under democratic society:
Freedom of press and responsibility are main ingredients to proper functioning of the democratic process. Democratic society encourages the freedom of press and responsibility and accountability. it gives the protections to the Media or press under laws and constitutions which result in growth and empowerment to the democratic society. Responsibility of the press relies under the shade of the press freedom. in a democratic society press freedom and responsibility go hand and hand as the two hands goes where the body goes. if a democratic society encourages the press freedom then positive effect on the responsibility is created. if a democratic society challenges the press freedom ,it automatically challenging the responsibility of press too. In a democratic society press freedom lightens the corruptions, dishonesty,injustice , bad governance and wrong implemented policies and tactics by the government. it enables whether our social, political and economical system is administered honestly and impartially. Responsibility of press in democratic society on other hand ensures the provision of the true and accurate information flow to the democratic society which help in making informed decisions and difference between wrong and right by the masses. in democratic society freedom of press ensures the provision of the platform to criticize and solutions of the issues. Responsibility acts as "watchdog" in order to make ensure to the masses government official and agencies are acting in proper way or not.

-conclusion:
at the last we should not hesitate to say that the press freedom and responsibility are the bases of the actual plant of democratic society.

more corrections and suggestions are encouraged by me in my solved questions from your sides .
Reply With Quote
  #14  
Old Wednesday, September 25, 2013
comp Engr's Avatar
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jul 2007
Posts: 531
Thanks: 604
Thanked 267 Times in 198 Posts
comp Engr will become famous soon enough
Default zohaib babar

Quote:
Originally Posted by Qurban Ali Qureshi View Post
zohaib babarn i am also a software engineer . what do you say about my approach of solving questions?
Good but try to solve it in further details.
__________________
God has sent us to do something special,Life is once for all but not to be Repeated by a pendulum.
Reply With Quote
  #15  
Old Wednesday, September 25, 2013
Qurban Ali Qureshi's Avatar
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Mar 2013
Posts: 205
Thanks: 89
Thanked 81 Times in 54 Posts
Qurban Ali Qureshi is on a distinguished road
Default

zohaib babar can you give me further details of this question.
Reply With Quote
  #16  
Old Wednesday, September 25, 2013
SADIA SHAFIQ's Avatar
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Oct 2010
Location: Heaven
Posts: 1,560
Thanks: 1,509
Thanked 1,417 Times in 749 Posts
SADIA SHAFIQ has a brilliant futureSADIA SHAFIQ has a brilliant futureSADIA SHAFIQ has a brilliant futureSADIA SHAFIQ has a brilliant futureSADIA SHAFIQ has a brilliant futureSADIA SHAFIQ has a brilliant futureSADIA SHAFIQ has a brilliant futureSADIA SHAFIQ has a brilliant futureSADIA SHAFIQ has a brilliant futureSADIA SHAFIQ has a brilliant futureSADIA SHAFIQ has a brilliant future
Arrow

Quote:
Originally Posted by Qurban Ali Qureshi View Post
zohaib babarn i am also a software engineer . what do you say about my approach of solving questions?

Q.8: Press freedom and responsibility go hand in hand in a democratic society. Comment.

outline:
- Press freedom
- press responsibility
- democratic society
- press freedom and responsibility in a democratic society
-conclusion

Press freedom:
Press freedom means freedom of expression i.e. freedom of thinking, writing ,speech and transmission of the information. Freedom of press ensures freedom of thinking and acting without any restrictions and pressures. The word "press " not merely means newspapers but also the broadcasting media like Radio and T.V too.

Press responsibility:
There are two major responsibilities of press
1- To make ensure the flow of true, accurate and factual information for the masses about the social, political and economical issues.
2-To act as the "watchdog" by keeping eyes on the government official and institutions ,and other people in power.

democratic society:
A democratic society is one in which people have the right to elect the their leaders of their choices. These leaders makes the government. These leaders work on the behalf of the people. This democratic society is free from the fears, harassment, and discrimination. In this society the media or press is free and law enforcement agencies are in power and judiciary is effective to make justice. This society give the protections to its people under the law and constitutions.

-Press freedom and responsibility under democratic society:
Freedom of press and responsibility are main ingredients to proper functioning of the democratic process. Democratic society encourages the freedom of press and responsibility and accountability. it gives the protections to the Media or press under laws and constitutions which result in growth and empowerment to the democratic society. Responsibility of the press relies under the shade of the press freedom. in a democratic society press freedom and responsibility go hand and hand as the two hands goes where the body goes. if a democratic society encourages the press freedom then positive effect on the responsibility is created. if a democratic society challenges the press freedom ,it automatically challenging the responsibility of press too. In a democratic society press freedom lightens the corruptions, dishonesty,injustice , bad governance and wrong implemented policies and tactics by the government. it enables whether our social, political and economical system is administered honestly and impartially. Responsibility of press in democratic society on other hand ensures the provision of the true and accurate information flow to the democratic society which help in making informed decisions and difference between wrong and right by the masses. in democratic society freedom of press ensures the provision of the platform to criticize and solutions of the issues. Responsibility acts as "watchdog" in order to make ensure to the masses government official and agencies are acting in proper way or not.

-conclusion:
at the last we should not hesitate to say that the press freedom and responsibility are the bases of the actual plant of democratic society.

more corrections and suggestions are encouraged by me in my solved questions from your sides .
It is a very good piece of information . But examiner has asked other thing . Re-read the question which demands your reflection rather description of the fact .
__________________
"Wa tu izzu man-ta shaa, wa tu zillu man-ta shaa"
Reply With Quote
The Following User Says Thank You to SADIA SHAFIQ For This Useful Post:
Qurban Ali Qureshi (Saturday, October 05, 2013)
  #17  
Old Wednesday, September 25, 2013
SADIA SHAFIQ's Avatar
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Oct 2010
Location: Heaven
Posts: 1,560
Thanks: 1,509
Thanked 1,417 Times in 749 Posts
SADIA SHAFIQ has a brilliant futureSADIA SHAFIQ has a brilliant futureSADIA SHAFIQ has a brilliant futureSADIA SHAFIQ has a brilliant futureSADIA SHAFIQ has a brilliant futureSADIA SHAFIQ has a brilliant futureSADIA SHAFIQ has a brilliant futureSADIA SHAFIQ has a brilliant futureSADIA SHAFIQ has a brilliant futureSADIA SHAFIQ has a brilliant futureSADIA SHAFIQ has a brilliant future
Arrow

Quote:
Originally Posted by Qurban Ali Qureshi View Post
Q.7: Describe the social and economic aspects of advertising.

Advertisement:
It is the non-verbal form of communication for marketing, used to persuade,encourage or manipulate the audience (readers, viewers, listeners),usually paid by sponsors to promote specific products, services or ideas through mass media.

Social and Economic aspects of Advertisement

Economic Aspects:

1- Effect on value of the products or services:
Why do some people usually prefer coca- cola over other cola? similarly why do people prefer iPod over some other brands? do they functionally better than that of other brands? no, not necessarily. Advertisement has given an added value to the products. Advertisement adds the values to the products and services by creating positive and good image in the minds of the consumers which helps in persuading and convincing the consumers to buy these product preferably .
Advertisement educates the consumers the uses of the products and services. It familiarizes the new features and traits of the product. For example the mobile phones were considered the necessity but advertisement highlighted the new trends and features of cell phones which in turn encouraged the consumers to by these phones .

2-Effect on prices
As advertisement adds the values to the products and services. It means it also adds the cost to the products and services,true? and if the expanses of the advertisement are stopped then cost will be lower,true? not necessarily. Advertised products may adds the cost to the products but vice-versa is also true. Advertisement encourages the competition in the marketing which result in lowering the prices. Due to advertisement mass productions occurs and mass product in turn make down the aggregate cost of the products.

3-Effect on consumer demands and choices:
Due to advertisement consumers prefer other products and services over the others. When consumers find new featured products then they use the products ,and other old products are demoted. It changes the trends of the market. For example if they were using the Nokia cell phone and they found new feature on other brands of another company then they use these new branded phones .

4-Effect on business cycle:
Due to advertisement sellers get the massive revenues from the products which in turn helps in employing large number of people. it increases the pay rolls system. sellers use these revenues in the betterment of the products and services.

Social aspects of the advertisement:

A-Negative social aspects:

1- Deception in advertisement:
Criticism occurs due to deception in the advertisement by the sellers.
Sellers should show the real and actual image of the products. if the sellers show the deceptive, false or exaggerated image of the products then healthy and pleasant relations can not be maintained between the sellers and the buyers . As buyers will not be satisfied with the products what they saw in the advertisement and what they got after buying them.
This problem can be overcome if sellers create clear and right image.

2- The subliminal advertising:
Ads used for advertisement capture and manipulate the consumers' minds in such a way that they even can not realize that their minds are washed and manipulated by the ads, and in turn they buy the products which they do not need. The advertisement agencies use tactics and procedures that persuade and control the mind of the consumers ,likes sexual messages. Consumers buy these products for greater status , social acceptance and sexual appeals.

3- Effect on over values system:
advertisement uses puffing tactics ,endorsement from celebrities which affects on their emotions. consumer get ready to buy these costly products
which they can not afford because these products are endorsed by their favorite actors and actresses. consumer picks the harmful habits like smoking and drinking which ultimately affect their moral values.

4- Offensiveness:
Advertisement may result into offensiveness because ads uses the sexual material like partially nude pictures which affect the children and other family members. consumer get offended due to these bad tactics used in advertisement and they habitat to buy these products. For Example ads of denin jeans in which a girl is wearing a short clothes and making sexual appeals.

B-Positive social aspects of the advertisement:
1- development of the society and growth of technologies.
2-emplyement
3-Gives choices to buy self interested products.
4-improve the standard of living.
5-Give information on social, economical and health issues.
There are more negative impacts of advertising : fashion craze , mass hysteria , consumer market , economic hegemony , Negative direction of cultural change , un-equal distribution of wealth , class disparity , crowd of followers vs lack of leader ship and selling of true stories to advertise mini/cinema screen . you can highlight movies and dramas too
__________________
"Wa tu izzu man-ta shaa, wa tu zillu man-ta shaa"
Reply With Quote
The Following 2 Users Say Thank You to SADIA SHAFIQ For This Useful Post:
Qurban Ali Qureshi (Wednesday, September 25, 2013), uzmauzi (Tuesday, October 01, 2013)
  #18  
Old Wednesday, September 25, 2013
Senior Member
Medal of Appreciation: Awarded to appreciate member's contribution on forum. (Academic and professional achievements do not make you eligible for this medal) - Issue reason:
 
Join Date: Jul 2013
Location: islamabad
Posts: 279
Thanks: 96
Thanked 167 Times in 120 Posts
sadafnoorelahi will become famous soon enough
Default

q.8 Press freedom and responsibility go hand in hand in a democratic society. Comment CE-2013
“liberty means responsibility. that is why most men dread it “George Bernard shaw

press freedom : liberty to think and express oneself i.e speech, writing and thinking .it also ensures the liberty to think and act without any restriction or control from outside along with the freedom of use of required devices and free press means.
Press responsibility: press has certain rules of ethics and do’s and don’ts to follow. these are also called as canons of journalism.
Interrelationship of democracy and press
Press and democracy are intertwined. while press is the voice of people, democracy is the government of people. Perling one will automatically endanger the other instituition. history corroborates the fact that the press of a time reflects the political structure of the country. it is believed that as in Pakistan, democracy has failed to flourish in the true sense of word, therefore the press too has suffered numerously.
Dependence of democracy on press
Democracy is made possible by the flow of information. if the media is restricted, censored or hindered in any way then the populace would remain ignorant: of their rights and duties. this also reduces their ability to play a conducive role in the betterment of the society.
Free press-ingredient of democracy:
Free press and electronic media is an essential ingredient of democratic polity because only the source of information can keep not only the information flowing but also ensure constant dialogue between electors and elected. An analysis of the state of press freedom in historical perspective of the country reveals that one of the factors responsible for semi independent state of press is failure of democracy.
Responsible media-an essential of democracy
Just as every coin has two sides, similarly press too has two facets, freedom and responsibility. media being the fourth pillar of state also has a heavy responsibility. there are certain ethics of media channels and press to shape the discipline of journalism so that they seek the truth and convey information ,ideas and opinions.
The experience of the last decade in Central Europe, for example, shows that mass media served decisively in the construction of the civil society and in censuring the authoritarian trends of some politicians or parties. Also, it corrected and continues to correct, the excesses, negligences and management errors in the countries with a consolidated democracy.
Similarly, in the recent elections of May 11, media has played a responsible role in the establishment of a democratic government by highlighting the demands of the general public and advocating the agenda of the political parties.
conclusion
free and responsible media is necessary for the promotion of democracy.
Reply With Quote
The Following User Says Thank You to sadafnoorelahi For This Useful Post:
Qurban Ali Qureshi (Friday, September 27, 2013)
  #19  
Old Wednesday, September 25, 2013
Qurban Ali Qureshi's Avatar
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Mar 2013
Posts: 205
Thanks: 89
Thanked 81 Times in 54 Posts
Qurban Ali Qureshi is on a distinguished road
Post

9. Write short notes on the following topics: CE-2013
(i) Magazine journalism
(ii) Press release
(iii) Editorial
(iv) Non-verbal communication


(i)Magazine Journalism:
The term magazine comes from the Arabic term "Makhasin" which means "storehouse". the term refers to the collection of different items in a place in the ancient time ,usually used for the military stores.
Magazine journalism is the traditional journalism's tools of interviews, background research and writing for the consumer and trade magazines. Magazine journalism differs in at least five ways to the newspapers journalism.
Newspaper journalism covers the broad audience of the different ages and interest groups confined in a metropolitan area . Magazine covers the national audience of specialized interests. Magazines are published usually on monthly basis unlike the newspapers published on daily basis. Magazine journalism covers in depth details of the issues and topics as they are published on a specific large interval compared to newspapers. Magazines contain the different topics, issues, stories, photographs and advertisements etc. The pages of the magazines are smaller than that of the newspapers and larger than that of the books.
The First magazine was the "Review" written and edited by the Daniel Defoe in 1704. it consisted of four pages and published three times a week. Its duration was nine years i.e 1704 to 1713.
The First Magazine of the sub-continent was the "Hickey Gazette", written and edited by the James Augustus Hickey in 1870. It was the English Magazine.

(ii)Press Release:
A press release is the communication that is sent to the Media to be distributed to the masses. A press release may be in written, audio or video format depending on the types of media of news provider. Press release is the most commonly used tool by the public relation now days. It is major source of information used in all over the world. Press release can be of different types depending on the what it is covering. Press released can be used by the business organization to inform the masses about their new developed products . It may be used by the public relation departments to build awareness in the masses of their organizations.

FORMAT OF THE PRESS RELEASED:

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
Headlines
Subheading
city, state/country, Date- main body of the press release
contact information
###

The Title and main body of the press release are very important for the audience. Press release should be concise ,simple and easy to understand.
It should be newsworthy . First paragraph of the news element must contain the 4W,1H.

(iii)Editorial:
Editorial is the general opinion about any issue or policy ,written by the senior editorial staff or the publisher of the newspapers or the Magazines.
Basically all editorials comment and remark on certain event, issue, policy, topic ,subject matter or news event.

Basically there are two aims of writing editorials
1- First aim to give the interpretation or explanation of the news events. Everybody can not interpret the news so it is left to the newspaper organizations to provide the interpretations of the news for the masses.

2- Second aim is to guide and to help the masses to make their own opinions.
Editorial are written in the response of certain government policies and other social and political events. Editorial gives the pros and cons of policies of the government and others social and political events by providing the explanations and interpretations. In this ways the readers of the editorials can make their own opinions.
Characteristics of the Editorials:
Editorial Reactions:
If the Editorials are written in the favor or in against of certain issues or policies and they are not neutral , this is called editorial reaction.
if Editorials are written without editorial reaction then it can be simply essay ,article but not the editorial.

(iv)Non-verbal Communication:
It is the form of the communication which involves on the non-verbal stimuli or the symbols. It differs from the oral or written communication.
It may includes the elements like Facial expression, eye contact, body language ,gestures, postures,dressing and clothing, behavior volume, speed and rhythm, pitch of voice,speaking styles,stress, jewellery, hair styles,pause
.etc.
Non-verbal Messages Allow People to:
1-Reinforce or modify what is said in words. For example, people shakes their heads vigorously when saying "Yes" to emphasis that they agree with the other person, but a shrug of the shoulders and a sad expression when saying "I'm fine thanks,” may imply that things are not really fine at all!
2- Convey information about their emotional state.
3-Define or reinforce the relationship between people.
4-Provide feedback to the other person.
5-Regulate the flow of communication, for example by signalling to others that they have finished speaking or wish to say something.

Quote:
Originally Posted by SADIA SHAFIQ View Post
It is a very good piece of information . But examiner has asked other thing . Re-read the question which demands your reflection rather description of the fact .
Thanks SADIA SHAFIQ correcting me. you mean i should explain it with proper examples of daily life. I should reflect the examples of press freedom and responsibility in the democratic society?
Reply With Quote
The Following 2 Users Say Thank You to Qurban Ali Qureshi For This Useful Post:
faisal88 (Wednesday, September 25, 2013), Pearl of Heaven (Friday, February 07, 2014)
  #20  
Old Thursday, September 26, 2013
comp Engr's Avatar
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jul 2007
Posts: 531
Thanks: 604
Thanked 267 Times in 198 Posts
comp Engr will become famous soon enough
Default zohaib babar

Quote:
Originally Posted by SADIA SHAFIQ View Post
It is a very good piece of information . But examiner has asked other thing . Re-read the question which demands your reflection rather description of the fact .
He commeted on the above questions.so examiner will give 12 marks.
__________________
God has sent us to do something special,Life is once for all but not to be Repeated by a pendulum.
Reply With Quote
Reply

Thread Tools Search this Thread
Search this Thread:

Advanced Search

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off
Trackbacks are On
Pingbacks are On
Refbacks are On


Similar Threads
Thread Thread Starter Forum Replies Last Post
CSS Interview Catalogue Amna Interview 7 Tuesday, June 11, 2019 05:09 PM
Let us solve past papers of PMS 2008 of KPK... nafees khattak KPKPMS 3 Monday, November 15, 2010 10:34 PM
Study Material Perhar Journalism & Mass Communication 1 Tuesday, August 24, 2010 09:44 PM
Journalism Past Papers Last Island Journalism & Mass Communication 0 Tuesday, November 03, 2009 05:37 AM


CSS Forum on Facebook Follow CSS Forum on Twitter

Disclaimer: All messages made available as part of this discussion group (including any bulletin boards and chat rooms) and any opinions, advice, statements or other information contained in any messages posted or transmitted by any third party are the responsibility of the author of that message and not of CSSForum.com.pk (unless CSSForum.com.pk is specifically identified as the author of the message). The fact that a particular message is posted on or transmitted using this web site does not mean that CSSForum has endorsed that message in any way or verified the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any message. We encourage visitors to the forum to report any objectionable message in site feedback. This forum is not monitored 24/7.

Sponsors: ArgusVision   vBulletin, Copyright ©2000 - 2023, Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd.