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  #41  
Old Tuesday, October 01, 2013
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no dear.i am definately not offended.actually,that is exactly what i have heard: in css it is mostly the way you attempt a question that matters and not the content.and that is exactly where i am falling short.you seem preety good in that regard.that is why i asked you about it. how do i judge the nature of the question?
what does a question with the word "comment" demand? what sort of an analysis will satisfy the examiner and most important how do i develop my analytical skills.
please do not be offended by my pestering question.i am just a bit anxious especially after i saw the css 2014 advertisement.

q describe the factors that determine character of internal public in newspaper organization?
kindly make an outline of this question as well.i really do not understand how to attempt this question

Last edited by sadafnoorelahi; Tuesday, October 01, 2013 at 01:35 AM. Reason: addition
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AOA!
please, those having journalism as optional comment that what really the examiner wants in this question. it is taken from journalism paper PMS,KPK-2013.


=> Define media ethics and also describe primary sources for furnishing those?
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dear please guide me how to deal (prepare for) with this subject
as I am having great difficulty in grabbing its basics and concepts.
I don't know why
I am reading Abid Tehmi now a days. is it sufficient and a quality book?
which book would you like to suggest?

Quote:
Originally Posted by sadafnoorelahi View Post
dear i am a girl too, u can get theories of communication from virtual university notes-they are very well made.however media dependency theory is not present in it.you will have it search it on net.

i have a book of dr mehdi hassan "journalism for all"

describe the factors that determine character of internal public in newspaper organization?

i guess the answer is about PR.but i don't know how to go about it.can any one please help me in how to answer this specific question?
sorry dear I cant be of any help . I am still at section1. haven't started section2 so , I am not even aware of PR (public relation?). sadia seems to be a very good guide , she might be of any help.
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Public Relations

Defination

Webter’s dictionary public relations as “the business of inducing the public to have understanding for and goodwill toward a person,firm or institution.

Philip leslie elaboreates the idea of goodwill further.He observes that with the help of public elation,institutions and people are able to learn what others think of them.determine what they must do to get the goodwill of others,devise ways to win that good will and carry on programmes designed tio secure good will,thus public relations is a bridge to goodwill.

Public relations is planned,purposeful communication aimed at influencing and persuading significant publics.,”Public relations is an applied social and behavioual science".

Public relations in the past

1)Publicity
2)propaganda
3)advertising

Publicity.

Public relations is not a new subject.although,the term public relations did not appear until the early years of the 20th century,the idea of publics relationships-the interdence of leaders and followers,the need of government to communicate with subjects,or the desire of individuals to infoem,persuade ad learn the relations of people in groups,is old as man himself.

Popoganda

It is described as an art of Influencing,Manipulating,controlling,changing,secu ring the acceptance of opinions,attitude,action or behavior through representation those who may be spoken,written,pictorial.
Or musical formsor involve manipulation of symbols and suggestions.

Advertising

It is paid publicity.A commercial message that offers a product or service for sale.It is controlled and paid For by the initiator.at the rate set by medium used.Advertising may appear in any of the standard Media,such as newspaper,magazine,radio,tv,bill-board or handbill,.Usually the name of the product,its description and price,and the name of the store offering it for sale are give in the advertisement.

Publicity, on the other hand has some other impotant advantages.In the first place,it is fee.More important.it has tremendous reader acceptance.Unlike advertising which telegraphs its commercialism,Publicity is soft sell.

Role of Public relations

1)To harmonize public and government
2)To increase sales
3)To reduce ill felling
4)Leadership
5)PR- Fact finding and research
6)Public opinions Polls
7)News Research
8)Public Relations and Practitioner

Tools of Public Relations


1)Telling the story
2)Magazines
3)Books
4)Radio
5)Television
6)Films
7)Directmail
8)Telephone
9)Exhibits,Fairs,Open houses

Public relations in Pakistan:

As the main user of public relation in Pakistan is the Government of Pakistan.Also,we,quoted the PID,DGPR AND ISPR as the examples of public relations departments.We also know that every minister is provided a PRO.Throretically public relations process is of two kinds.One,to inform the concerned public about the policies,efficiency and activities of government.And a second ,to inform top management or government of the feelings,reactions and attitudes of concerned people about the government,department or organization.

But we see that every official PRO or public relations departments plays as personal servant role to the minister or the government of time.

One of the main reasons that the public relationing is developing at a low pace is that public relations is confused with advertising.Most multi-national and national enterprises try to pay more and more attention and public relations is mostly neglected.

Another reason which hinders its progress in Pakistan is that most firms are sole proprietorship.Their proprietos want to have complete control over the firms policies and mostly they fellow the decades old policy of presenting what they think best for the public and not foreign products have been favourite with our people.
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zohaib your notes are very good and up to date but how your PR notes can be used to answer this specific question is beyond my understanding. kindly point out the answer with reference to this specific question.

q. describe the factors that determine the character of internal public in newspaper organization? CE-2012

q. In the light of karl marx media theory: analyze the role of at least 3 tv channels with the special reference of flood disaster. what is national development? and how media can play role in national development. CE-2012

Karl marx theory

According to karl marx media theory, capitalist society is one of class domination. media acts as a ideological super structure where different ideas of different classes struggle,but the domination remains in the hands of the ruling class. on the other hand, a false illusion is internalized and socialized into the mass. according to the classical Marxist, media acts as a “means of production” which in a capitalist society is in the control of the elite or “ruling class” and the media functions to produce “false consciousness”

Marxism theory and flood disaster

As a pillar of the state, the media is playing a criminal role, strengthening the ideas of the ruling classes, who are constantly repeating that this crisis is solely natural. Petit bourgeois emotionalism is instilled to compensate for the anger developing against the rulers.
Pictures of hungry, downtrodden women and children fighting each other over a bag of flour were shown and appeals were made to the already impoverished masses to donate money in the bank accounts of the prime minister, president and other high ups, while a few personal accounts of the elite are stuffed with more than enough cash that could finance the whole relief and rehabilitation challenge. In return the media is getting advertisements with handsome amounts of money. This is a two-way business between the media and the right wing, while the victims of the flood are served contaminated food infected with fungus.
In any class society the media cannot be impartial. It serves the interests of the dominant classes and tries to suppress the voice of the exploited classes. During these disastrous times, while the so-called leaders are advising people not to protest and accept their fate, they are increasing their attacks on the workers with massive redundancies in the telecommunication, railways and other sectors of industries. Prices have risen astronomically during this disaster resulting in huge profits for the ruling classes.

Geo tv:
As a result of massive flooding and resultant damage, geo tv organized a show ”pukaar” to raise funding to help out the affectess. Throughout the show, they repeatedly showed miserable images evoking sympathy of the emotional country men to contribute generously. imran khan made quite a show distributing 15 truckloads of relief goods and advocating his “generosity” to gain public support for the next elections.

Ary

Similarly, ary also arranged a show for raising funds for the flood-stricken mass and dr shahid masood succeeded in collecting an impressive sum of 65 million rupees. the role of the army in relief efforts was exaggerated to rebuild its tarnished image. Army personnel were shown, saving lives of people with helicopters. Right-wing leaders were highlighted while distributing relief goods.

Hum tv

Imitating the behaviour of other tv channels, hum tv was also not much behind in this regard. a telethon was arranged to raise the funds and celebrities were invited. instead of revealing the inadequency of the disaster management teams, these celebrities requested the already poor and inflation hit mass to open up and help the flood affected people.

National development:
development that is a general or specific strategy whose goal is to help build up various areas within a nation.

Role of media in national development
• Media should promote unity and spirit of nationalism among different provinces
• It should not give air to sectarianism
• It should project a positive image of the country to uplift her prestige country in comity of nations
• It should promulgate moral and cultural values
• It should not glamourise crime, terrorism or violence
• It should act as a watch dog to keep a check on corruption, monopoly and inefficiency
• It should educate the masses
• it should instill the feelings of patriotism and respect for country men
• it should promote tolerance for other beliefs, ideas and ideologies
• it should censor cheap, gaudy and vulgar shows, dramas, songs etc
Dr M qaiser, vicechancellor of Karachi university also highlighted the role of media as “vital for national development

Conclusion: media plays a very crucial role in the life today and therefore it is regarded as the “fourth pillar”. its power is at par with the nukes. according to karl marx theory, media acts as a a “means of production” in the hands of the ruling class.this was also observed during flood disaster management where prominent tv channels geo,hum and ary digital overemphasized the role of army and politicians. Media should act responsibly and play a conducive role in the national development.
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.9 suppose you have developed a new diet drink and are ready to market it.develop a research study for identifying the element topics that should be stressed in your advertisement. CE-2012

Hypothesis: to identify the elements that should be stressed in a diet drink advertisement.

Introduction: advertisement word originated from the latin “advertere” which means to divert.advertisements are not a new phenomenon. infact, history manifests the fact that even Greeks ,ancient Egyptians and romans also used advertisements.technology however,has transformed everything including the methods used for advertisements. traditional advertisement methods such as bill boards and newspapers have become obsolete now. nowadays, producers of products try to advertise their products through social and electronic media. advertisements today, have emerged as a multibillion industry and has a deep impact on the society. As producers have developed a new diet drink and now they want to advertise it therefore this study is conducted.
The present study is aimed at identifying the factors in advertisement which appeals to the general public. in this study, observational, interview and survey method will be conducted.
The results of the study will help the producers develop an effective advertisement.

Methods:
in order to identify the elements to be stressed in the advertisement, multiple strategies would be adopted. survey method, interview method and observational methods will be used to make an appealing advertisement. in survey method, written questionnaires will be distributed amongst the general public and they will be inquired about the factors that attract them to a particular advertisement such as testimonials of celebrities or famous personalities, or jingles, detail of the product, impact of the product on health, mention of the price in the advertisement etc. in interview method, people will be directly inquired about the factors which in their view makes an advertisement successful. they will be also be inquired about what they would like to see in a diet drink advertisement. in observational method, the researchers will go to various stores and observe the purchasing trend of people in drinks.on the basis of the observation, they would then design an advertisement
Literature review:
previous literature would be studied to identify the methods that have proved successful in developing an attractive advertisement. Effort would be made to identify the factors in an advertisement that propel the people to buy a certain product.

Data
Data will be collected from interview method, observational and survey method an result will be developed on basis of it.

Hypothetical results:
the results obtained show that a large majority(65%) is attracted to the testimonials of celebrities in an advertisement. 25% people showed an inclination towards the jingles used. only 10 % felt that inclusion of details i.e price, health impact, list of contents makes an advertisement successful.

Conclusion: a successful diet drink advertisement should include some famous celebrity, preferably a female model or actress and better still if it is an Indian model or actress. in addition, there should be a strong melodious jingle and it should provide important details of the product.

i felt this is the demand of the examiner in this question.comments and corrections are highly encouraged.
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Quote:
Originally Posted by sadafnoorelahi View Post
zohaib your notes are very good and up to date but how your PR notes can be used to answer this specific question is beyond my understanding. kindly point out the answer with reference to this specific question.

q. describe the factors that determine the character of internal public in newspaper organization?
My dear sister

Public Relations For Newspapers General principles and essentials of PR for newspapers are similar to those of various organizations yet these may differ for identification and application purposes.

Publics Of Newspapers.

– Employees.
– Readers.
– Advertisers.
– General public i.e. the community.
– The trade.
– Government Officials.
– Shareholders.

Problems Of Newspapers Employees.

– Failure to be treated as human beings
– Failure to consider a partner in the enterprise.
– No visible career advancement.
– A feeling that management is trying to keep labor from earning enough
pay.
– Resentment against in charge because of incompetence, favoritism.
– A feeling that management fights ,never cooperates with labor/unions.
– Simple physical discomforts.

Newspapers Major PR Problems

a. Need to strengthening goodwill of the paper.
b. Monopoly ownership of the newspapers.
c. Newsprint shortage, criticism from readers.
d. Employee relations.

Newspapers PR With a Purpose.

– Newspaper Public Relations should be its promotion with a purpose.
– A good newspaper to be portrayed as a symbol & an institution.
– Newspaper should be portrayed as practicing good citizenship.
– Newspaper is progressive & fair.
– Newspaper renders justice to all & fights injustice to anyone.
– Newspaper is tolerant & encourages mutual understanding among
persons of all faiths & origins.
– Newspaper preaches local way of life, expounding its faults as well as its
virtues.
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Quote:
Originally Posted by sadafnoorelahi View Post
no dear.i am definately not offended.actually,that is exactly what i have heard: in css it is mostly the way you attempt a question that matters and not the content.and that is exactly where i am falling short.you seem preety good in that regard.that is why i asked you about it. how do i judge the nature of the question?
what does a question with the word "comment" demand? what sort of an analysis will satisfy the examiner and most important how do i develop my analytical skills.
please do not be offended by my pestering question.i am just a bit anxious especially after i saw the css 2014 advertisement.

q describe the factors that determine character of internal public in newspaper organization?
kindly make an outline of this question as well.i really do not understand how to attempt this question



Comment newspaper readership in Pakistan . It is other part of the same question which I ignored that is specified for Pakistan`s society . If newspaper are important (my stance) , then I have to tell people are taking interest in it or buying newspapers.If yes , then good and will suggests measures to increase further circulation . If not , then I have to tell why readership is declining . It is commentary according to the stance which is taken in earlier part of a sentence .

If you are confused for a particular question , divide it and then assemble the divided parts of a question ,you will get what examiner has demanded actually .There is two kind of publics in organizations that is internal(employees) and consumers (media, govt , buyers and distributer etc ). Now focus on character , ponder character is good or bad . If good then tell factors and if bad then tell reasons. Hope , you will be able to make outline by yourself .

Quote:
Originally Posted by qqurat View Post
dear please guide me how to deal (prepare for) with this subject
as I am having great difficulty in grabbing its basics and concepts.
I don't know why
I am reading Abid Tehmi now a days. is it sufficient and a quality book?
which book would you like to suggest?
Very easy subject , just take one book which cover all syllabus . Two question are repeated : advertising and public relation ; study all dimension of these and third one is mass media . If you have covered these three from all aspects , you `ll be able to perform good.I focused on 5 five questions :



1. Ethics of journalism
2. Mass media and its function
3. Communication
4. Public relations
5. Advertising



Quote:
Originally Posted by most wanted View Post
AOA!
please, those having journalism as optional comment that what really the examiner wants in this question. it is taken from journalism paper PMS,KPK-2013.


=> Define media ethics and also describe primary sources for furnishing those?

It is simply ethics of journalism in broadcast and in print media ( study the question from the book) and Tell which factors determine to formulate these ethics .
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  #49  
Old Tuesday, October 01, 2013
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Originally Posted by comp Engr View Post
Public Relations

Defination

Webter’s dictionary public relations as “the business of inducing the public to have understanding for and goodwill toward a person,firm or institution.

Philip leslie elaboreates the idea of goodwill further.He observes that with the help of public elation,institutions and people are able to learn what others think of them.determine what they must do to get the goodwill of others,devise ways to win that good will and carry on programmes designed tio secure good will,thus public relations is a bridge to goodwill.

Public relations is planned,purposeful communication aimed at influencing and persuading significant publics.,”Public relations is an applied social and behavioual science".

Public relations in the past

1)Publicity
2)propaganda
3)advertising

Publicity.

Public relations is not a new subject.although,the term public relations did not appear until the early years of the 20th century,the idea of publics relationships-the interdence of leaders and followers,the need of government to communicate with subjects,or the desire of individuals to infoem,persuade ad learn the relations of people in groups,is old as man himself.

Popoganda

It is described as an art of Influencing,Manipulating,controlling,changing,secu ring the acceptance of opinions,attitude,action or behavior through representation those who may be spoken,written,pictorial.
Or musical formsor involve manipulation of symbols and suggestions.

Advertising

It is paid publicity.A commercial message that offers a product or service for sale.It is controlled and paid For by the initiator.at the rate set by medium used.Advertising may appear in any of the standard Media,such as newspaper,magazine,radio,tv,bill-board or handbill,.Usually the name of the product,its description and price,and the name of the store offering it for sale are give in the advertisement.

Publicity, on the other hand has some other impotant advantages.In the first place,it is fee.More important.it has tremendous reader acceptance.Unlike advertising which telegraphs its commercialism,Publicity is soft sell.

Role of Public relations

1)To harmonize public and government
2)To increase sales
3)To reduce ill felling
4)Leadership
5)PR- Fact finding and research
6)Public opinions Polls
7)News Research
8)Public Relations and Practitioner

Tools of Public Relations


1)Telling the story
2)Magazines
3)Books
4)Radio
5)Television
6)Films
7)Directmail
8)Telephone
9)Exhibits,Fairs,Open houses

Public relations in Pakistan:

As the main user of public relation in Pakistan is the Government of Pakistan.Also,we,quoted the PID,DGPR AND ISPR as the examples of public relations departments.We also know that every minister is provided a PRO.Throretically public relations process is of two kinds.One,to inform the concerned public about the policies,efficiency and activities of government.And a second ,to inform top management or government of the feelings,reactions and attitudes of concerned people about the government,department or organization.

But we see that every official PRO or public relations departments plays as personal servant role to the minister or the government of time.

One of the main reasons that the public relationing is developing at a low pace is that public relations is confused with advertising.Most multi-national and national enterprises try to pay more and more attention and public relations is mostly neglected.

Another reason which hinders its progress in Pakistan is that most firms are sole proprietorship.Their proprietos want to have complete control over the firms policies and mostly they fellow the decades old policy of presenting what they think best for the public and not foreign products have been favourite with our people.
Role of public relations

To harmonize public and government

Our government like other countries,is them biggest user of PR.Each ministry has its own PR department.Their function is to inform public about the policies,plans and achievements of the departments.Their role is non-political.Also,their duties are to inform and educate the public and legislation,regulations and all matters.which are directly related to public.
Each minister in our country has its public relation offer,who performs his duty to harmoise the department with public and press.

To increase sales

The other goal of public relations is to create and maintain favourable attitudes of the public toward the company and its products.These attitudes eventually translate themselves in terms of increased sales.If the public is "unsold" on a product,it simply will not buy it.The first step in creating this sympathetic attitude is to inform.People may believe that two-stroke motorcyle is more useful than that of four-stroke.If that is so,the PR man has his work cut out for him.Advertising will do part of the job,but that is only one of the tools he will use.He may faster across country race or fuel economy competition to show the benefits of four-stroke engine motorcyle.

To reduce ill feeling

The PRO works hard to ameliorate adverse publicity.A batch of a company's product may have been improperly mixed and a poison may have found its way into the mixture.The result may be the death of many household pets who ate this food.The PRO'S task is to alert the public fastly.For this he cannot resort to publicity,It is not certain enough.He must use advertising because it absolutely necessary for him to control every ward that is given the public.

Leadership

No company would knowingly avoid a position of leadership in its field if it can be attained.It is a commanding positiion to hold in any industry or group and once reached,It must be zealously guarded.It is part of the task of public relations to convey to the public the facts of leadership wherever they exist,it may in the research department,the sales division,the management employees relation areas,the stockholder elationship,or in some other phrases of the firm would help bring it prestige.

PR-fact finding and research

Public relations programme begin and end with research,in the planning stage, before the preparation of the message or selection of the media,the public relation expert obtains all the facts he can about the public or publics with which he wishes to communicate.He does this by conducting some form of survey which will give him a fairly accurate picture of public opinion and public tastes.

Public opinion polls

The sample survey enables the professional fact-finding organization to obtain accurate pictures of the attitudes of a large group of people by talking to a small representative group.This method is accurate if the people interviewed are truely representative amd the questions are exact and understandable.whether he depends upon such surveys or upon his own careful investigation and personal contacts,the public relations expert decides on the basis of the facts obtained what publics he must reach.

News research

Another form of research that pays dividends to the PR man is for material in and about his organization.These will make his publicity releases more desirable to the media.A new development in manufacturing processses may be of interest to a limited number of news paper readers,while alittle more digging on the part of the public relation sperson might unearth a human interest story connected with the new process that an editor will heartily welcome.

Public Relations practitioner

Public relations was not used until the 20th century,but the practice of public relations extends far back in history-pobably to the time that social groups first formed.Direct evidence exists that public relations was being practised over 4000 years ago.A cuneiform tablet excavated in iraq served as a bulletin to tell farmers how to harvest,sow,and irrigate their crops;in many ways,this tablet was a forerunner of the many notices released by the united states.The commentaries of julius caesar ae also cited as skilful examples of public relations in action since they helped persuade people that caesar was a great and able leader and thus paved the way for his takeover of Rome. The Greeks and Romans also used public relations skills to promote their cultures.

Tools of public Relations

Telling the story

When it comes to communicating its message to the public.PRO'S does not have a technique of its own but uses the mechanics.Newspapers surveys of regional likes and dislikes among editors must available to PRO.If a publicity man's stories and pictures are in tone witht he interest of the newspapers there will be little need for rewriting.It follows,then,that the company wishing to reach the public through the newspapers and radio will fashion its newspapers messages as they would be done by newspapers writers and photographs,similarly,in writing the radio messages the firm will follow the more conversational less stilted approach of radio broadcasting.

Magazines

Another meduim for publicity by the printed word is the magazine,the national circulation and general appeal magazine,as well as the business paper,religious periodical,journal and professional publication reaching specialized audiences.Alhough magazine publicity can be handled much like newspaper publicity,the accent in general magazines is more on the entertainment feature,while the 'smaller' moe specialized magazines will be friendlier toward the article that is newsworthy for their specific audiences.

Books

By books is meant publications varying in appearance from packet size pemphlets to leather-boubd portfolios of drawings,photographs or maps,because they are more voluminous,more complete and detailed or designed for more permanent use then the average printed piece.Involving all the techniques of printing,books might include annual reports of a company
to its stockholders,technical reports to other manufacturer or scientists,histories of business on the occasion of their 25th,50th,100th anniversary,and a wide range of informative and instructional booklets fo employees,visitors,editors in need of background data etc.

Radio

Radio is also a tool of public relations.Radio reaches into places beyond the scope of the newspapers,almost all cars are equipped with radio set.Also,radio transmissions reach in the remote areas of our country,where newspapers cannot.The "wireless" is a powerful meduim because it uses human voice to a great extent to transmit its message,giving it the personal touch missing from the printed word.

Television

It has also tremendous force as a publicity meduim.It promises to become the most potent of all mass communications media,for it combines the printed word,the spoken word,pictures in motion,colour,sound into one.Amazing results from advertising via television have become everyday occurrences.

As with newspapers and radio,the public relations expert tailors his techn iques to fit the peculiar requirements of TV,whether he wants to reach a nationwide audience through national network.


Television

To put over urgent message,a telephone campaign can often secure immediate and impressive results.It should be used with discrimination in order to destroy the urgent appeal.

Direct Mail

A term for printed advertisement mailed directly to potential buyers,direct mail is also greatly used for the discrimination of publicity.its effectiveness depends upon the quality of the mailing list to which it is sent.A personal or semi personal letter correctly addressed to individuals is a most effective public relations tool.

Films

Telling the public relations story by means of motions pictures,film slides,tapes recordings and closed circuit television is a familier technique in most of the advanced nations' large sales and manufacturing organizations.In addition,there are the fascinations of moving pictures,colour,and sound to get and hold the audience's attention.Well-prepared and intelligently used,such public relations tools usually pay for themselves in spite of their relativey high cost.

Exhibits,Fairs,Open houses


Familiar advertising tools,exhibits and fairs,which take the company before the public,help to acquaint people with facts favourable ones,to be sure - and thus gain their good will.Open houses which bring the public to the company are effective public relations tools for the company or organization seeking closer contact and better understanding with the general public,its customers,and employee's families.
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Old Tuesday, October 01, 2013
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Medias Of PR

I Print Media:

Press.
National & Regional newspapers, magazines, directories, year books & annual reports etc..

Printed Material.
Educational, informative, prestige, promotional, balance sheets etc..

Direct Mail.
Personal letters, direct correspondence, mailing information etc.

House Journals.
Company newsletters both internal and external.

II. Electronic Media:

1. Radio -- National, Local, International etc.
2. Television – National, Regional, Tele text etc.

III. Other Media:

Exhibitions: Special PR exhibitions, Trade & Public shows, trade fairs local and overseas.
Airships: Gas filled air balloon ships for promotional purposes.
Electronic Bill Boards: New concept & replacements for conventional bill boards.
Mobile Vehicles: New type of scrolling computer aided advertisements.

Media for Internal Publics (Co Newsletter)
Objectives

1. The value of understanding, teamwork and commitment by employees in achieving bottom line
results.

2. The need to build a strong management-employee communication network for more than job
related also key business & public issues.

7 Conditions for better working

1. Confidence & Trust between employer & employees.
2. Candid information flowing freely up, down & sideways.
3. Satisfying status & participation for each person.
4. Continuity of work without strife.
5. Healthful surroundings.
6. Success for the enterprise.
7. Optimism about the future.

Media for External Publics.

• Newspapers.
• Magazines.
• Radio.
• Television.

Working with the Media (Basic Principles)

Understand Media.
Know each Media
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